Energy

About: <p>Fossil&nbsp;fuels&nbsp;are non-renewable, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, the many types of&nbsp;renewable energy&nbsp;resources such as wind and solar&nbsp;energy are constantly replenished and will never run out.<br />Wind turbines and solar panels are an increasingly common sight. But why? What are the benefits of renewable energies and how do they improve our health, environment, and economy?</p> <p>The WhatsOrb category &lsquo;Energy&rsquo; explores and shows the many positive impacts of clean energy, including the benefits of&nbsp;<a href="https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/energy/wind">wind</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/energy/solar">solar</a> and&nbsp;geothermal. Next to it critical articles about nuclear and unknown energy sources.</p> <p>If there was an urge to come up with renewable energy forms and to ​​change energy use, it is now! WhatsOrb Global Sustainability X-change Platform is for you, storytellers and influencers to write about these topics and share them with the world. How you minimalize your energy consumption, the solar panels you choose and how did you isolate your house. In a nutshell; how to change your and other people&rsquo;s lifestyle.</p> <p>Global sustainability X change, that is what you can do together with WhatsOrb. <a href="https://www.whatsorb.com/blog/your-shared-sustainable-ideas-make-our-earth-a-better-place">What's in it for me</a>?</p>
Close Welcome writers, influencers and dreamers, make the world a greener place
Register here
Forgot password
Forgot password
or
or

Close
Close For sustainability news hunters! The WhatsOrb newsletter!

Receive monthly the newest updates about sustainability from influencers and fellow writers. Cutting edge innovations and global environmental developments.

Close For sustainability news hunters! The WhatsOrb newsletter!

Receive monthly the newest updates about sustainability from influencers and fellow writers. Cutting edge innovations and global environmental developments.

Close Reset password
your profile is 33% complete:
33%
Update profile Close
Close WhatsOrb Global Sustainability X-Change

For writers, influencers and dreamers who want to make the world a greener place.

WhatsOrb reaches monthly about 7000 thousand visitors who want - like you - to make the world a greener place. Share your expertise and all can benefit.

Become an influencer and write and share sustainable news and innovations globally
Are you a writer or do you have ideas about sustainability which you want to share? Register and share your green knowledge and news. WhatsOrb offers you global exposure for your article.

If your article meets certain standards, you receive promotional gains like Facebook promotions and Google Ads advertising.



Energy categorybanner General

MenuMenu
Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers
With global warming and carbon emissions dominating headlines, countries are turning to hydrogen-powered technology as a secure, clean, and affordable alternative to fossil fuels.  Tracing its origins back to ancient Olympia, the Olympic torch - an eternal symbol of the hallowed sporting event - is set to shine brightly in Japan’s capital next year.  But when the flame is lit at Tokyo’s New National Stadium, it will be hydrogen fuel cells, not fossil fuels, which will sustain its fire. Hydrogen Fuel And The Tokyo Olympic Games The 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games will be powered by hydrogen technology, from the use of hydrogen cells for the electricity supply in the Athletes’ Village to the building of over 160 hydrogen stations for fuel cell vehicles. As an early pioneer in embracing and developing hydrogen-powered technology, Japan is on a quest to reduce emissions to less than a tenth of current levels by the year 2050. The benefits of the technology have not gone unnoticed by the international energy community, including Japan, where hydrogen took centre stage at the 2019 G20 Summit. From rendering freight transportation carbon-free to the convenient use of portable hydrogen “capsules”, here are five reasons why hydrogen is a secure, clean and affordable alternative. (G20) hold in Osaka where 'Green Hydrogen' was featured prominently Zero Emission On The Roads With Hydrogen Fuel Heavily dependent on fossil fuels for energy, the transportation sector contributes to a staggering 20 percent of carbon dioxide emissions globally. Hydrogen-powered vehicles could be the answer to this problem, as fuel cell vehicles, which use hydrogen gas to power an electric motor, emit only heat and water as by-products. In China, hydrogen-powered transportation is gaining traction, with over 1,500 fuel cell vehicles currently plying the streets. Wan Gang, China’s Science and Technology Minister and the visionary leader of its electric vehicle economy, has predicted that hydrogen-powered vehicles will be the future of transportation not just in China, but also the world. Hydrogen-powered technology can also play a significant role in decarbonizing long-haul road freight, given that heavy vehicle lorries produce almost 2.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually. Global logistics giant DHL and electric vehicle start-up Street Scooter have teamed up to launch the H2 Panel Van, the world’s first 4.25-ton electric vehicle with an added fuel cell that allows it to travel up to 500 kilometres. As part of its mission to 'green' the logistics industry, DHL plans to have 100 of such fuel cell delivery vehicles on the roads between 2020 and 2021 Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa Hydrogen Gives A Longer Driving Range With a relatively short refuelling time, vehicles with hydrogen fuel cells can also travel for longer on lesser energy. In China, hydrogen-powered buses can drive beyond 500 kilometres on a full tank of hydrogen – a considerable jump from the 200 kilometres that electric buses typically achieve. Hydrogen-powered cars in Europe are traveling even farther, up to 800 kilometres or more, on a single tank. Another example is Toyota’s leading hydrogen-powered car, the Toyota Mirai, which can complete a 3,500-kilometer journey from Northern to Southern Europe and back on just 40 kilograms of hydrogen. {youtube}                                                 Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers                                                     Toyota Mirai Hydrogen fuel cell car goes for a drive While the costs of producing hydrogen have been cited as a barrier to widespread adoption, companies like Electric Global are coming up with innovative ways to tackle the challenge. The Israeli-Australian firm’s new hydrogen-based technology allows drivers to travel up to twice the usual distance while paying less than half the price of gasoline. The best part? The technology is entirely emission-free. Hydrogen Fuel Is Decarbonizing The Industrial Sectors Owing to the large amounts of fossil fuels used, the steel-making and chemicals production industries have long been regarded as emissions-heavy sectors. But hydrogen-powered technology is slowly changing things. The petrochemical and chemicals sector, which produced up to 1.25 gross tonnage of carbon emissions in 2017, is turning to electrolytic hydrogen as a substitute for fossil fuels. Hydrogen is seen as an alternative energy source for emissions-heavy industries. Within the steelmaking industry, the development of breakthrough technologies has led to a large number of promising projects, including a steelmaking factory in Hamburg, which uses an innovative hydrogen-based process to produce steel with low carbon emissions. In Sweden, steel production firm Hybrid is developing the world’s first fossil-free hydrogen-powered steel plant that aims to use biofuels to produce iron ore pellets. As more industries embrace hydrogen energy, the cost of producing it from renewable energy could become more affordable by 2030, said the International Energy Agency in a recent report. Hydrogens Fuel Is Easy To Store And Easy To Use One key benefit of hydrogen is the ease at which it can be stored, shipped, and used. This means that countries with little space for wind and solar equipment will still be able to benefit from carbon-free energy. Solar power plants usually require a large land area. Energy companies are constantly finding effective ways to store and harness the potential of hydrogen. In Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, technological giant Siemens has launched the world’s first energy storage demonstrator, which can store and transport carbon fuel safely and effectively. Hydrogen fuel is so versatile that in 2016, a Japanese research team designed and created hydrogen “capsules” that allow consumers to store hydrogen batteries in their pockets and use them for day-to-day activities. Space Travel Uses Successfully Hydrogen Fuel Contrary to popular belief, the use of hydrogen energy is not new. Hydrogen was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a rocket propellant and fuel cell unit to operate auxiliary power units in space since the early 1960s. That same decade, internationally acclaimed American industrial designer Brooks Stevens launched the Utopia Concept, a series of hydrogen fuel cell propulsion cars that revolutionized the motor industry. But the most memorable use of hydrogen has to be the Apollo moon landing missions in 1967 when NASA used 363 feet tall valves fuelled by liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and kerosene to power its rockets. Named the 'Saturn V' rockets, they were, and still are, considered to be the most powerful rockets ever built. Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers Fuel cells, are they the future? In the future, fuel cells could power our cars, with hydrogen replacing the petroleum fuel that is used in most vehicles today. Many vehicle manufacturers are actively researching and developing transportation fuel cell technologies. Stationary fuel cells are the largest, most powerful fuel cells. Which is better hydrogen or electric cars? Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles tend to be more frugal than their battery electric counterparts. According to Autocar, the Hyundai Nexo comes with a real-world range of 414 miles and filling up takes just five minutes, whereas electric charging can be an hour-long affair at the best of times. Hydrogen cars, are they quiet? A Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) is a vehicle powered by an electric motor. ... Fuel cell vehicles provide the same benefits as BEV cars, quiet operation and zero emissions, but have a range comparable to gasoline vehicles and can be refueled in less than 5 minutes. Hydrogen, why is it a fuel? Hydrogen is high in energy, yet an engine that burns pure hydrogen produces almost no pollution. ... A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water. Fuel cells are often compared to batteries. Both convert the energy produced by a chemical reaction into usable electric power. Hydrogen fuel cells, how long do they last? 5,000 to 10,000 hours. H2 fuel cells currently in production have a life expectancy of from 5,000 to 10,000 hours. If we apply that to an average driving speed of 45 mph (a combination of in-town on highway driving), we should expect to get 225,000 to 450,000 miles. Hydrogen Production Although abundant on earth as an element, hydrogen is almost always found as part of another compound, such as water (H 2 O), and must be separated from the compounds that contain it before it can be used in vehicles. Once separated, hydrogen can be used along with oxygen from the air in a fuel cell to create electricity through an electrochemical process. Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse, domestic resources including fossil fuels, biomass, and water electrolysis with electricity. The environmental impact and energy efficiency of hydrogen depends on how it is produced. Some projects are under way to decrease costs associated with hydrogen production. There are a number of ways to produce hydrogen: Natural Gas Reforming/Gasification: Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. A synthesis gas can also be created by reacting coal or biomass with high-temperature steam and oxygen in a pressurized gasifier, which is converted into gaseous components—a process called gasification. The resulting synthesis gas contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is reacted with steam to separate the hydrogen. Hydrogen from oil Recommended: Renewable Energy Breakthrough: Hydrogen Extract From Oil Electrolysis:  An electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity is produced by renewable sources, such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen will be considered renewable as well, and has numerous emissions benefits. Power-to-hydrogen projects are taking off, where excess renewable electricity, when it's available, is used to make hydrogen through electrolysis. Renewable Liquid Reforming:  Renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol, are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end use. Fermentation:  Biomass is converted into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be fermented to produce hydrogen. A number of hydrogen production methods are in development: High-Temperature Water Splitting: High temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen Photobiological Water Splitting: Microbes, such as green algae, consume water in the presence of sunlight, producing hydrogen as a by-product Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Photoelectrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight If you have any questions or remarks! Please comment below. Recommended:  Breaking News! Hydrogen Cheaply Produced By Solar In Belgium Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
With global warming and carbon emissions dominating headlines, countries are turning to hydrogen-powered technology as a secure, clean, and affordable alternative to fossil fuels.  Tracing its origins back to ancient Olympia, the Olympic torch - an eternal symbol of the hallowed sporting event - is set to shine brightly in Japan’s capital next year.  But when the flame is lit at Tokyo’s New National Stadium, it will be hydrogen fuel cells, not fossil fuels, which will sustain its fire. Hydrogen Fuel And The Tokyo Olympic Games The 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games will be powered by hydrogen technology, from the use of hydrogen cells for the electricity supply in the Athletes’ Village to the building of over 160 hydrogen stations for fuel cell vehicles. As an early pioneer in embracing and developing hydrogen-powered technology, Japan is on a quest to reduce emissions to less than a tenth of current levels by the year 2050. The benefits of the technology have not gone unnoticed by the international energy community, including Japan, where hydrogen took centre stage at the 2019 G20 Summit. From rendering freight transportation carbon-free to the convenient use of portable hydrogen “capsules”, here are five reasons why hydrogen is a secure, clean and affordable alternative. (G20) hold in Osaka where 'Green Hydrogen' was featured prominently Zero Emission On The Roads With Hydrogen Fuel Heavily dependent on fossil fuels for energy, the transportation sector contributes to a staggering 20 percent of carbon dioxide emissions globally. Hydrogen-powered vehicles could be the answer to this problem, as fuel cell vehicles, which use hydrogen gas to power an electric motor, emit only heat and water as by-products. In China, hydrogen-powered transportation is gaining traction, with over 1,500 fuel cell vehicles currently plying the streets. Wan Gang, China’s Science and Technology Minister and the visionary leader of its electric vehicle economy, has predicted that hydrogen-powered vehicles will be the future of transportation not just in China, but also the world. Hydrogen-powered technology can also play a significant role in decarbonizing long-haul road freight, given that heavy vehicle lorries produce almost 2.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually. Global logistics giant DHL and electric vehicle start-up Street Scooter have teamed up to launch the H2 Panel Van, the world’s first 4.25-ton electric vehicle with an added fuel cell that allows it to travel up to 500 kilometres. As part of its mission to 'green' the logistics industry, DHL plans to have 100 of such fuel cell delivery vehicles on the roads between 2020 and 2021 Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa Hydrogen Gives A Longer Driving Range With a relatively short refuelling time, vehicles with hydrogen fuel cells can also travel for longer on lesser energy. In China, hydrogen-powered buses can drive beyond 500 kilometres on a full tank of hydrogen – a considerable jump from the 200 kilometres that electric buses typically achieve. Hydrogen-powered cars in Europe are traveling even farther, up to 800 kilometres or more, on a single tank. Another example is Toyota’s leading hydrogen-powered car, the Toyota Mirai, which can complete a 3,500-kilometer journey from Northern to Southern Europe and back on just 40 kilograms of hydrogen. {youtube}                                                 Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers                                                     Toyota Mirai Hydrogen fuel cell car goes for a drive While the costs of producing hydrogen have been cited as a barrier to widespread adoption, companies like Electric Global are coming up with innovative ways to tackle the challenge. The Israeli-Australian firm’s new hydrogen-based technology allows drivers to travel up to twice the usual distance while paying less than half the price of gasoline. The best part? The technology is entirely emission-free. Hydrogen Fuel Is Decarbonizing The Industrial Sectors Owing to the large amounts of fossil fuels used, the steel-making and chemicals production industries have long been regarded as emissions-heavy sectors. But hydrogen-powered technology is slowly changing things. The petrochemical and chemicals sector, which produced up to 1.25 gross tonnage of carbon emissions in 2017, is turning to electrolytic hydrogen as a substitute for fossil fuels. Hydrogen is seen as an alternative energy source for emissions-heavy industries. Within the steelmaking industry, the development of breakthrough technologies has led to a large number of promising projects, including a steelmaking factory in Hamburg, which uses an innovative hydrogen-based process to produce steel with low carbon emissions. In Sweden, steel production firm Hybrid is developing the world’s first fossil-free hydrogen-powered steel plant that aims to use biofuels to produce iron ore pellets. As more industries embrace hydrogen energy, the cost of producing it from renewable energy could become more affordable by 2030, said the International Energy Agency in a recent report. Hydrogens Fuel Is Easy To Store And Easy To Use One key benefit of hydrogen is the ease at which it can be stored, shipped, and used. This means that countries with little space for wind and solar equipment will still be able to benefit from carbon-free energy. Solar power plants usually require a large land area. Energy companies are constantly finding effective ways to store and harness the potential of hydrogen. In Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, technological giant Siemens has launched the world’s first energy storage demonstrator, which can store and transport carbon fuel safely and effectively. Hydrogen fuel is so versatile that in 2016, a Japanese research team designed and created hydrogen “capsules” that allow consumers to store hydrogen batteries in their pockets and use them for day-to-day activities. Space Travel Uses Successfully Hydrogen Fuel Contrary to popular belief, the use of hydrogen energy is not new. Hydrogen was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a rocket propellant and fuel cell unit to operate auxiliary power units in space since the early 1960s. That same decade, internationally acclaimed American industrial designer Brooks Stevens launched the Utopia Concept, a series of hydrogen fuel cell propulsion cars that revolutionized the motor industry. But the most memorable use of hydrogen has to be the Apollo moon landing missions in 1967 when NASA used 363 feet tall valves fuelled by liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and kerosene to power its rockets. Named the 'Saturn V' rockets, they were, and still are, considered to be the most powerful rockets ever built. Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers Fuel cells, are they the future? In the future, fuel cells could power our cars, with hydrogen replacing the petroleum fuel that is used in most vehicles today. Many vehicle manufacturers are actively researching and developing transportation fuel cell technologies. Stationary fuel cells are the largest, most powerful fuel cells. Which is better hydrogen or electric cars? Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles tend to be more frugal than their battery electric counterparts. According to Autocar, the Hyundai Nexo comes with a real-world range of 414 miles and filling up takes just five minutes, whereas electric charging can be an hour-long affair at the best of times. Hydrogen cars, are they quiet? A Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) is a vehicle powered by an electric motor. ... Fuel cell vehicles provide the same benefits as BEV cars, quiet operation and zero emissions, but have a range comparable to gasoline vehicles and can be refueled in less than 5 minutes. Hydrogen, why is it a fuel? Hydrogen is high in energy, yet an engine that burns pure hydrogen produces almost no pollution. ... A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water. Fuel cells are often compared to batteries. Both convert the energy produced by a chemical reaction into usable electric power. Hydrogen fuel cells, how long do they last? 5,000 to 10,000 hours. H2 fuel cells currently in production have a life expectancy of from 5,000 to 10,000 hours. If we apply that to an average driving speed of 45 mph (a combination of in-town on highway driving), we should expect to get 225,000 to 450,000 miles. Hydrogen Production Although abundant on earth as an element, hydrogen is almost always found as part of another compound, such as water (H 2 O), and must be separated from the compounds that contain it before it can be used in vehicles. Once separated, hydrogen can be used along with oxygen from the air in a fuel cell to create electricity through an electrochemical process. Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse, domestic resources including fossil fuels, biomass, and water electrolysis with electricity. The environmental impact and energy efficiency of hydrogen depends on how it is produced. Some projects are under way to decrease costs associated with hydrogen production. There are a number of ways to produce hydrogen: Natural Gas Reforming/Gasification: Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. A synthesis gas can also be created by reacting coal or biomass with high-temperature steam and oxygen in a pressurized gasifier, which is converted into gaseous components—a process called gasification. The resulting synthesis gas contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is reacted with steam to separate the hydrogen. Hydrogen from oil Recommended: Renewable Energy Breakthrough: Hydrogen Extract From Oil Electrolysis:  An electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity is produced by renewable sources, such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen will be considered renewable as well, and has numerous emissions benefits. Power-to-hydrogen projects are taking off, where excess renewable electricity, when it's available, is used to make hydrogen through electrolysis. Renewable Liquid Reforming:  Renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol, are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end use. Fermentation:  Biomass is converted into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be fermented to produce hydrogen. A number of hydrogen production methods are in development: High-Temperature Water Splitting: High temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen Photobiological Water Splitting: Microbes, such as green algae, consume water in the presence of sunlight, producing hydrogen as a by-product Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Photoelectrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight If you have any questions or remarks! Please comment below. Recommended:  Breaking News! Hydrogen Cheaply Produced By Solar In Belgium Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers
Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers
Climate Change Halted By Nuclear Reactors: Fission, Fusion
There are new nuclear reactors that might stop the climate change. Through sodium-cooled nuclear fission to advanced fusion, a new generation of projects hopes to regain confidence in nuclear energy. You might not go to BP for the environmental news, but climate watchers recommend their annual energy review. The story of 2018 was pretty dark: we all know and read about global warming, but coal was responsible for 28 per cent of the world's power in 2017. That is the same level as 20 years ago when the first global climate treaty was signed. Unfortunately, that is not even the saddest news: greenhouse-gas emissions increased by 2.7 per cent last year, the most significant increase in seven years. A lot of policymakers and environmental groups concluded that we need more nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants closure Nuclear energy could be an option, but is that the way we are headed? If we look at the plans, Germany should shut down its nuclear plants by 2022. Even back in 2011, Italy voted to close all the nuclear power plants. And of course, there is this other problem: money. Nuclear energy is incredibly expensive. The United States mentioned they could not compete with cheap shale gas. If this problem continues, more energy power plants will close and will be replaced by natural gas which help the emissions to rise, says the Union of Concerned Scientists. It is predicted that if all these plants were to close, CO2 emissions would increase by six per cent. Recommended:  Nuclear Floating Power Plants: A Floating Chernobyl: Russia Fission of Nuclear Reactors Since the beginning of 2018, there were more than 75 fission projects in North America, trying to split atoms. Traditional reactors do this job for decades. At this moment, one of the pioneering technologies is the small modular reactor, or SMR: a downsized version of conventional fission systems that promises to be cheaper and safer. NuScale Power, located in Portland, Oregon, has a 60-megawatt design that is almost up and running (a high-cost conventional fission plant could produce about 1,000 MW of power). NuScale has an agreement to install twelve small reactors to supply energy to a coalition of 46 utilities in the west of the US. This project can only go forward if the members of the group agree to finance it before the end of this year. History has taught us that this will not be easy. {youtube}                                                         Climate Change Halted By Nuclear Reactors: Fission                                      How This Rare Natural Fission Reactor Could Solve Our Nuclear Waste Problem In 2011, Generation mPower, another SMR developer, had a deal to build up to six reactors, similar to those of NuScale. Generation mPower had the support of business owners Babcock and Wilcox, one of the world's largest energy builders. After less than three years, the pact was suspended because no new customers had arrived. No orders meant that prices would not decrease, which made the deal untenable. Recommended:  Nuclear Power: Will It Destroy Or Save The World? Nuclear Reactors: sodium-cooled NuScale uses traditional light-water-cooled nuclear reactors, but there are also so-called generation IV systems which use alternative coolants. For example, China is building a colossal scale sodium-cooled reactor in Fujian province, which should be working by 2023. Washington produces a similar system, but Donald Trump's administration has a restriction on Chinese trade, so we cannot tell you if the agreement is still on the table. Nuclear Reactors: molten salt In addition to the sodium-cooled generation IV variant, the molten-salt reactor is also a variant, a much safer variant than earlier designs. It can cool itself, even if the system loses power entirely. The Canadian company Terrestrial Energy wants to build 190 molten-salt reactor plants in Ontario, and it should be producing power before 2030. The costs are comparable with natural gas. A team from the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) the Netherlands has built the first molten salt reactor powered by thorium Nuclear Reactors: fusion Many people are hoping for nuclear fusion. Fusion reactors mimic the sun's core process, compress lighter atoms to turn them into heavier atoms and release vast amounts of energy in the meantime. In the sun, this process is driven by gravity. Engineers aim to replicate fusion condition with extremely high temperatures, but the process is complicated (they need plasma to fuse atoms, and that seems very hard). ITER, previously known as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, is building a solution in France. Unfortunately, the costs are very high - $22 billion -, so the first experiments are not scheduled until 2025. Will these companies succeed? Advanced fission substantially decreases nuclear waste - even when used as a fuel - and reduces the risk of tragedies such as Fukushima or Chernobyl. However, such reactors are not licensed or deployed outside of China or Russia. Many of the voters do not believe companies if they promise that new technologies will be able to avoid old mistakes. Nuclear energy is less dangerous than expected, but the costs are still very high, and the timelines are very long. What will the future bring? Experts are all for nuclear, but to convince sceptical voters... that might be a challenge. R ecommended:  The Artificial Sun Is Heating Up: Nuclear Fusion On Earth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
There are new nuclear reactors that might stop the climate change. Through sodium-cooled nuclear fission to advanced fusion, a new generation of projects hopes to regain confidence in nuclear energy. You might not go to BP for the environmental news, but climate watchers recommend their annual energy review. The story of 2018 was pretty dark: we all know and read about global warming, but coal was responsible for 28 per cent of the world's power in 2017. That is the same level as 20 years ago when the first global climate treaty was signed. Unfortunately, that is not even the saddest news: greenhouse-gas emissions increased by 2.7 per cent last year, the most significant increase in seven years. A lot of policymakers and environmental groups concluded that we need more nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants closure Nuclear energy could be an option, but is that the way we are headed? If we look at the plans, Germany should shut down its nuclear plants by 2022. Even back in 2011, Italy voted to close all the nuclear power plants. And of course, there is this other problem: money. Nuclear energy is incredibly expensive. The United States mentioned they could not compete with cheap shale gas. If this problem continues, more energy power plants will close and will be replaced by natural gas which help the emissions to rise, says the Union of Concerned Scientists. It is predicted that if all these plants were to close, CO2 emissions would increase by six per cent. Recommended:  Nuclear Floating Power Plants: A Floating Chernobyl: Russia Fission of Nuclear Reactors Since the beginning of 2018, there were more than 75 fission projects in North America, trying to split atoms. Traditional reactors do this job for decades. At this moment, one of the pioneering technologies is the small modular reactor, or SMR: a downsized version of conventional fission systems that promises to be cheaper and safer. NuScale Power, located in Portland, Oregon, has a 60-megawatt design that is almost up and running (a high-cost conventional fission plant could produce about 1,000 MW of power). NuScale has an agreement to install twelve small reactors to supply energy to a coalition of 46 utilities in the west of the US. This project can only go forward if the members of the group agree to finance it before the end of this year. History has taught us that this will not be easy. {youtube}                                                         Climate Change Halted By Nuclear Reactors: Fission                                      How This Rare Natural Fission Reactor Could Solve Our Nuclear Waste Problem In 2011, Generation mPower, another SMR developer, had a deal to build up to six reactors, similar to those of NuScale. Generation mPower had the support of business owners Babcock and Wilcox, one of the world's largest energy builders. After less than three years, the pact was suspended because no new customers had arrived. No orders meant that prices would not decrease, which made the deal untenable. Recommended:  Nuclear Power: Will It Destroy Or Save The World? Nuclear Reactors: sodium-cooled NuScale uses traditional light-water-cooled nuclear reactors, but there are also so-called generation IV systems which use alternative coolants. For example, China is building a colossal scale sodium-cooled reactor in Fujian province, which should be working by 2023. Washington produces a similar system, but Donald Trump's administration has a restriction on Chinese trade, so we cannot tell you if the agreement is still on the table. Nuclear Reactors: molten salt In addition to the sodium-cooled generation IV variant, the molten-salt reactor is also a variant, a much safer variant than earlier designs. It can cool itself, even if the system loses power entirely. The Canadian company Terrestrial Energy wants to build 190 molten-salt reactor plants in Ontario, and it should be producing power before 2030. The costs are comparable with natural gas. A team from the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) the Netherlands has built the first molten salt reactor powered by thorium Nuclear Reactors: fusion Many people are hoping for nuclear fusion. Fusion reactors mimic the sun's core process, compress lighter atoms to turn them into heavier atoms and release vast amounts of energy in the meantime. In the sun, this process is driven by gravity. Engineers aim to replicate fusion condition with extremely high temperatures, but the process is complicated (they need plasma to fuse atoms, and that seems very hard). ITER, previously known as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, is building a solution in France. Unfortunately, the costs are very high - $22 billion -, so the first experiments are not scheduled until 2025. Will these companies succeed? Advanced fission substantially decreases nuclear waste - even when used as a fuel - and reduces the risk of tragedies such as Fukushima or Chernobyl. However, such reactors are not licensed or deployed outside of China or Russia. Many of the voters do not believe companies if they promise that new technologies will be able to avoid old mistakes. Nuclear energy is less dangerous than expected, but the costs are still very high, and the timelines are very long. What will the future bring? Experts are all for nuclear, but to convince sceptical voters... that might be a challenge. R ecommended:  The Artificial Sun Is Heating Up: Nuclear Fusion On Earth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Climate Change Halted By Nuclear Reactors: Fission, Fusion
Climate Change Halted By Nuclear Reactors: Fission, Fusion
Environmental Costs Of Lithium Battery Addiction: Worldwide
Lithium batteries. Most of us will be familiar with the term, if only for the way in which airlines nowadays expressly tell you to not put them in your checked luggage. They could explode mid-flight, release toxic fumes and incite electrical fires.   Those who have done a bit more research will know that these commonly house in our personal electronics, including smartphones, tablets and laptops. This makes them a crucial element of today’s world and therefore susceptible to a steady production flow. Yet lithium batteries can also be found in e-bikes and electric cars, which are definitely on the rise.   In short? Lithium batteries power a significant part of our lives and will continue to do so even more in years to come. Environmental costs lithium battery production Unfortunately, they are not exactly helping us in our struggle to replace fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives. The environmental costs of lithium battery production are huge, with entire communities polluted by the toxic metals that make up its core components. Lithium mines are located in some of the world’s poorest regions, making it a particularly harrowing dilemma. Just a couple of years ago, back in 2016, the Ganzizhou Rongda lithium mine, located in China, experienced a toxic chemical leak. As a result, the Liqi river was polluted and ecosystems all the way up to the Tibetan plateau were destroyed. Dead animals floated in the water, both fish and livestock depending on this river for their water supply. Reliance on lithium It was not an isolated incident. In the past few years, there have been numerous instances of lithium mining causing irreversible damage to the environment and those living in it. Ironic, considering how many people are looking at it for its ability to help ‘green up’ the world. Electric cars rely on it, with Tesla averaging 12 kilograms of lithium in their batteries, as do grid storage solutions for renewable energy sources, requiring many times this number for their operations. ( Recommended:  Electric Cars: Truly Green Or A New Kind Of Liability? ) So, it is hardly surprising that demand numbers for lithium have grown pretty much exponentially and will continue to do so in the future. Recent forecasts predict an industry growth of 800% in the next decade, from 100 gigawatt hours in 2017 to 800 gigawatt hours in 2027. All a result of the increasing number of products containing lithium - and their successes. Lithium is a reactive alkali metal known for its durability and power, that can be obtained through hard-rock mining and brine water mining. The latter is responsible for 87% of the world’s lithium supply, mostly found in the salars or brine lakes in South America. The so-called Lithium Triangle, an otherworldly landscape of salt flats, covers Argentina, Bolivia and Chile and is home to over half of the world’s supply of this metal. People filling a truck with salt from the saltflacs in Chile Water issues The main issue here? Water. These lands are notoriously dry, yet significant amounts of water are needed to extract the lithium. It requires up to 500,000 gallons of water for each ton of lithium, a pretty hefty water bill. Chile has dedicated about 65% of its total water supply to the mining activities in the region, effectively robbing their quinoa farmers and llama herders of much sought after water.   In the example of China, on the other hand, the problem is not so much the lack of water, but more the abundance thereof. In order to extract lithium, holes are drilled and filled with water and toxic chemicals, including hydrochloric acid. When these pools leak or overflow, these chemicals infiltrate rivers and other water sources in the region. This also affects regions that use hard-rock mining to obtain lithium, including large areas in Australia and North America. Traditional methods are used to extract the lithium, but even these methods still require the use of damaging chemicals. In Nevada, for instance, lithium mining has led to rivers and streams being polluted and fish inhabiting those bodies of water being impacted - for up to 150 miles downstream.   ( Recommended:  Asia’s Water War: China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam ) Environmental costs Even experts admit that it is far from green. It leaves behind devastating marks in the landscape, while draining water supplies and polluting wells, streams, ground water and rivers. This is a well-known fact that has led to many furious protests in countries currently engaging in lithium mining activities. As bad as this sounds, it does not even make lithium the most dangerous component of modern batteries. At least the material itself is relatively harmless, when compared to some of its counterparts. Just look at cobalt, for instance, a naturally occurring mineral in central Africa. It is very toxic when pulled from the ground and requires careful handling.   Unsafe and unethical practices As luck would have it, it can mostly be found in one country - one that is not exactly well known for its far-reaching environmental policies and favourable working conditions, the Democratic Republic of Congo. With prices quadrupling in recent years, it is understandable why there has been such a rush to mine the material - the country is relatively poor and could really use this ‘cash cow’.   This has resulted in largely unethical and unsafe mining practices, often involving child workers handling the dangerous material with their bare hands. All to make a quick buck. {youtube} Environmental Costs Of Lithium Battery Addiction: Worldwide. Inside the Congo cobalt mines that exploit children And honestly? We cannot really blame governments and industry leaders in China, Chile and The Congo. They have found a way of lifting some of the burden of poverty that they have historically been suffering from, having quite literally found themselves sitting on a goldmine. As long as the demand is there, they will keep on delivering.   ( Recommended:  Consumerism In ‘The West’: A Society Built On Exploitation ) Search for greener alternatives As such, we need a green alternative to these batteries. Some kind of rechargeable, durable energy source that uses environmentally friendly materials instead. Researchers are already looking at ways of maintaining battery performance while cutting out lithium and cobalt. They key phrase here is ‘maintaining battery performance’: if these ‘greener’ batteries are in any way less effective or durable, chances are that they could eventually be just as bad for the environment. Simply because an electric car with a less effective battery will have a higher environmental footprint. Another solution is the recycling of lithium, through the re-use of unwanted tablets, phones and laptops. This could be a win-win, requiring less mining and reducing pollution from lithium leaking in landfills when lithium-containing products are haphazardly dumped. Yet it has been an uphill struggle so far, due to the lithium’s characteristic of degrading over time and not being able to clearly pinpoint its life stage; as well as the secrecy surrounding the exact contents of each producer’s battery, making it harder to recycle as well. The issue of ‘greening up’ the batteries to power our smart devices, electric cars, and other ‘sustainable’ inventions will hopefully receive plenty of attention over the coming years. Finding ways of saving the world will, after all, require a steady energy source that is already green in its own right.   All about Solar Energy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Lithium batteries. Most of us will be familiar with the term, if only for the way in which airlines nowadays expressly tell you to not put them in your checked luggage. They could explode mid-flight, release toxic fumes and incite electrical fires.   Those who have done a bit more research will know that these commonly house in our personal electronics, including smartphones, tablets and laptops. This makes them a crucial element of today’s world and therefore susceptible to a steady production flow. Yet lithium batteries can also be found in e-bikes and electric cars, which are definitely on the rise.   In short? Lithium batteries power a significant part of our lives and will continue to do so even more in years to come. Environmental costs lithium battery production Unfortunately, they are not exactly helping us in our struggle to replace fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives. The environmental costs of lithium battery production are huge, with entire communities polluted by the toxic metals that make up its core components. Lithium mines are located in some of the world’s poorest regions, making it a particularly harrowing dilemma. Just a couple of years ago, back in 2016, the Ganzizhou Rongda lithium mine, located in China, experienced a toxic chemical leak. As a result, the Liqi river was polluted and ecosystems all the way up to the Tibetan plateau were destroyed. Dead animals floated in the water, both fish and livestock depending on this river for their water supply. Reliance on lithium It was not an isolated incident. In the past few years, there have been numerous instances of lithium mining causing irreversible damage to the environment and those living in it. Ironic, considering how many people are looking at it for its ability to help ‘green up’ the world. Electric cars rely on it, with Tesla averaging 12 kilograms of lithium in their batteries, as do grid storage solutions for renewable energy sources, requiring many times this number for their operations. ( Recommended:  Electric Cars: Truly Green Or A New Kind Of Liability? ) So, it is hardly surprising that demand numbers for lithium have grown pretty much exponentially and will continue to do so in the future. Recent forecasts predict an industry growth of 800% in the next decade, from 100 gigawatt hours in 2017 to 800 gigawatt hours in 2027. All a result of the increasing number of products containing lithium - and their successes. Lithium is a reactive alkali metal known for its durability and power, that can be obtained through hard-rock mining and brine water mining. The latter is responsible for 87% of the world’s lithium supply, mostly found in the salars or brine lakes in South America. The so-called Lithium Triangle, an otherworldly landscape of salt flats, covers Argentina, Bolivia and Chile and is home to over half of the world’s supply of this metal. People filling a truck with salt from the saltflacs in Chile Water issues The main issue here? Water. These lands are notoriously dry, yet significant amounts of water are needed to extract the lithium. It requires up to 500,000 gallons of water for each ton of lithium, a pretty hefty water bill. Chile has dedicated about 65% of its total water supply to the mining activities in the region, effectively robbing their quinoa farmers and llama herders of much sought after water.   In the example of China, on the other hand, the problem is not so much the lack of water, but more the abundance thereof. In order to extract lithium, holes are drilled and filled with water and toxic chemicals, including hydrochloric acid. When these pools leak or overflow, these chemicals infiltrate rivers and other water sources in the region. This also affects regions that use hard-rock mining to obtain lithium, including large areas in Australia and North America. Traditional methods are used to extract the lithium, but even these methods still require the use of damaging chemicals. In Nevada, for instance, lithium mining has led to rivers and streams being polluted and fish inhabiting those bodies of water being impacted - for up to 150 miles downstream.   ( Recommended:  Asia’s Water War: China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam ) Environmental costs Even experts admit that it is far from green. It leaves behind devastating marks in the landscape, while draining water supplies and polluting wells, streams, ground water and rivers. This is a well-known fact that has led to many furious protests in countries currently engaging in lithium mining activities. As bad as this sounds, it does not even make lithium the most dangerous component of modern batteries. At least the material itself is relatively harmless, when compared to some of its counterparts. Just look at cobalt, for instance, a naturally occurring mineral in central Africa. It is very toxic when pulled from the ground and requires careful handling.   Unsafe and unethical practices As luck would have it, it can mostly be found in one country - one that is not exactly well known for its far-reaching environmental policies and favourable working conditions, the Democratic Republic of Congo. With prices quadrupling in recent years, it is understandable why there has been such a rush to mine the material - the country is relatively poor and could really use this ‘cash cow’.   This has resulted in largely unethical and unsafe mining practices, often involving child workers handling the dangerous material with their bare hands. All to make a quick buck. {youtube} Environmental Costs Of Lithium Battery Addiction: Worldwide. Inside the Congo cobalt mines that exploit children And honestly? We cannot really blame governments and industry leaders in China, Chile and The Congo. They have found a way of lifting some of the burden of poverty that they have historically been suffering from, having quite literally found themselves sitting on a goldmine. As long as the demand is there, they will keep on delivering.   ( Recommended:  Consumerism In ‘The West’: A Society Built On Exploitation ) Search for greener alternatives As such, we need a green alternative to these batteries. Some kind of rechargeable, durable energy source that uses environmentally friendly materials instead. Researchers are already looking at ways of maintaining battery performance while cutting out lithium and cobalt. They key phrase here is ‘maintaining battery performance’: if these ‘greener’ batteries are in any way less effective or durable, chances are that they could eventually be just as bad for the environment. Simply because an electric car with a less effective battery will have a higher environmental footprint. Another solution is the recycling of lithium, through the re-use of unwanted tablets, phones and laptops. This could be a win-win, requiring less mining and reducing pollution from lithium leaking in landfills when lithium-containing products are haphazardly dumped. Yet it has been an uphill struggle so far, due to the lithium’s characteristic of degrading over time and not being able to clearly pinpoint its life stage; as well as the secrecy surrounding the exact contents of each producer’s battery, making it harder to recycle as well. The issue of ‘greening up’ the batteries to power our smart devices, electric cars, and other ‘sustainable’ inventions will hopefully receive plenty of attention over the coming years. Finding ways of saving the world will, after all, require a steady energy source that is already green in its own right.   All about Solar Energy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Environmental Costs Of Lithium Battery Addiction: Worldwide
Environmental Costs Of Lithium Battery Addiction: Worldwide
The Earth As An Inexhaustible Clean Geothermal Energy Source
Europe can score with geothermal energy, says geologist Jon Limberger. Recently he got awarded a PhD in Utrecht (the Netherlands) for a study on this subject. Good news. Alternative energy, can we exchange gas for geothermal energy? The wind, you feel when you have to struggle against it on the bike. The sun glows on the skin in the summer. Logically, therefore, windmills and solar panels appear all over the world. The forces of nature report themselves, as an inexhaustible clean source of energy. They replace dirty coal, oil and natural gas. "What fascinates me," says geologist Jon Limberger (31), "is that there is still another great renewable energy source." It's under our feet, miles in the bottom. Heat, stored in water reservoirs. Even if companies would only pump a fraction of it up, the PhD student discovered that this would provide enough energy for the entire world. In this the soil does not differ much from wind and sunshine. Geothermal alternative energy is still in its infancy "The pinch is in the actual winning of the energy," says Limberger. How this can be done with geothermal heat, also known as geothermal energy, he describes in the study with which he is currently awarded a PhD at the University of Utrecht (the Netherlands). The deeper the heat is hidden, the higher the costs. The best opportunities are there in countries with active, preferably volcanic soil. The Geysirs of the Haukadalur Geothermal Area (Geysir Strokkur) - Island/ Iceland {youtube} Iceland therefore counts as the Mecca of geothermal energy. Nearly all households are already warming themselves with soil energy, says Limberger, who made a study trip with knowledge institute TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research). The Italian volcano region of Tuscany also belongs to the top scouts with geothermics. "Turkey is the rising star with geothermal energy," says Limberger. Just like the border area between France and Germany, because there are fault lines that are favorable for soil energy. Geothermal area Toscana (Italy) The PhD research of Limberger contains nice prospects for the Netherlands. Based on his calculations, the geologist estimates that the Netherlands is ideally suited for geothermal energy. "We are in a favorable delta." There seems to be heat in the soil, about 100 degrees Celsius at three kilometers depth. Also important: the Netherlands is densely populated. The costs of transporting geothermal energy to homes, horticultural greenhouses and offices are therefore relatively low. Geothermal area Pamukkale (Turkey) There are already heat networks in various places in the Netherlands. They are still getting heat from polluting factories. Geothermal energy can replace this. The Netherlands also benefits from all previous drilling for natural gas. "There is extraordinary knowledge of the subsurface," says Limberger. Other European countries have less soil information, or only strict secrecy. Dutch companies can easily request it. The first geothermal heat projects are already in the Netherlands. Furthermore, 48 companies now have permission to search for heat. They have an official search license for that. It always remains to be seen whether there really is a source of heat where you expect. The earthquake-ridden Groningen wants geothermal energy instead of natural gas The government also provides a guarantee for mis-drilling. "A good thing," says Limberger. According to him, teething problems occur with every new technique. A bankruptcy, as happened with the pioneering compagny ‘Aardwarmte’ Den Haag, is, according to Limberger, no reason to lose faith in geothermal energy. The costs must be reduced. That will happen, predicts the PhD student, through experience and better technology. Geothermal energy is still expensive in Europe, but in 2030 and 2050 it looks bright. It was scaring, but not baffling that oil and gas were coming up at the very first drillings. Technically speaking, a heat drilling appears to be a gas drilling. The earthquake-ridden Groningen wants geothermal energy instead of natural gas. Solar panels  and  wind turbines PhD student Limberger thinks that geothermal energy can be a wonderful addition to clean energy from solar panels and wind turbines. The sun only shines during the day, especially in the summer. The wind does not always blow. "That is the nice thing about geothermal heat: you can use it 24 hours a day." Bottom water where the heat has been extracted goes back into the soil, where it can warm up again. Geothermal power plant graphic Those who drill deeper than four kilometers officially do 'ultra-deep geothermal energy'. That is more expensive than a normal bore, which also costs a few million euros. The yield is higher. The rule of thumb for Dutch soil is: with every kilometer the temperature rises by 30 degrees Celsius. Ultradiep is the heat source about 130 to 250 degrees Celsius. That is so hot that you can do more with it than just heat heat a greenhouse or house . "You can also make electricity from ultra-deep heat," says Limberger. The heat can make a generator run, which produces power. It is therefore conceivable that clean electricity from the socket will not only come from the wind or the sun in the future, but deep from the bottom. Technically it is possible, says the geologist. And maybe it does not take a long time. It seems to Limberger something, to use such a current at home. Now it becomes even more technical, but perhaps even more interesting. What is also possible is to convert the energy the other way around. So: from electricity from the energy grid to heat. Then you can convert wind and solar energy into heat. "So you can keep it in the groundwater and pump it up if necessary," says Limberger. There is still a lot of energy loss. There are more technical hooks and eyes that might be solved. The energy sector would jump a hole in the air. Green electricity is still difficult to store. In the summer, the Netherlands produces the most solar power, while the demand for energy in the winter is high. Companies build large batteries to store energy. But, says the PhD student, perhaps the very best, natural buffer vessel for energy is now under our feet. By: Frank Strave https://www.whatsorb.com/category/energy
Europe can score with geothermal energy, says geologist Jon Limberger. Recently he got awarded a PhD in Utrecht (the Netherlands) for a study on this subject. Good news. Alternative energy, can we exchange gas for geothermal energy? The wind, you feel when you have to struggle against it on the bike. The sun glows on the skin in the summer. Logically, therefore, windmills and solar panels appear all over the world. The forces of nature report themselves, as an inexhaustible clean source of energy. They replace dirty coal, oil and natural gas. "What fascinates me," says geologist Jon Limberger (31), "is that there is still another great renewable energy source." It's under our feet, miles in the bottom. Heat, stored in water reservoirs. Even if companies would only pump a fraction of it up, the PhD student discovered that this would provide enough energy for the entire world. In this the soil does not differ much from wind and sunshine. Geothermal alternative energy is still in its infancy "The pinch is in the actual winning of the energy," says Limberger. How this can be done with geothermal heat, also known as geothermal energy, he describes in the study with which he is currently awarded a PhD at the University of Utrecht (the Netherlands). The deeper the heat is hidden, the higher the costs. The best opportunities are there in countries with active, preferably volcanic soil. The Geysirs of the Haukadalur Geothermal Area (Geysir Strokkur) - Island/ Iceland {youtube} Iceland therefore counts as the Mecca of geothermal energy. Nearly all households are already warming themselves with soil energy, says Limberger, who made a study trip with knowledge institute TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research). The Italian volcano region of Tuscany also belongs to the top scouts with geothermics. "Turkey is the rising star with geothermal energy," says Limberger. Just like the border area between France and Germany, because there are fault lines that are favorable for soil energy. Geothermal area Toscana (Italy) The PhD research of Limberger contains nice prospects for the Netherlands. Based on his calculations, the geologist estimates that the Netherlands is ideally suited for geothermal energy. "We are in a favorable delta." There seems to be heat in the soil, about 100 degrees Celsius at three kilometers depth. Also important: the Netherlands is densely populated. The costs of transporting geothermal energy to homes, horticultural greenhouses and offices are therefore relatively low. Geothermal area Pamukkale (Turkey) There are already heat networks in various places in the Netherlands. They are still getting heat from polluting factories. Geothermal energy can replace this. The Netherlands also benefits from all previous drilling for natural gas. "There is extraordinary knowledge of the subsurface," says Limberger. Other European countries have less soil information, or only strict secrecy. Dutch companies can easily request it. The first geothermal heat projects are already in the Netherlands. Furthermore, 48 companies now have permission to search for heat. They have an official search license for that. It always remains to be seen whether there really is a source of heat where you expect. The earthquake-ridden Groningen wants geothermal energy instead of natural gas The government also provides a guarantee for mis-drilling. "A good thing," says Limberger. According to him, teething problems occur with every new technique. A bankruptcy, as happened with the pioneering compagny ‘Aardwarmte’ Den Haag, is, according to Limberger, no reason to lose faith in geothermal energy. The costs must be reduced. That will happen, predicts the PhD student, through experience and better technology. Geothermal energy is still expensive in Europe, but in 2030 and 2050 it looks bright. It was scaring, but not baffling that oil and gas were coming up at the very first drillings. Technically speaking, a heat drilling appears to be a gas drilling. The earthquake-ridden Groningen wants geothermal energy instead of natural gas. Solar panels  and  wind turbines PhD student Limberger thinks that geothermal energy can be a wonderful addition to clean energy from solar panels and wind turbines. The sun only shines during the day, especially in the summer. The wind does not always blow. "That is the nice thing about geothermal heat: you can use it 24 hours a day." Bottom water where the heat has been extracted goes back into the soil, where it can warm up again. Geothermal power plant graphic Those who drill deeper than four kilometers officially do 'ultra-deep geothermal energy'. That is more expensive than a normal bore, which also costs a few million euros. The yield is higher. The rule of thumb for Dutch soil is: with every kilometer the temperature rises by 30 degrees Celsius. Ultradiep is the heat source about 130 to 250 degrees Celsius. That is so hot that you can do more with it than just heat heat a greenhouse or house . "You can also make electricity from ultra-deep heat," says Limberger. The heat can make a generator run, which produces power. It is therefore conceivable that clean electricity from the socket will not only come from the wind or the sun in the future, but deep from the bottom. Technically it is possible, says the geologist. And maybe it does not take a long time. It seems to Limberger something, to use such a current at home. Now it becomes even more technical, but perhaps even more interesting. What is also possible is to convert the energy the other way around. So: from electricity from the energy grid to heat. Then you can convert wind and solar energy into heat. "So you can keep it in the groundwater and pump it up if necessary," says Limberger. There is still a lot of energy loss. There are more technical hooks and eyes that might be solved. The energy sector would jump a hole in the air. Green electricity is still difficult to store. In the summer, the Netherlands produces the most solar power, while the demand for energy in the winter is high. Companies build large batteries to store energy. But, says the PhD student, perhaps the very best, natural buffer vessel for energy is now under our feet. By: Frank Strave https://www.whatsorb.com/category/energy
The Earth As An Inexhaustible Clean Geothermal Energy Source
The Earth As An Inexhaustible Clean Geothermal Energy Source
Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025
Biofuel is currently one of the solutions for saving CO2 emissions. But did you know that we can extract fuel from algae now? Algae biofuel is new on the market, and there are already a lot of investors directing millions of dollars into dozens of startups. One of those companies, supported by genomics pioneer Craig Venter, says it is on schedule to produce 10,000 barrels of biofuel a day by 2025.  The biofuel generations Algae-based biofuel is considered to be a third-generation biofuel. What are the biofuels in the first and second generation? First-generation biofuels are based on sugars, starch, vegetable oil or animal fats. These biofuels are usually food crops used as fuel, for example, corn, soy, sugar cane, oil palm. The second-generation biofuels are not related to food, but plants. They are produced as energy crops, for example, willows, straws, wood chips, and residual waste. And now the third-generation makes an appearance: biofuel extracted from algae. The benefits of algae biofuel Like mentioned above, algae biofuel is known as the third-generation biofuel, it can grow in salty water, unlike feedstocks like soy, corn and cane. Algae grows in water, and therefore, they do not need extra water like other plants do. So, algae do not compete with feedstocks or other use of plants for the need for water and arable land. Algae is not something we eat all the time, it does not fit in our daily diet, so the use of algae as a biofuel does not directly lead to food shortage. Another advantage of algae is that it grows throughout the year and not only in a specific season such as wheat and corn. Why the target of 10,000 barrels of biofuel a day by 2025? Synthetic Genome Inc. (SGI) is a biotech firm formed by, among others, Craig Venter. The company's target for 2025 is based on a breakthrough in Research and Development (R&D), where genetically modified algae is changed to encourage single-cell organisms to continue to produce fat without stopping their growth. SGI did an investigation into the genome and metabolism of the marine algae Nannochloropsis gaditana and published it in the journal from Natura Biotechnology. The researchers revealed a group of genes responsible for regulating oil production. By fine-tuning one of these genes with the powerful CRISPR editing tool, the team eventually doubled the amount of oil that the algae produced without significantly interfering with their growth. This breakthrough provided a glimpse of a scalable algae biofuel. What will the future bring us? The company is looking for outdoor ponds to grow the algae. So wherever salty water is available, and the water is consistently warm, algae can evolve. The developers are also looking at algae vats as a possible solution to CO2 emissions. The problem of increasing oil production has been solved, and making petrochemical products, ranging from fertilizers to plastics, should be relatively simple by then. One of the other founders of SGI, Juan Enriquez, sees a great future for algae, “you can make vaccines out of this substance, you can make medicines out of the substance, and you can make food out of this substance”. Biocrude oil to power vehicles, ships and even jets Engineers at the University of Utah have developed a way to change algae to biocrude. They created a new kind of 'jet mixer' which can turn algae into biomass, that extracts the fats with way less energy than the former extraction method. This way will also be less expensive than other alternatives. The research team is optimistic that their discovery of biomass itself will become a feasible, cost-effective alternative fuel . Biofuel experts and other (scientific) experts have sought a more economical way to turn algae into biocrude oil to power ships, vehicles and even jets. And now there might be a solution with the development of the "jet mixer". What changed? In a pond, lake or river, there are so-called lipids. These lipids are fatty acid molecules which contain oil. The oil can be extracted to use for power Diesel engines. The extraction of the lipids is called biocrude. That is why microalgae is an exciting form of biomass because it can be used as a sustainable fuel source. So far there has been one big problem: the use of algae for biomass, because it took a lot of energy to pull the lipids, the fat, from the algae. With the development of the 'jet mixer', things could change rapidly. It requires a lot of energy to extract the water from the plants at the start of the process, which was not practical, efficient or economical at all to turn algae into biofuel. A lot of people have researched new methods, but now there is a real chance to extract biofuel from algae with this new mixing extractor. The 'jet mixer' shoots streams of solvent at algae streams, so there will be some turbulence and the lipids "jump" into the flow of solvent. The solvent is letting go and can be recycled and can be used again in the process.   Is there more? Well, there could be more. This new technology could be used for other microorganisms as well, such as fungi, bacteria or any other microbial-derived oil. Soon, we could be using these third-generation biofuels to provide for our needs. By growing algae in such a large quantity (in ponds, raceways, bioreactors), it could have a positive effect at the atmosphere as well, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (Co2) in the air . Is this the revolution we are all waiting for?  https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/energy/general   Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Biofuel is currently one of the solutions for saving CO2 emissions. But did you know that we can extract fuel from algae now? Algae biofuel is new on the market, and there are already a lot of investors directing millions of dollars into dozens of startups. One of those companies, supported by genomics pioneer Craig Venter, says it is on schedule to produce 10,000 barrels of biofuel a day by 2025.  The biofuel generations Algae-based biofuel is considered to be a third-generation biofuel. What are the biofuels in the first and second generation? First-generation biofuels are based on sugars, starch, vegetable oil or animal fats. These biofuels are usually food crops used as fuel, for example, corn, soy, sugar cane, oil palm. The second-generation biofuels are not related to food, but plants. They are produced as energy crops, for example, willows, straws, wood chips, and residual waste. And now the third-generation makes an appearance: biofuel extracted from algae. The benefits of algae biofuel Like mentioned above, algae biofuel is known as the third-generation biofuel, it can grow in salty water, unlike feedstocks like soy, corn and cane. Algae grows in water, and therefore, they do not need extra water like other plants do. So, algae do not compete with feedstocks or other use of plants for the need for water and arable land. Algae is not something we eat all the time, it does not fit in our daily diet, so the use of algae as a biofuel does not directly lead to food shortage. Another advantage of algae is that it grows throughout the year and not only in a specific season such as wheat and corn. Why the target of 10,000 barrels of biofuel a day by 2025? Synthetic Genome Inc. (SGI) is a biotech firm formed by, among others, Craig Venter. The company's target for 2025 is based on a breakthrough in Research and Development (R&D), where genetically modified algae is changed to encourage single-cell organisms to continue to produce fat without stopping their growth. SGI did an investigation into the genome and metabolism of the marine algae Nannochloropsis gaditana and published it in the journal from Natura Biotechnology. The researchers revealed a group of genes responsible for regulating oil production. By fine-tuning one of these genes with the powerful CRISPR editing tool, the team eventually doubled the amount of oil that the algae produced without significantly interfering with their growth. This breakthrough provided a glimpse of a scalable algae biofuel. What will the future bring us? The company is looking for outdoor ponds to grow the algae. So wherever salty water is available, and the water is consistently warm, algae can evolve. The developers are also looking at algae vats as a possible solution to CO2 emissions. The problem of increasing oil production has been solved, and making petrochemical products, ranging from fertilizers to plastics, should be relatively simple by then. One of the other founders of SGI, Juan Enriquez, sees a great future for algae, “you can make vaccines out of this substance, you can make medicines out of the substance, and you can make food out of this substance”. Biocrude oil to power vehicles, ships and even jets Engineers at the University of Utah have developed a way to change algae to biocrude. They created a new kind of 'jet mixer' which can turn algae into biomass, that extracts the fats with way less energy than the former extraction method. This way will also be less expensive than other alternatives. The research team is optimistic that their discovery of biomass itself will become a feasible, cost-effective alternative fuel . Biofuel experts and other (scientific) experts have sought a more economical way to turn algae into biocrude oil to power ships, vehicles and even jets. And now there might be a solution with the development of the "jet mixer". What changed? In a pond, lake or river, there are so-called lipids. These lipids are fatty acid molecules which contain oil. The oil can be extracted to use for power Diesel engines. The extraction of the lipids is called biocrude. That is why microalgae is an exciting form of biomass because it can be used as a sustainable fuel source. So far there has been one big problem: the use of algae for biomass, because it took a lot of energy to pull the lipids, the fat, from the algae. With the development of the 'jet mixer', things could change rapidly. It requires a lot of energy to extract the water from the plants at the start of the process, which was not practical, efficient or economical at all to turn algae into biofuel. A lot of people have researched new methods, but now there is a real chance to extract biofuel from algae with this new mixing extractor. The 'jet mixer' shoots streams of solvent at algae streams, so there will be some turbulence and the lipids "jump" into the flow of solvent. The solvent is letting go and can be recycled and can be used again in the process.   Is there more? Well, there could be more. This new technology could be used for other microorganisms as well, such as fungi, bacteria or any other microbial-derived oil. Soon, we could be using these third-generation biofuels to provide for our needs. By growing algae in such a large quantity (in ponds, raceways, bioreactors), it could have a positive effect at the atmosphere as well, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (Co2) in the air . Is this the revolution we are all waiting for?  https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/energy/general   Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025
Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025
Energy

Fossil fuels are non-renewable, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, the many types of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy are constantly replenished and will never run out.
Wind turbines and solar panels are an increasingly common sight. But why? What are the benefits of renewable energies and how do they improve our health, environment, and economy?

The WhatsOrb category ‘Energy’ explores and shows the many positive impacts of clean energy, including the benefits of windsolar and geothermal. Next to it critical articles about nuclear and unknown energy sources.

If there was an urge to come up with renewable energy forms and to ​​change energy use, it is now! WhatsOrb Global Sustainability X-change Platform is for you, storytellers and influencers to write about these topics and share them with the world. How you minimalize your energy consumption, the solar panels you choose and how did you isolate your house. In a nutshell; how to change your and other people’s lifestyle.

Global sustainability X change, that is what you can do together with WhatsOrb. What's in it for me?

Get updates on environmental sustainability in your mailbox every month.