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DRIVING ON HYDROGEN: FUELLING THE FUTURE?
According to the US publisher Ward’s, the number of motor vehicles in use around the world crossed 1 billion somewhere during 2010. A mere four years later, in 2014, it was recorded that there were more than 1.2 billion vehicles crowding the earth’s roads. Predications are made that within two years, by 2020, the unbelievable threshold of 2 billion vehicles will be crossed. Combining these staggering numbers with the growing concern about the harmful emissions of cars and other motor vehicles, it only makes sense that a great deal of attention is paid to ways of making them less harmful for the environment. As such, more and more emphasis is placed on the reduction of scarce fossil fuels. As an alternative, automobile manufacturers are turning to cars that are powered by biofuels or by electricity. One of these alternatives is hydrogen . THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY Hydrogen vehicles are basically electric cars that use hydrogen (H 2 ) as its source of energy, instead of the battery that is commonly used in other hybrid- and electric vehicles. The goal of fuelling transportation with hydrogen is a key element of the so-called hydrogen economy. This concept, first drafted by British geneticist and scientist J. Haldane, encompasses a system that has the entire transportation industry - including boats, cars and planes - using hydrogen as their fuel of choice. WHY HYDROGEN? Hydrogen as a chemical element is the most abundant one in our universe, as it makes up 75% of normal matter by mass and more than 90% by number of atoms (Wikipedia, accessed August 2018). Furthermore, it is a welcome alternative for the automobile industry, that is hard-pressed to find cheap and clean alternatives for their gasoline and diesel ‘addiction’.   Quite a number of well-known producers, including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda, have already brought cars to market of which the fuel tank and combustion engine have been replaced by a hydrogen container and fuel cell. Oxygen is led to the fuel cell and reacts to hydrogen, to create energy and water. The electricity feeds the engine, whereas the water vapour - completely harmless - is released through the exhaust.   CLEANER, SMOOTHER, QUIETER It is a clean, durable way of producing energy that largely relies on natural components. On the contrary, ‘common’ electric and hybrid cars use a battery that requires lithium and cobalt. This raw material is dependent upon child labour in developing countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Chili. This makes its production highly questionable and possibly ethically indefensible. As such, hydrogen proves a better and more sustainable alternative. To further prove its sustainability, hydrogen does not lead to air pollution. Its combustion does not bring any polluting chemicals into the atmosphere.   The only by-product is water (vapour). It is also virtually inexhaustible, as hydrogen can be found in water, plants, and fertiliser - and can easily be generated.   Its use provides benefits for the car’s driver as well. The vehicle is very quiet, as there are no mechanical parts in the fuel cell. This will reduce noise nuisance in populated areas, improving the overall quality of life. Secondly, fuel cell vehicles guarantee a smooth drive, with instant power and intuitive controls. Running out of fuel? Then it will only take a few minutes to fill up the car with fresh hydrogen, without any nasty scents or spills. DISADVANTAGES For the production of hydrogen, a significant amount of energy is needed. This process is costly and brings along a whole new problem for the world as a whole, as we need energy to provide a fuel that should require less energy. A paradox if I have ever seen one. And one that has significantly pushed up the car’s price. A hydrogen-powered car can be yours from “only” as little as € 60,000. Definitely not an amount that most of us will budget for or have lying around. This car is therefore only reserved for those with deep pockets, for now. This means that there is a relatively low penetration of hydrogen-fuelled cars on the market, which makes it largely unfeasible to set up sufficient hydrogen-stations needed for refuelling. These stations are remarkably expensive, also due to the high costs of producing and storing hydrogen, which has made it a tough sell. Similarly, the absence of sufficient hydrogen-stations around the world acts as another deterrent for prospective buyers: why would you spend so much money on a car if you cannot fuel it wherever you like? The industry seems to be stuck in this vicious circle, with insufficient cars on the road to justify the construction of a station, and insufficient stations available to persuade prospective buyers to choose this car. Ignoring this dilemma for now, as I am sure that this will work itself out eventually, the central question remains. Can hydrogen fuel be used all around the world, to feed the soon to be 2 million cars, if it requires this much energy to produce? Some have called for a solution that involves using the excess capacity of wind parks, that are now often temporarily stopped once too much energy is offered to the grid. Feasible, yet it requires a change of mindset for many - and increases the pressure on wind park owners to deliver sufficient energy.   Will the world be running on hydrogen soon? It would certainly be better for our environment, yet the simple fact that it is decidedly not better for our wallets yet, means that there is still a long way to go. https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/transportation/hydrogen
According to the US publisher Ward’s, the number of motor vehicles in use around the world crossed 1 billion somewhere during 2010. A mere four years later, in 2014, it was recorded that there were more than 1.2 billion vehicles crowding the earth’s roads. Predications are made that within two years, by 2020, the unbelievable threshold of 2 billion vehicles will be crossed. Combining these staggering numbers with the growing concern about the harmful emissions of cars and other motor vehicles, it only makes sense that a great deal of attention is paid to ways of making them less harmful for the environment. As such, more and more emphasis is placed on the reduction of scarce fossil fuels. As an alternative, automobile manufacturers are turning to cars that are powered by biofuels or by electricity. One of these alternatives is hydrogen . THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY Hydrogen vehicles are basically electric cars that use hydrogen (H 2 ) as its source of energy, instead of the battery that is commonly used in other hybrid- and electric vehicles. The goal of fuelling transportation with hydrogen is a key element of the so-called hydrogen economy. This concept, first drafted by British geneticist and scientist J. Haldane, encompasses a system that has the entire transportation industry - including boats, cars and planes - using hydrogen as their fuel of choice. WHY HYDROGEN? Hydrogen as a chemical element is the most abundant one in our universe, as it makes up 75% of normal matter by mass and more than 90% by number of atoms (Wikipedia, accessed August 2018). Furthermore, it is a welcome alternative for the automobile industry, that is hard-pressed to find cheap and clean alternatives for their gasoline and diesel ‘addiction’.   Quite a number of well-known producers, including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda, have already brought cars to market of which the fuel tank and combustion engine have been replaced by a hydrogen container and fuel cell. Oxygen is led to the fuel cell and reacts to hydrogen, to create energy and water. The electricity feeds the engine, whereas the water vapour - completely harmless - is released through the exhaust.   CLEANER, SMOOTHER, QUIETER It is a clean, durable way of producing energy that largely relies on natural components. On the contrary, ‘common’ electric and hybrid cars use a battery that requires lithium and cobalt. This raw material is dependent upon child labour in developing countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Chili. This makes its production highly questionable and possibly ethically indefensible. As such, hydrogen proves a better and more sustainable alternative. To further prove its sustainability, hydrogen does not lead to air pollution. Its combustion does not bring any polluting chemicals into the atmosphere.   The only by-product is water (vapour). It is also virtually inexhaustible, as hydrogen can be found in water, plants, and fertiliser - and can easily be generated.   Its use provides benefits for the car’s driver as well. The vehicle is very quiet, as there are no mechanical parts in the fuel cell. This will reduce noise nuisance in populated areas, improving the overall quality of life. Secondly, fuel cell vehicles guarantee a smooth drive, with instant power and intuitive controls. Running out of fuel? Then it will only take a few minutes to fill up the car with fresh hydrogen, without any nasty scents or spills. DISADVANTAGES For the production of hydrogen, a significant amount of energy is needed. This process is costly and brings along a whole new problem for the world as a whole, as we need energy to provide a fuel that should require less energy. A paradox if I have ever seen one. And one that has significantly pushed up the car’s price. A hydrogen-powered car can be yours from “only” as little as € 60,000. Definitely not an amount that most of us will budget for or have lying around. This car is therefore only reserved for those with deep pockets, for now. This means that there is a relatively low penetration of hydrogen-fuelled cars on the market, which makes it largely unfeasible to set up sufficient hydrogen-stations needed for refuelling. These stations are remarkably expensive, also due to the high costs of producing and storing hydrogen, which has made it a tough sell. Similarly, the absence of sufficient hydrogen-stations around the world acts as another deterrent for prospective buyers: why would you spend so much money on a car if you cannot fuel it wherever you like? The industry seems to be stuck in this vicious circle, with insufficient cars on the road to justify the construction of a station, and insufficient stations available to persuade prospective buyers to choose this car. Ignoring this dilemma for now, as I am sure that this will work itself out eventually, the central question remains. Can hydrogen fuel be used all around the world, to feed the soon to be 2 million cars, if it requires this much energy to produce? Some have called for a solution that involves using the excess capacity of wind parks, that are now often temporarily stopped once too much energy is offered to the grid. Feasible, yet it requires a change of mindset for many - and increases the pressure on wind park owners to deliver sufficient energy.   Will the world be running on hydrogen soon? It would certainly be better for our environment, yet the simple fact that it is decidedly not better for our wallets yet, means that there is still a long way to go. https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/transportation/hydrogen
DRIVING ON HYDROGEN: FUELLING THE FUTURE?
DRIVING ON HYDROGEN: FUELLING THE FUTURE?
Extremely fuel-efficient hydrogen car. 5000 km on one liter
TU Delft presents extremely fuel-efficient hydrogen car TU Delft's (Technical University Delft, Netherlands) Eco-Runner Team is presenting a new, extremely economical car on the campus of the university that can drive 5,000 km on the equivalent of 1 liter of petrol. With this car, the team will participate in the Shell Eco-marathon in July 2018, an international competition in which the most efficient vehicles compete against each other. Hydrogen 'smartcar' The Delft students have previously designed a car on hydrogen, like last year a version to race on the circuit of Assen. The team has now changed course and says it has developed a 'smartcar'. For example, the car itself can give instructions to the driver about which speed, steering angle and braking force is necessary to drive as efficiently as possible. All this by self-learning software. No limits The TU Delft team wants to show with the smart car that the limits of vehicle efficiency are far from being achieved. "By only using sustainable fuels and using them in a smart way, major steps can still be taken to reduce the CO2 emissions of the mobility sector," says Jo Croese team manager of the Eco- Runner Team. Hydrogen, unlike fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal, is not a source of energy, but an energy carrier. This means that the energy that is released when used as fuel in a car must first be stopped. In practice, this means that electricity is required for the production of hydrogen by means of electrolysis. The sustainability of hydrogen therefore largely depends on the sustainability of that electricity. No pollution The big advantage of hydrogen cars is that there is no air pollution. Only water vapor is generated when burning hydrogen gas. In contrast to fossil fuels, airborne pollutants are not released when burning hydrogen, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. If the hydrogen is produced with (surplus) green electricity, there is no air pollution and in that case no carbon dioxide (CO2), an important greenhouse gas, is also emitted.  {youtube} By: dagblad70
TU Delft presents extremely fuel-efficient hydrogen car TU Delft's (Technical University Delft, Netherlands) Eco-Runner Team is presenting a new, extremely economical car on the campus of the university that can drive 5,000 km on the equivalent of 1 liter of petrol. With this car, the team will participate in the Shell Eco-marathon in July 2018, an international competition in which the most efficient vehicles compete against each other. Hydrogen 'smartcar' The Delft students have previously designed a car on hydrogen, like last year a version to race on the circuit of Assen. The team has now changed course and says it has developed a 'smartcar'. For example, the car itself can give instructions to the driver about which speed, steering angle and braking force is necessary to drive as efficiently as possible. All this by self-learning software. No limits The TU Delft team wants to show with the smart car that the limits of vehicle efficiency are far from being achieved. "By only using sustainable fuels and using them in a smart way, major steps can still be taken to reduce the CO2 emissions of the mobility sector," says Jo Croese team manager of the Eco- Runner Team. Hydrogen, unlike fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal, is not a source of energy, but an energy carrier. This means that the energy that is released when used as fuel in a car must first be stopped. In practice, this means that electricity is required for the production of hydrogen by means of electrolysis. The sustainability of hydrogen therefore largely depends on the sustainability of that electricity. No pollution The big advantage of hydrogen cars is that there is no air pollution. Only water vapor is generated when burning hydrogen gas. In contrast to fossil fuels, airborne pollutants are not released when burning hydrogen, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. If the hydrogen is produced with (surplus) green electricity, there is no air pollution and in that case no carbon dioxide (CO2), an important greenhouse gas, is also emitted.  {youtube} By: dagblad70
Extremely fuel-efficient hydrogen car. 5000 km on one liter
Tesla gets competition from Nikola. Hydrogen versus electricity
Tesla competitor receives large order in America Tesla does not experience the best weeks in his history. That cannot be said of many of the competitors. For example, the company Nikola, indeed inspired by the same person, is doing well. The company received an order for 800 new electric trucks just under the nose of the Californian company, Tesla. Electric or sustainable trucks are the next big market where the battle between old and new manufacturers will be fought. Tesla is just like Nikola a newcomer. The transport of goods must be much more optimized with electric trucks, as expected. Where the company of Elon Musk took the lead, others are now starting to compete seriously. Like Nikola, which is going to make 800 trucks for a beer manufacturer in the coming period. Hydrogen The most interesting thing about Nikola is the power source. Unlike Tesla, it does not use electrical energy. According to the CEO of the company, the future lies here. Those hydrogen cells are also without emissions, as are the power sources in electric cars. The manufacturer therefore thinks he has found a gap in the market. Especially because the trucks are as light as possible. With hydrogen cells this can be a lot better than with electrical sources. Large market The demand for large trucks is still rising. In the United States, it is now a quarter of a million sold cars per year, with a half per cent to one per cent increase per year per year. It concerns all types of trucks, including diesel models with combustion engines. Because of the large order, Nikola has to build a new factory. Tesla has already received orders from large companies such as Pepsi, Walmart and a few others. The battle will flare up further. {youtube} By Emiel Buteijn
Tesla competitor receives large order in America Tesla does not experience the best weeks in his history. That cannot be said of many of the competitors. For example, the company Nikola, indeed inspired by the same person, is doing well. The company received an order for 800 new electric trucks just under the nose of the Californian company, Tesla. Electric or sustainable trucks are the next big market where the battle between old and new manufacturers will be fought. Tesla is just like Nikola a newcomer. The transport of goods must be much more optimized with electric trucks, as expected. Where the company of Elon Musk took the lead, others are now starting to compete seriously. Like Nikola, which is going to make 800 trucks for a beer manufacturer in the coming period. Hydrogen The most interesting thing about Nikola is the power source. Unlike Tesla, it does not use electrical energy. According to the CEO of the company, the future lies here. Those hydrogen cells are also without emissions, as are the power sources in electric cars. The manufacturer therefore thinks he has found a gap in the market. Especially because the trucks are as light as possible. With hydrogen cells this can be a lot better than with electrical sources. Large market The demand for large trucks is still rising. In the United States, it is now a quarter of a million sold cars per year, with a half per cent to one per cent increase per year per year. It concerns all types of trucks, including diesel models with combustion engines. Because of the large order, Nikola has to build a new factory. Tesla has already received orders from large companies such as Pepsi, Walmart and a few others. The battle will flare up further. {youtube} By Emiel Buteijn
Tesla gets competition from Nikola. Hydrogen versus electricity
Flying a drone using hydrogen and other cleanest energy sources
Hydrogen, in a souped-up supercapacitor/battery combination A group of Australian scientists from the University of Sydney have successfully demonstrated a drone flight powered by a triple hybrid propulsion system as part of a project that heralds a new era in clean technology-driven unmanned aerial vehicles. The team of researchers performed the test flights late last month using one of the Earth’s cleanest energy sources, hydrogen, in a souped-up supercapacitor/battery combination that will mean much longer and cleaner flights will be made possible by drones in the future. Triple hybrid propulsion The triple hybrid propulsion system is the brain child of University of Sydney aerospace engineering PhD candidate Andrew Gong, supported by a highly qualified team of researchers – including Dr Dries Verstraete from the University’s School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (AMME), and Dr Jennifer Palmer from Defence Science and Technology Group. Building upon four test flights using hydrogen fuel cells the team performed late last year, the new results demonstrate improved dynamic response of the overall triple hybrid propulsion system and smoothing of energy load, meaning increased fuel-cell life. Electric aircraft using batteries will be extremely limited in range and endurance While the project’s primary goal is to improve the flexibility and robustness of hydrogen fuel cell-based hybrid power systems in remotely piloted aircraft, Gong told Drone Below, “Although we haven’t explored it, there is definitely scope to use hydrogen fuel cell propulsion in underwater ROVs or AUVs.” Gong also sees the potential for further advancement of larger drone tech, such as air taxis, adding, “The same benefits of enhanced endurance and range using hydrogen fuel cell propulsion applies to larger vehicles. Unless there is a radical breakthrough in battery technology, electric aircraft using batteries will be extremely limited in range and endurance. A hydrogen fuel cell allows much longer flight time in electric aircraft.” Hydrogen fuel cells are also more environmentally friendly The technology would also mean better endurance for industrial applications such as agriculture and mining – and improved carbon emissions. “Hydrogen power provides much greater range and endurance compared to existing small electric unmanned aircraft. In the future, this may be useful for extended-duration inspection or surveillance tasks, such as surveying large agricultural properties or inspecting pipelines and other infrastructure,” Mr Gong said. “Hydrogen fuel cells are also more environmentally friendly because they produce zero CO2emissions and are much quieter than other fossil-fuelled aircraft.” Aircraft manufacturers are slow to take up hydrogen fuel cell technology because current systems are costly, have power limitations and poor response to changes in load. Improved performance Using the hybrid combination of fuel cells with batteries and super capacitators, the team have been able to overcome these challenges, improving peak power and load response. For aircraft and drone manufacturers, this will mean much improved performance for launches and high-load routines such as tight manoeuvres. Challenges of flight times for autonomous public air transport systems “Conceptually, this is similar to a hybrid car where the battery is an auxiliary power source,” Mr Gong said. “Our hybrid system improves the performance capabilities of existing fuel cell systems, and provides new options for quiet, long-endurance propulsion in the rapidly growing unmanned aircraft industry. Gong is aware of the challenges of flight times for autonomous public air transport systems, adding, “This is a challenging problem which I’m watching with a keen interest. If we can create a quiet, safe, reliable and autonomous air taxi, transportation will experience a paradigm shift to rival the invention of the automobile.” Great deal of potential He also sees a great deal of potential in other projects worldwide. Talking to Drone Below, he said that companies that excite and inspire him “push the boundaries of what is possible and turn amazing ideas into reality. Some incredible inspirations in aerospace include SpaceX with re-useable rockets that fly back and land upright, Northrop Grumman with the X-47B and its autonomous operations on an aircraft carrier, and recently the Ehang 184 with manned tests of its electric passenger drone. ” Mr Gong’s PhD research has gained the support of Northrop Grumman Australia and the University of Sydney’s School of AMME through an Aerospace Engineering Industry Link (top-up) scholarship. What does the future hold? Gong has some ideas: “I think the convergence of electric propulsion, autonomous technology and aircraft will enable fascinating concepts in the future. Exciting times ahead!” By: Philip Smith, DroneBelow
Hydrogen, in a souped-up supercapacitor/battery combination A group of Australian scientists from the University of Sydney have successfully demonstrated a drone flight powered by a triple hybrid propulsion system as part of a project that heralds a new era in clean technology-driven unmanned aerial vehicles. The team of researchers performed the test flights late last month using one of the Earth’s cleanest energy sources, hydrogen, in a souped-up supercapacitor/battery combination that will mean much longer and cleaner flights will be made possible by drones in the future. Triple hybrid propulsion The triple hybrid propulsion system is the brain child of University of Sydney aerospace engineering PhD candidate Andrew Gong, supported by a highly qualified team of researchers – including Dr Dries Verstraete from the University’s School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (AMME), and Dr Jennifer Palmer from Defence Science and Technology Group. Building upon four test flights using hydrogen fuel cells the team performed late last year, the new results demonstrate improved dynamic response of the overall triple hybrid propulsion system and smoothing of energy load, meaning increased fuel-cell life. Electric aircraft using batteries will be extremely limited in range and endurance While the project’s primary goal is to improve the flexibility and robustness of hydrogen fuel cell-based hybrid power systems in remotely piloted aircraft, Gong told Drone Below, “Although we haven’t explored it, there is definitely scope to use hydrogen fuel cell propulsion in underwater ROVs or AUVs.” Gong also sees the potential for further advancement of larger drone tech, such as air taxis, adding, “The same benefits of enhanced endurance and range using hydrogen fuel cell propulsion applies to larger vehicles. Unless there is a radical breakthrough in battery technology, electric aircraft using batteries will be extremely limited in range and endurance. A hydrogen fuel cell allows much longer flight time in electric aircraft.” Hydrogen fuel cells are also more environmentally friendly The technology would also mean better endurance for industrial applications such as agriculture and mining – and improved carbon emissions. “Hydrogen power provides much greater range and endurance compared to existing small electric unmanned aircraft. In the future, this may be useful for extended-duration inspection or surveillance tasks, such as surveying large agricultural properties or inspecting pipelines and other infrastructure,” Mr Gong said. “Hydrogen fuel cells are also more environmentally friendly because they produce zero CO2emissions and are much quieter than other fossil-fuelled aircraft.” Aircraft manufacturers are slow to take up hydrogen fuel cell technology because current systems are costly, have power limitations and poor response to changes in load. Improved performance Using the hybrid combination of fuel cells with batteries and super capacitators, the team have been able to overcome these challenges, improving peak power and load response. For aircraft and drone manufacturers, this will mean much improved performance for launches and high-load routines such as tight manoeuvres. Challenges of flight times for autonomous public air transport systems “Conceptually, this is similar to a hybrid car where the battery is an auxiliary power source,” Mr Gong said. “Our hybrid system improves the performance capabilities of existing fuel cell systems, and provides new options for quiet, long-endurance propulsion in the rapidly growing unmanned aircraft industry. Gong is aware of the challenges of flight times for autonomous public air transport systems, adding, “This is a challenging problem which I’m watching with a keen interest. If we can create a quiet, safe, reliable and autonomous air taxi, transportation will experience a paradigm shift to rival the invention of the automobile.” Great deal of potential He also sees a great deal of potential in other projects worldwide. Talking to Drone Below, he said that companies that excite and inspire him “push the boundaries of what is possible and turn amazing ideas into reality. Some incredible inspirations in aerospace include SpaceX with re-useable rockets that fly back and land upright, Northrop Grumman with the X-47B and its autonomous operations on an aircraft carrier, and recently the Ehang 184 with manned tests of its electric passenger drone. ” Mr Gong’s PhD research has gained the support of Northrop Grumman Australia and the University of Sydney’s School of AMME through an Aerospace Engineering Industry Link (top-up) scholarship. What does the future hold? Gong has some ideas: “I think the convergence of electric propulsion, autonomous technology and aircraft will enable fascinating concepts in the future. Exciting times ahead!” By: Philip Smith, DroneBelow
Flying a drone using hydrogen and other cleanest energy sources
Flying a drone using hydrogen and other cleanest energy sources
#Hydrogen car use on the rise! Even the police are gonna use them.
Police London is going to run on hydrogen. The police force of London has bought eleven police cars on hydrogen. It should form the start of a fleet of 550 emission-free police vehicles in 2020. London has been struggling with air pollution for centuries. In the nineties, the smoking of cigarettes and cigars was even prohibited as an emergency measure. In that respect, the purchase of local, emission-free police cars puts more effort into the dike. At Toyota, eleven hydrogen cars were purchased for this purpose, the first of which was already in use. Photo: autoweek.nl Fast refueling You can have a tank at one of the five hydrogen filling stations in London. More stations will be added in the coming years, making it more interesting for private individuals to opt for hydrogen. The Mirai The Mirai runs on average 500 kilometers on a full tank and the big advantage over an electric car on batteries, is that refueling with the Mirai takes as long as with a car on petrol or diesel. Erik Kouwenhoven. Photo's top, cover: © Toyota https://www.whatsorb.com/category/transportation
Police London is going to run on hydrogen. The police force of London has bought eleven police cars on hydrogen. It should form the start of a fleet of 550 emission-free police vehicles in 2020. London has been struggling with air pollution for centuries. In the nineties, the smoking of cigarettes and cigars was even prohibited as an emergency measure. In that respect, the purchase of local, emission-free police cars puts more effort into the dike. At Toyota, eleven hydrogen cars were purchased for this purpose, the first of which was already in use. Photo: autoweek.nl Fast refueling You can have a tank at one of the five hydrogen filling stations in London. More stations will be added in the coming years, making it more interesting for private individuals to opt for hydrogen. The Mirai The Mirai runs on average 500 kilometers on a full tank and the big advantage over an electric car on batteries, is that refueling with the Mirai takes as long as with a car on petrol or diesel. Erik Kouwenhoven. Photo's top, cover: © Toyota https://www.whatsorb.com/category/transportation
#Hydrogen car use on the rise! Even the police are gonna use them.
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