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Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How?
South Korea wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022. South Korea is vying to win the race to create the first hydrogen-powered society. It wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022 as it positions itself as a leader in the green technology. Hydrogen Cities: Living, Transportation The plan will see the cities use hydrogen as the fuel for cooling, heating, electricity and transportation. Consultation on where the three cities will be located is under way. The test cities will use a hydrogen-powered transportation system, including buses and personal cars. Hydrogen charging stations will be available in bus stations and parking spaces. The strategy is part of a wider vision to power 10% of the country’s cities, counties and towns by hydrogen by 2030, growing to 30% by 2040. This includes drastic increases in the numbers of hydrogen-powered vehicles and charging points in the next three years. The government has earmarked money to subsidize these vehicles and charging infrastructure. Recommended:  Green Hydrogen Economy: The Enormous Potential Worldwide South Korea’s Hydrogen Roadmap’s Goals The goal of Korea’s hydrogen roadmap is essentially to make the country the world’s largest producer of fuel cells globally by 2030. By 2040, Korea aims to be producing over six million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. And it wants 40,000 hydrogen-powered buses, 80,000 hydrogen taxis and 30,000 hydrogen trucks on its roads all powered by 1,200 hydrogen refuelling stations. On the stationary power side, the country wants to build on its lead in fuel cells for utility power generation, while also placing increased focus on fuel cells for residential and commercial use here. By 20 years’ time, South Korea wants to be producing 15GW of fuel cells for its domestic and export markets. And this does not just look like wishful thinking, as it’s being backed by some serious investment. Next year alone, the Korean government will invest almost half a billion dollars in the hydrogen economy of which will be spent on fuel cell vehicles and refuelling stations. That’s a ten-fold increase on its 2018 spending and represents only the public sector side. Hyundai and its suppliers alone plan to invest an additional USD $6.5 billion by 2030.  How to produce hydrogen? Natural Gas Reforming/Gasification: Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for the majority of hydrogen produced in the United States annually A synthesis gas can also be created by reacting coal or biomass with high-temperature steam and oxygen in a pressurized gasifier, which is converted into gaseous components—a process called gasification. The resulting synthesis gas contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is reacted with steam to separate the hydrogen Electrolysis: An electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity is produced by renewable sources, such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen will be considered renewable as well, and has numerous emissions benefits. Power-to-hydrogen projects are taking off, where excess renewable electricity, when it's available, is used to make hydrogen through electrolysis Renewable Liquid Reforming: Renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol, are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end use Fermentation: Biomass is converted into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be fermented to produce hydrogen A number of hydrogen production methods are in development: High-Temperature Water Splitting: High temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen Photobiological Water Splitting: Microbes, such as green algae, consume water in the presence of sunlight, producing hydrogen as a byproduct Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Photoelectrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight.                                                    South Korea build 3 hydrogen-powered cities in Future                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? Hydrogen, The Fuel Of The Future Countries including Germany, Japan and China are also looking to a future hydrogen society, with a number of Asian car manufacturers including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda sinking resources into creating a range of hydrogen-powered cars. Recommended:  Green Sustainable Hydrogen By Hyundai, Toyota And Honda With fuel cell vehicles – or FCVs – generally offering greater range and faster refuelling times than electric vehicles, there is great hope that they will accelerate the transition to cleaner vehicles. But challenges remain with the technology. Although some FCVs are now on the market, for many the cost remains prohibitive and they have some way to go before they become mainstream. The output from hydrogen-powered cars is certainly clean – they only produce water as a by-product – at the moment they are not necessarily as clean as they may first seem. Producing the hydrogen itself from renewable energy sources like wind and solar is still a challenge. Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa Hydrogen, Alternative Energy In The World Moving to clean energy is key to combatting climate change, yet in the past five years, the energy transition has stagnated. Energy consumption and production contribute to two-thirds of global emissions, and 81% of the global energy system is still based on fossil fuels, the same percentage as 30 years ago. Is hydrogen better than fossil fuels? Hydrogen fuel is very efficient. More energy is extracted from this fuel source than with conventional power technologies. Fossil fuels have a high combustion rate and are capable of releasing tremendous amount of energy. Recommended:  Fossil Fuel Will Dominate Energy Use Through 2050: Globally Effective policies, private-sector action and public-private cooperation are needed to create a more inclusive, sustainable, affordable and secure global energy system. Benchmarking progress is essential to a successful transition. The World Economic Forum’s Energy Transition Index, which ranks 115 economies on how well they balance energy security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability, shows that the biggest challenge facing energy transition is the lack of readiness among the world’s largest emitters, including US, China, India and Russia. Recommended:  Zero Emission Day: No Fossil Fuel Transport Worldwide The 10 countries that score the highest in terms of readiness account for only 2.6% of global annual emissions. To future-proof the global energy system, the Forum’s Shaping the Future of Energy initiative is working with projects including the Partnering for Sustainable Energy Innovation, the Future of Electricity, the Global Battery Alliance and Scaling Renewable Energy to encourage and enable innovative energy investments, technologies and solutions. Hydrogen-Powered Cities: What About Safety? How dangerous is hydrogen? When liquid hydrogen is stored in tanks, it's relatively safe, but if it escapes there are associated hazards. Topping the list of concerns is hydrogen burns. In the presence of an oxidizer - oxygen is a good one - hydrogen can catch fire, sometimes explosively, and it burns more easily than gasoline does. The other major caveat is hydrogen’s explosive nature, which is still causing safety concerns. Earlier this year (2019) an explosion of a hydrogen storage tank at one of South Korea’s government research projects killed two people and injured others. Storage of the gas requires a lot of infrastructure, and despite government incentives to support development, until hydrogen becomes more widespread private investors can still struggle to turn a profit. Recommended:  Hydrogen Energy Storage Revolution In The Netherlands Fortunate a research team at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea, has invented a high-performance and cost-effective hydrogen sensor. Hydrogen gas is widely considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy resources. It is also an important material for various industrial applications, such as hydrogen-cooled systems, petroleum refinement and metallurgical processes. However, hydrogen, which is highly flammable, is colourless and odourless and thus difficult to detect with human senses. Therefore, developing hydrogen gas sensors with high sensitivity, fast response, high selectivity and good stability is important for the growing hydrogen economy. Hydrogen sensor In the present study, a team of scientists led by Professors Park In-gyu and Jung Yeon-Sik from KAIST successfully fabricated a nanostructured high-performance hydrogen gas sensor. Their sensor achieved dramatically greater hydrogen gas sensitivity compared with a silicon thin film sensor without nanopatterns. The sensor device shows a fast hydrogen response (response time less than five seconds) and ten times higher selectivity for hydrogen gas than other gases. They also demonstrated that the sensor was stable and produced reliable responses in both dry and high-humidity ambient environments. Is hydrogen dangerous to breathe? Inhalation: High concentrations of this gas can cause an oxygen-deficient environment. Individuals breathing such an atmosphere may experience symptoms which include headaches, ringing in ears, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and depression of all the senses. Hydrogen-Powered Economy South Korea underlines a great determination to shift large swathes of its economy to hydrogen energy by 2040 from power and heat generation to passenger and freight transport. This is bringing huge opportunities for western firms, particularly in the upstream hydrogen technologies Korean companies need to complement their strength in fuel cells. Recommended:  H ydrogen Car Is Extremely Fuel Efficient: 5.000 Km One Liter South Korea Bets Big On Hydrogen: Why? Korea hopes that, by becoming a leader in hydrogen energy, it can improve its terrible air quality, meet its bold emission reduction targets, strengthen its energy security and create the jobs and export industries of the future. There’s now ferocious opposition to coal in Korea due to its effect on air quality, and to nuclear power on account of safety concerns. While more solar and wind power is coming online here, few believe these will ever be adequate, reliable energy sources for the country’s dense population centres or its energy-intensive manufacturing base.  Recommended: Renewables In Danger! Solar And Wind Energy: Start Digging At the same time, Korea is now able to import large quantities of cheap natural gas from the US. As most of the hydrogen used in energy production is ‘still’ reformed from natural gas, a hydrogen economy potentially allows the country to reduce its dependence on oil from the Middle East and geopolitical chokepoints such as the Straits of Hormuz and Straits of Malacca. So, if the country is able to roll out a safe infrastructure and drive the necessary technologies down the cost curve, hydrogen fuel cells hold the promise of reliable, large-scale distributed power on a small footprint. And, if Korea can crack that nut, the global export potential for its fuel cells could be huge. South Korea’s Current Situation On Hydrogen South Korea already has strong incentives that encourage the uptake of fuel cells, such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard, mandatory renewable energy in public buildings and subsidies for fuel cell vehicles. The new hydrogen roadmap builds on these measures.                                          Hydrogen Fuel Cells Overview - 1 (HYDROGEN FUEL CELL DRONE)                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? In terms of the primary players, Doosan dominates the stationary fuel cell market here with three technologies. The latest of these - an SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) product. Doosan’s PAFC (phosphoric acid fuel cell) product is the first viable utility-scale fuel cell in the Korean market albeit still supported by state subsidies. Doosan’s PAFC division topped USD $1 billion in 2018, with most coming from the domestic market. The company has now modified its product so it’s able to run directly on hydrogen (rather than natural gas) and recently won a contract for the largest such fuel cell installation in the world. What is a fuel cell? A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (often hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Doosan employee Ben Yoon with an individual cell stack. Four stacks are combined in a fuel cell unit Doosan also became the first company in the world to commercialise hydrogen-powered drones when it launched its DS30 drone system this month. The drone is able to stay airborne for two hours and is aimed primarily at global infrastructure and logistics markets. Hydrogen Transport: What About Fuel Cell Cars? What are types of fuel cells? Types of Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Alkaline fuel cells Phosphoric acid fuel cells Molten carbonate fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cells Reversible fuel cells Korea’s Hyundai, meanwhile, leads the global pack in fuel cell cars, alongside Japan’s Toyota.  Recommended:  Hydrogen Transport Wins It From The Electric Battery Car Hyundai wants to drive the uptake of fuel cells on a worldwide scale and recently announced it will sell its PEM (proton-exchange membrane) fuel cell drive system to other OEMs. This month, the company also signed an MOU with American engine manufacturer Cummins, aiming to replace diesel trucks with fuel cell trucks in the US commercial vehicle market. So, Doosan and Hyundai dominate in Korea, but there are plenty of other strong local players here, too.                                            Hyundai Hydrogen Powered Autonomous Self Driving Semi Truck                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? International entrants are also looking to exploit the market and signing licensing or distribution agreements with well-placed Korean firms. US firm Bloom Energy, for example, signed a distribution agreement with SK D&D this year and, just this month, announced a collaboration with Samsung Heavy Industries to develop fuel cell-powered cargo ships.  Recommended: Solar, Hydrogen And Wind Power Makes The Current Sail Cargo Ship South Korea’s Hydrogen: Emerging Opportunities Hydrogen storage, distribution and production, though currently a developed area, represent significant potential for heavy industrial companies to capture new business opportunities. What they need to do is to move away from the status quo: Steel and petrochemical companies. Upgrade their existing facilities to produce more hydrogen for future use Shipbuilders. New business from liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and build hydrogen powered vessels to replace diesel vessels in the future Gasoline companies. Leverage the existing storage and distribution network to tap into the hydrogen fuelling station infrastructure development. On balance, there is a strong incentive for these industrial players to participate in the hydrogen infrastructure investments, given the potential to generate sustainable earnings. Hydrogen: The Dawn Of The Shifting Trend That said, there must be systematic research and development, together with a clear governmental policy framework and funding mechanisms to incentivise private companies to participate. State-funded think tank H2Korea was set up to bridge the gap between the government and private sectors on hydrogen technologies. In addition, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) has earmarked an investment outlay of USD2.23 billion for a joint venture with private sector companies to speed up the development of the hydrogen infrastructure. Such partnerships between government and business are powerful because they increase the amount of funding and result in better vetting of the projects, thereby yielding greater economic benefits. In view of this, the outlook for Korea’s hydrogen industry and the associated responsible investment opportunities should remain positive. Only asset managers who can understand the implications of this shifting trend and identify emerging leaders within this space can fully tap into the potential of South Korea’s emerging hydrogen industry. Before you go! Recommended:  Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
South Korea wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022. South Korea is vying to win the race to create the first hydrogen-powered society. It wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022 as it positions itself as a leader in the green technology. Hydrogen Cities: Living, Transportation The plan will see the cities use hydrogen as the fuel for cooling, heating, electricity and transportation. Consultation on where the three cities will be located is under way. The test cities will use a hydrogen-powered transportation system, including buses and personal cars. Hydrogen charging stations will be available in bus stations and parking spaces. The strategy is part of a wider vision to power 10% of the country’s cities, counties and towns by hydrogen by 2030, growing to 30% by 2040. This includes drastic increases in the numbers of hydrogen-powered vehicles and charging points in the next three years. The government has earmarked money to subsidize these vehicles and charging infrastructure. Recommended:  Green Hydrogen Economy: The Enormous Potential Worldwide South Korea’s Hydrogen Roadmap’s Goals The goal of Korea’s hydrogen roadmap is essentially to make the country the world’s largest producer of fuel cells globally by 2030. By 2040, Korea aims to be producing over six million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. And it wants 40,000 hydrogen-powered buses, 80,000 hydrogen taxis and 30,000 hydrogen trucks on its roads all powered by 1,200 hydrogen refuelling stations. On the stationary power side, the country wants to build on its lead in fuel cells for utility power generation, while also placing increased focus on fuel cells for residential and commercial use here. By 20 years’ time, South Korea wants to be producing 15GW of fuel cells for its domestic and export markets. And this does not just look like wishful thinking, as it’s being backed by some serious investment. Next year alone, the Korean government will invest almost half a billion dollars in the hydrogen economy of which will be spent on fuel cell vehicles and refuelling stations. That’s a ten-fold increase on its 2018 spending and represents only the public sector side. Hyundai and its suppliers alone plan to invest an additional USD $6.5 billion by 2030.  How to produce hydrogen? Natural Gas Reforming/Gasification: Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for the majority of hydrogen produced in the United States annually A synthesis gas can also be created by reacting coal or biomass with high-temperature steam and oxygen in a pressurized gasifier, which is converted into gaseous components—a process called gasification. The resulting synthesis gas contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is reacted with steam to separate the hydrogen Electrolysis: An electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity is produced by renewable sources, such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen will be considered renewable as well, and has numerous emissions benefits. Power-to-hydrogen projects are taking off, where excess renewable electricity, when it's available, is used to make hydrogen through electrolysis Renewable Liquid Reforming: Renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol, are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end use Fermentation: Biomass is converted into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be fermented to produce hydrogen A number of hydrogen production methods are in development: High-Temperature Water Splitting: High temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen Photobiological Water Splitting: Microbes, such as green algae, consume water in the presence of sunlight, producing hydrogen as a byproduct Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Photoelectrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight.                                                    South Korea build 3 hydrogen-powered cities in Future                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? Hydrogen, The Fuel Of The Future Countries including Germany, Japan and China are also looking to a future hydrogen society, with a number of Asian car manufacturers including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda sinking resources into creating a range of hydrogen-powered cars. Recommended:  Green Sustainable Hydrogen By Hyundai, Toyota And Honda With fuel cell vehicles – or FCVs – generally offering greater range and faster refuelling times than electric vehicles, there is great hope that they will accelerate the transition to cleaner vehicles. But challenges remain with the technology. Although some FCVs are now on the market, for many the cost remains prohibitive and they have some way to go before they become mainstream. The output from hydrogen-powered cars is certainly clean – they only produce water as a by-product – at the moment they are not necessarily as clean as they may first seem. Producing the hydrogen itself from renewable energy sources like wind and solar is still a challenge. Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa Hydrogen, Alternative Energy In The World Moving to clean energy is key to combatting climate change, yet in the past five years, the energy transition has stagnated. Energy consumption and production contribute to two-thirds of global emissions, and 81% of the global energy system is still based on fossil fuels, the same percentage as 30 years ago. Is hydrogen better than fossil fuels? Hydrogen fuel is very efficient. More energy is extracted from this fuel source than with conventional power technologies. Fossil fuels have a high combustion rate and are capable of releasing tremendous amount of energy. Recommended:  Fossil Fuel Will Dominate Energy Use Through 2050: Globally Effective policies, private-sector action and public-private cooperation are needed to create a more inclusive, sustainable, affordable and secure global energy system. Benchmarking progress is essential to a successful transition. The World Economic Forum’s Energy Transition Index, which ranks 115 economies on how well they balance energy security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability, shows that the biggest challenge facing energy transition is the lack of readiness among the world’s largest emitters, including US, China, India and Russia. Recommended:  Zero Emission Day: No Fossil Fuel Transport Worldwide The 10 countries that score the highest in terms of readiness account for only 2.6% of global annual emissions. To future-proof the global energy system, the Forum’s Shaping the Future of Energy initiative is working with projects including the Partnering for Sustainable Energy Innovation, the Future of Electricity, the Global Battery Alliance and Scaling Renewable Energy to encourage and enable innovative energy investments, technologies and solutions. Hydrogen-Powered Cities: What About Safety? How dangerous is hydrogen? When liquid hydrogen is stored in tanks, it's relatively safe, but if it escapes there are associated hazards. Topping the list of concerns is hydrogen burns. In the presence of an oxidizer - oxygen is a good one - hydrogen can catch fire, sometimes explosively, and it burns more easily than gasoline does. The other major caveat is hydrogen’s explosive nature, which is still causing safety concerns. Earlier this year (2019) an explosion of a hydrogen storage tank at one of South Korea’s government research projects killed two people and injured others. Storage of the gas requires a lot of infrastructure, and despite government incentives to support development, until hydrogen becomes more widespread private investors can still struggle to turn a profit. Recommended:  Hydrogen Energy Storage Revolution In The Netherlands Fortunate a research team at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea, has invented a high-performance and cost-effective hydrogen sensor. Hydrogen gas is widely considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy resources. It is also an important material for various industrial applications, such as hydrogen-cooled systems, petroleum refinement and metallurgical processes. However, hydrogen, which is highly flammable, is colourless and odourless and thus difficult to detect with human senses. Therefore, developing hydrogen gas sensors with high sensitivity, fast response, high selectivity and good stability is important for the growing hydrogen economy. Hydrogen sensor In the present study, a team of scientists led by Professors Park In-gyu and Jung Yeon-Sik from KAIST successfully fabricated a nanostructured high-performance hydrogen gas sensor. Their sensor achieved dramatically greater hydrogen gas sensitivity compared with a silicon thin film sensor without nanopatterns. The sensor device shows a fast hydrogen response (response time less than five seconds) and ten times higher selectivity for hydrogen gas than other gases. They also demonstrated that the sensor was stable and produced reliable responses in both dry and high-humidity ambient environments. Is hydrogen dangerous to breathe? Inhalation: High concentrations of this gas can cause an oxygen-deficient environment. Individuals breathing such an atmosphere may experience symptoms which include headaches, ringing in ears, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and depression of all the senses. Hydrogen-Powered Economy South Korea underlines a great determination to shift large swathes of its economy to hydrogen energy by 2040 from power and heat generation to passenger and freight transport. This is bringing huge opportunities for western firms, particularly in the upstream hydrogen technologies Korean companies need to complement their strength in fuel cells. Recommended:  H ydrogen Car Is Extremely Fuel Efficient: 5.000 Km One Liter South Korea Bets Big On Hydrogen: Why? Korea hopes that, by becoming a leader in hydrogen energy, it can improve its terrible air quality, meet its bold emission reduction targets, strengthen its energy security and create the jobs and export industries of the future. There’s now ferocious opposition to coal in Korea due to its effect on air quality, and to nuclear power on account of safety concerns. While more solar and wind power is coming online here, few believe these will ever be adequate, reliable energy sources for the country’s dense population centres or its energy-intensive manufacturing base.  Recommended: Renewables In Danger! Solar And Wind Energy: Start Digging At the same time, Korea is now able to import large quantities of cheap natural gas from the US. As most of the hydrogen used in energy production is ‘still’ reformed from natural gas, a hydrogen economy potentially allows the country to reduce its dependence on oil from the Middle East and geopolitical chokepoints such as the Straits of Hormuz and Straits of Malacca. So, if the country is able to roll out a safe infrastructure and drive the necessary technologies down the cost curve, hydrogen fuel cells hold the promise of reliable, large-scale distributed power on a small footprint. And, if Korea can crack that nut, the global export potential for its fuel cells could be huge. South Korea’s Current Situation On Hydrogen South Korea already has strong incentives that encourage the uptake of fuel cells, such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard, mandatory renewable energy in public buildings and subsidies for fuel cell vehicles. The new hydrogen roadmap builds on these measures.                                          Hydrogen Fuel Cells Overview - 1 (HYDROGEN FUEL CELL DRONE)                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? In terms of the primary players, Doosan dominates the stationary fuel cell market here with three technologies. The latest of these - an SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) product. Doosan’s PAFC (phosphoric acid fuel cell) product is the first viable utility-scale fuel cell in the Korean market albeit still supported by state subsidies. Doosan’s PAFC division topped USD $1 billion in 2018, with most coming from the domestic market. The company has now modified its product so it’s able to run directly on hydrogen (rather than natural gas) and recently won a contract for the largest such fuel cell installation in the world. What is a fuel cell? A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (often hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Doosan employee Ben Yoon with an individual cell stack. Four stacks are combined in a fuel cell unit Doosan also became the first company in the world to commercialise hydrogen-powered drones when it launched its DS30 drone system this month. The drone is able to stay airborne for two hours and is aimed primarily at global infrastructure and logistics markets. Hydrogen Transport: What About Fuel Cell Cars? What are types of fuel cells? Types of Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Alkaline fuel cells Phosphoric acid fuel cells Molten carbonate fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cells Reversible fuel cells Korea’s Hyundai, meanwhile, leads the global pack in fuel cell cars, alongside Japan’s Toyota.  Recommended:  Hydrogen Transport Wins It From The Electric Battery Car Hyundai wants to drive the uptake of fuel cells on a worldwide scale and recently announced it will sell its PEM (proton-exchange membrane) fuel cell drive system to other OEMs. This month, the company also signed an MOU with American engine manufacturer Cummins, aiming to replace diesel trucks with fuel cell trucks in the US commercial vehicle market. So, Doosan and Hyundai dominate in Korea, but there are plenty of other strong local players here, too.                                            Hyundai Hydrogen Powered Autonomous Self Driving Semi Truck                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? International entrants are also looking to exploit the market and signing licensing or distribution agreements with well-placed Korean firms. US firm Bloom Energy, for example, signed a distribution agreement with SK D&D this year and, just this month, announced a collaboration with Samsung Heavy Industries to develop fuel cell-powered cargo ships.  Recommended: Solar, Hydrogen And Wind Power Makes The Current Sail Cargo Ship South Korea’s Hydrogen: Emerging Opportunities Hydrogen storage, distribution and production, though currently a developed area, represent significant potential for heavy industrial companies to capture new business opportunities. What they need to do is to move away from the status quo: Steel and petrochemical companies. Upgrade their existing facilities to produce more hydrogen for future use Shipbuilders. New business from liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and build hydrogen powered vessels to replace diesel vessels in the future Gasoline companies. Leverage the existing storage and distribution network to tap into the hydrogen fuelling station infrastructure development. On balance, there is a strong incentive for these industrial players to participate in the hydrogen infrastructure investments, given the potential to generate sustainable earnings. Hydrogen: The Dawn Of The Shifting Trend That said, there must be systematic research and development, together with a clear governmental policy framework and funding mechanisms to incentivise private companies to participate. State-funded think tank H2Korea was set up to bridge the gap between the government and private sectors on hydrogen technologies. In addition, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) has earmarked an investment outlay of USD2.23 billion for a joint venture with private sector companies to speed up the development of the hydrogen infrastructure. Such partnerships between government and business are powerful because they increase the amount of funding and result in better vetting of the projects, thereby yielding greater economic benefits. In view of this, the outlook for Korea’s hydrogen industry and the associated responsible investment opportunities should remain positive. Only asset managers who can understand the implications of this shifting trend and identify emerging leaders within this space can fully tap into the potential of South Korea’s emerging hydrogen industry. Before you go! Recommended:  Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How?
Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How?
Smart Cities, Safe And Efficient, But Are We Being Watched?
Information from a library, hospital or public transport exposed? More sustainability , improved mobility, efficiency and safety? Where can you find all of the above in one place? The answer is a smart city. Its purpose is to improve the quality of life by making the town more efficient and by reducing the distance between the citizens and the government. In this article you will read more about the smart city and what it means for our privacy.  Improved technologies Technology is moving forward, devices are becoming smarter, so it is inevitable that in the future we will use electronic devices much more than we do now. To keep the city up and running, the existing technologies need to be upgraded. Otherwise, they cannot meet the specifications and demands of the current system. But what do we want? Investigation shows that we wish for smart transportation, where machines and devices communicate with each other. We want smart buildings, where the windows can open automatically, where there is always a connection with the Internet. That is our future. Are we being watched? Cameras are hanging everywhere to guarantee our safety. But do we feel safe by it? We could get the feeling that we are being watched, every step we take is registered by authorities. Besides cameras, all data is collected. This way, authorities know for example the number of visitors at a certain event or they possess information about citizens for commercial purposes. They may sell this information to third parties. Privacy in a smart city Like mentioned before, cameras are everywhere, and data is collected. What does that mean for our privacy? Who is the gatekeeper to our data? And what if the information is hacked? The more internet data there is, the more fragile we become. Fortunately, with the arrival of the GDPR in May 2018, the rules on the subject are becoming more strict. The citizen must be informed in understandable language, especially when it comes to data traffic in a smart city. Costs savings or costs loss? All these new technologies cost money. To upgrade the existing technologies, we (governments, state or country) need to invest vast amounts of money. However, due to these smart cities , there could be economic benefits coming from the transition towards a smart city, for example when it comes to real estate. Buildings have to deal with endless energy, such as heating and cooling installations, lighting, electrical wiring, communication, lifts, electrical appliances, etcetera. A computer-controlled system regulates, monitors and controls all of this. But this can be done by automated systems. Automated systems can be used for this purpose, and therefore energy consumption can be reduced. For example, the light is turned off at a fixed time, or when nobody is present in the room, ventilation can be regulated on the number of people in the room. This can improve air quality, and will lead to user satisfaction. So yes, at first it will cost money, but in the end, it will save a lot as well. Reducing damages in case of a disaster  Smart cities use sensors that are suitable for detecting abnormalities in a town or during an event. In this way, the sensors can inform the authorities if a measurement differs from the limited safety features in a city. This helps the city effectively track everything, and if there is a discrepancy, the authorities are able to act quickly and put an end to the situation so that it does not escalate. Better sustainability in a smart city Smart cities pay extra attention to sustainability, and this is reflected in the fact that they focus on renewable energy sources. ( Also interesting:  Vortex Wind Turbine: Energy Generator Without Blades ) If everyone uses a solar-powered system, carbon emissions will be reduced. We can recycle garbage and use the thrown away materials again. Or we may use free rainwater to flush our toilets. We can also apply durability to traffic by using smart transport. For example, to see where there is congestion and possibly change to a better route. We could also use smart traffic lights. All of this will contribute to a better quality of life. That is the ultimate purpose of a smart city: the best possible living circumstances for everybody, to provide a way of life that is the best combination of technology and comfort. Recommended: all about Smart Cities Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Information from a library, hospital or public transport exposed? More sustainability , improved mobility, efficiency and safety? Where can you find all of the above in one place? The answer is a smart city. Its purpose is to improve the quality of life by making the town more efficient and by reducing the distance between the citizens and the government. In this article you will read more about the smart city and what it means for our privacy.  Improved technologies Technology is moving forward, devices are becoming smarter, so it is inevitable that in the future we will use electronic devices much more than we do now. To keep the city up and running, the existing technologies need to be upgraded. Otherwise, they cannot meet the specifications and demands of the current system. But what do we want? Investigation shows that we wish for smart transportation, where machines and devices communicate with each other. We want smart buildings, where the windows can open automatically, where there is always a connection with the Internet. That is our future. Are we being watched? Cameras are hanging everywhere to guarantee our safety. But do we feel safe by it? We could get the feeling that we are being watched, every step we take is registered by authorities. Besides cameras, all data is collected. This way, authorities know for example the number of visitors at a certain event or they possess information about citizens for commercial purposes. They may sell this information to third parties. Privacy in a smart city Like mentioned before, cameras are everywhere, and data is collected. What does that mean for our privacy? Who is the gatekeeper to our data? And what if the information is hacked? The more internet data there is, the more fragile we become. Fortunately, with the arrival of the GDPR in May 2018, the rules on the subject are becoming more strict. The citizen must be informed in understandable language, especially when it comes to data traffic in a smart city. Costs savings or costs loss? All these new technologies cost money. To upgrade the existing technologies, we (governments, state or country) need to invest vast amounts of money. However, due to these smart cities , there could be economic benefits coming from the transition towards a smart city, for example when it comes to real estate. Buildings have to deal with endless energy, such as heating and cooling installations, lighting, electrical wiring, communication, lifts, electrical appliances, etcetera. A computer-controlled system regulates, monitors and controls all of this. But this can be done by automated systems. Automated systems can be used for this purpose, and therefore energy consumption can be reduced. For example, the light is turned off at a fixed time, or when nobody is present in the room, ventilation can be regulated on the number of people in the room. This can improve air quality, and will lead to user satisfaction. So yes, at first it will cost money, but in the end, it will save a lot as well. Reducing damages in case of a disaster  Smart cities use sensors that are suitable for detecting abnormalities in a town or during an event. In this way, the sensors can inform the authorities if a measurement differs from the limited safety features in a city. This helps the city effectively track everything, and if there is a discrepancy, the authorities are able to act quickly and put an end to the situation so that it does not escalate. Better sustainability in a smart city Smart cities pay extra attention to sustainability, and this is reflected in the fact that they focus on renewable energy sources. ( Also interesting:  Vortex Wind Turbine: Energy Generator Without Blades ) If everyone uses a solar-powered system, carbon emissions will be reduced. We can recycle garbage and use the thrown away materials again. Or we may use free rainwater to flush our toilets. We can also apply durability to traffic by using smart transport. For example, to see where there is congestion and possibly change to a better route. We could also use smart traffic lights. All of this will contribute to a better quality of life. That is the ultimate purpose of a smart city: the best possible living circumstances for everybody, to provide a way of life that is the best combination of technology and comfort. Recommended: all about Smart Cities Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Smart Cities, Safe And Efficient, But Are We Being Watched?
Smart Cities, Safe And Efficient, But Are We Being Watched?
Floating City: A Sci-Fi Trope Or A Salvation For Many Nations?
In 1995, Universal Studios released a movie called 'Waterworld'. It takes place in distant future, where polar ice caps have completely melted and the sea consumed nearly all of the land, forcing remaining humans to live on floating communities. At the time this was the most expensive movie ever made – and it wasn’t exactly a box office hit. But would it be possible to successfully recreate the futuristic communities from the movie in real life? The Seasteading Institute answers this question with a resounding “yes!” Seasteading Institute is a non-profit organisation that was founded in 2008 and their mission is 'to enable seasteading communities – floating cities – which will allow the next generation of pioneers to peacefully test new ideas for government'. They have partnered up with many companies, academics, architects and governments, and they are aiming to build the first prototype off the coast of Tahiti by 2020. Solution to rising sea levels by climate change At first glance, the idea seems very appealing. Rising sea levels and populism are putting pressure on many communities and the founders of Seasteading Institute are hoping to give people a chance to redesign society and experiment with new forms of government. According to Joe Quirk, the current president of the institute, existing governments don’t get better because “land incentivizes a violent monopoly to control it”. Thus, according to him “no land means no problem”, but this isn’t a view that’s shared by everyone. Many experts have criticized the plan, calling it impractical and elitist. Professor Peter Newman from Curtin University described the idea as “apartheid of the worst kind”. He argues that only the wealthy will be able to afford living on these islands and allowing them to set their own rules will only further the divide between the wealthy and the rest of the world. He also doubts that this is something that will be possible to sustain long-term in most places from a societal point of view – after all, healthcare, education and various forms of entertainment are vital to societies, yet hard to deliver in such small, isolated communities. However, Professor Newman did agree that we have the technology to create such eco-friendly, self-sustaining cities. Neil Davies, the executive director of the University of California agrees with him – it is possible to build floating cities that wouldn’t have a negative impact, as long as you respect certain conditions about shading and location. A precedent was set by the Barrier Reef Resort, which was located about 70km(or 43,5 miles) off Queensland coast. It withstood a cyclone and water quality and noise monitoring has shown that it had no significant effect on the surroundings.  Floating cities are a way to solve environmental issues Mr Quirk’s plans are truly ambitious when it comes to making these islands self-sufficient and sustainable. The islands will be built on floating panels that will help regenerate coral reefs and reverse coral bleaching. This will be made possible by positioning them in such a way that a perfect balance of light and shadow will be created to allow for photosynthesis, while at the same time lowering the temperatures enough to achieve restorative effect. In addition to this, the floating panels will have a plethora of solar panels integrated into them to power the islands. ( Also intersting:  Reduce Your Personal Environmental Impact: Tips and Tricks ) Regenerating coral reefs isn’t the only positive impact on the environment Mr Quirk is hoping his seasteads can achieve. The Institute is hoping to harness ocean aquaculture as a way to meet food, energy and nutritional supplement demands. Rutger de Graaf and Karina Czapiewska are aquatic engineers from the Netherlands that have partnered up with the Seasteading Institute to create algae farms. Micro- and macroalgae (better known as plankton and seaweed) have an important role in regulating the earth’s atmosphere, absorbing waste such as oil spills and providing food for fish, as well as being a valuable crop on their own. When seaweed is mass-produced, it can also be converted into biofuel. This way the islands can not only be self-sufficient, but also provide communities on land with more eco-friendly energy and food sources – all while helping create new, complex ecosystems that will be able to sustain thousands of species. ( Also interesting:  Combing Plastic Waste Out Oceans: Competition For Boyan Slat ) {youtube}                                                                               Worlds first floating city Another technology that Mr Quirk is hoping to see implemented in their seasteads are drifter pens made by Velella Mariculture Research Project. These pens will allow to farm fish in conditions that are closest to their natural habitats, but are in fact better. The fish are well-fed, they have no parasites, don’t get exposed to mercury and pesticides, all while being able to school like they would in the wild. This technology is a sustainable food source and it is set to help repopulate oceans with healthier, happier fish. The founder of Velella Mariculture Research Project, Neil Anthony Sims, says “We need to bring together the environmental motive, the humanitarian motive, the profit motive, so they are not at odds with each other, but aligned with each other.” Certainly, these plans sound incredibly ambitious – but if realised, these floating cities can transform many nations and have a positive impact on the environment, economies and societies around the globe. Do you think that Seastead Institute will be able to make these floating communities? Are there similar projects that you think could become more successful? Let us know in the comments below!                              https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/community/smart-cities
In 1995, Universal Studios released a movie called 'Waterworld'. It takes place in distant future, where polar ice caps have completely melted and the sea consumed nearly all of the land, forcing remaining humans to live on floating communities. At the time this was the most expensive movie ever made – and it wasn’t exactly a box office hit. But would it be possible to successfully recreate the futuristic communities from the movie in real life? The Seasteading Institute answers this question with a resounding “yes!” Seasteading Institute is a non-profit organisation that was founded in 2008 and their mission is 'to enable seasteading communities – floating cities – which will allow the next generation of pioneers to peacefully test new ideas for government'. They have partnered up with many companies, academics, architects and governments, and they are aiming to build the first prototype off the coast of Tahiti by 2020. Solution to rising sea levels by climate change At first glance, the idea seems very appealing. Rising sea levels and populism are putting pressure on many communities and the founders of Seasteading Institute are hoping to give people a chance to redesign society and experiment with new forms of government. According to Joe Quirk, the current president of the institute, existing governments don’t get better because “land incentivizes a violent monopoly to control it”. Thus, according to him “no land means no problem”, but this isn’t a view that’s shared by everyone. Many experts have criticized the plan, calling it impractical and elitist. Professor Peter Newman from Curtin University described the idea as “apartheid of the worst kind”. He argues that only the wealthy will be able to afford living on these islands and allowing them to set their own rules will only further the divide between the wealthy and the rest of the world. He also doubts that this is something that will be possible to sustain long-term in most places from a societal point of view – after all, healthcare, education and various forms of entertainment are vital to societies, yet hard to deliver in such small, isolated communities. However, Professor Newman did agree that we have the technology to create such eco-friendly, self-sustaining cities. Neil Davies, the executive director of the University of California agrees with him – it is possible to build floating cities that wouldn’t have a negative impact, as long as you respect certain conditions about shading and location. A precedent was set by the Barrier Reef Resort, which was located about 70km(or 43,5 miles) off Queensland coast. It withstood a cyclone and water quality and noise monitoring has shown that it had no significant effect on the surroundings.  Floating cities are a way to solve environmental issues Mr Quirk’s plans are truly ambitious when it comes to making these islands self-sufficient and sustainable. The islands will be built on floating panels that will help regenerate coral reefs and reverse coral bleaching. This will be made possible by positioning them in such a way that a perfect balance of light and shadow will be created to allow for photosynthesis, while at the same time lowering the temperatures enough to achieve restorative effect. In addition to this, the floating panels will have a plethora of solar panels integrated into them to power the islands. ( Also intersting:  Reduce Your Personal Environmental Impact: Tips and Tricks ) Regenerating coral reefs isn’t the only positive impact on the environment Mr Quirk is hoping his seasteads can achieve. The Institute is hoping to harness ocean aquaculture as a way to meet food, energy and nutritional supplement demands. Rutger de Graaf and Karina Czapiewska are aquatic engineers from the Netherlands that have partnered up with the Seasteading Institute to create algae farms. Micro- and macroalgae (better known as plankton and seaweed) have an important role in regulating the earth’s atmosphere, absorbing waste such as oil spills and providing food for fish, as well as being a valuable crop on their own. When seaweed is mass-produced, it can also be converted into biofuel. This way the islands can not only be self-sufficient, but also provide communities on land with more eco-friendly energy and food sources – all while helping create new, complex ecosystems that will be able to sustain thousands of species. ( Also interesting:  Combing Plastic Waste Out Oceans: Competition For Boyan Slat ) {youtube}                                                                               Worlds first floating city Another technology that Mr Quirk is hoping to see implemented in their seasteads are drifter pens made by Velella Mariculture Research Project. These pens will allow to farm fish in conditions that are closest to their natural habitats, but are in fact better. The fish are well-fed, they have no parasites, don’t get exposed to mercury and pesticides, all while being able to school like they would in the wild. This technology is a sustainable food source and it is set to help repopulate oceans with healthier, happier fish. The founder of Velella Mariculture Research Project, Neil Anthony Sims, says “We need to bring together the environmental motive, the humanitarian motive, the profit motive, so they are not at odds with each other, but aligned with each other.” Certainly, these plans sound incredibly ambitious – but if realised, these floating cities can transform many nations and have a positive impact on the environment, economies and societies around the globe. Do you think that Seastead Institute will be able to make these floating communities? Are there similar projects that you think could become more successful? Let us know in the comments below!                              https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/community/smart-cities
Floating City: A Sci-Fi Trope Or A Salvation For Many Nations?
Floating City: A Sci-Fi Trope Or A Salvation For Many Nations?
Sustainable Architecture 2018: How Does It Feel For You?
These surprisingly innovative construction projects have us looking forward in 2018. The first wooden skyscraper Wooden high-rise: Pendas Timber Tower. Image: Penda Most cities still resemble deserts of concrete and steel. The architects at Penda aim to change all that. Take their Toronto-based Timber Tower, planned together with the consultants at Tmber. Spanning an impressive 18 levels, the entirely wooden structure relies on a high-tech wood blend called CLT and a special, modular construction approach. To achieve the supremely resilient, 62-meter-high result, Penda will stack wood panel boxes in a particular pattern. ( Also interesting:  Sustainable Timber Micro House In Amsterdam: The Netherlands ) Architecture: sustainability is no longer just about materials The finished apartment building will pay proud homage to its roots by resembling a huge tree. The building in Toronto consists entirely of wood. Image: Penda Green hill Sometimes, architects can actually let their imagination roam and realize their wildest dreams. Thomas Heatherwick is one of the lucky few who gets to build his ambitious vision with the 100 Trees Complex in Shanghai. The immense project will not only cover more than 300,000 square meters, but also transcend the mere notion of being just another skyscraper block in the Chinese metropolis. 100 Trees is an entire district with schools, kindergartens, shopping centres, offices, and apartments, brought together in Heatherwick’s nature-inspired, hill-like complex covered in plenty of luscious greenery. Each pillar is topped by a tree, surrounded by more than 400 planted terraces. Liveable landscape – in the heart of Shanghai. Image: Mir Hybrid architecture: Inside/outside For his latest project in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnamese star architect Vo Tronh Nghia decided to turn the planning process upside down: He started with the plants and trees, only turning to the actual living space once the landscaping had been finalized. ( Also interesting:  Eco-friendly Sustainable Megacities Clean By Trees: Globally ) Photo by: Hiroyuki Oki. Vo Tronh Nghia built this house around its trees  As a result, the buildings residences are massively influenced and shaped by nature: Rooms are structured around enclosed gardens; concrete walls double as trellises for climbers. Many roofs leave deliberate gaps for growing trees or incoming daylight, infusing indoor areas with a distinct outdoor feel and appeal. Lots of daylight and lofty rooms.Image: Hiroyuki Oki Innovative exterior Anyone who automatically associates sustainable architecture with natural materials like bamboo is in for a big surprise. Architect Francois Perrin favours an innovative textile woven from aluminium threads. Francois Perrins Air Houses are made of a metallic mesh fabric. Image: Steve Hall For the 2017 Chicago Architecture Biennial, he spun this futuristic fabric into distinctive Air Houses: pyramid-shaped, treehouse-like structures based on a lightweight steel frame and an exterior skin fashioned from the aluminium material. The result is reflective, wind- and waterproof, and easily cools the interior without any additional input. Who needs air conditioning? ( Also interesting:  Australian Hype: Carbon-Neutral Houses Made Of Recycled Materials ) Amsterdam 'Desert Range' A desert range in Amsterdam might be the most accurate description of the Valley designed by the MVRDV architecture studio. The sizeable project, comprising three towers, 200 apartments, several public institutions, shops and restaurants, is set to revive Amsterdams Zuidas office district sometime after 2021. Individual segments are stacked like the striations of a mountain range, then connected across several levels via paths and strips of green. Natural stone facades, roof gardens, and water reservoirs are designed to make Valley dwellers feel far-removed from everyday life – towering high above the rest of the city. Natural stone, green terraces, and water reservoirs in Amsterdam Image: Vero Visuals, Rotterdam Inspired by the shapes of nature Its quite a lofty goal: If Henning Larsen Architects get their way, the Icone Tower will become a new landmark of Manila and possibly the entire Philippines. For their radical design, the Danish firm took inspiration from the countrys Mount Mayon volcano, basing the Icone Towers distinctive silhouette on the volcanos characteristic cone shape. Inside, a clever mix and match of public and private areas awaits: The net-style glass/steel facade lets in a maximum of daylight while affording great views of the surrounding park. And at night, the illuminated panorama platform on the buildings top promises to serve as a stylized beacon for progress and things to come. The Icone Tower will be visible for all of Manila. Image: Henning Larsen The building was inspired by the volcano Mount Mayon. Image: Henning Larsen Shanghai: saving space Shanghai is as flat as the Netherlands but much more densely populated. To solve the booming republics lack of living space, the Chinese mega metropolis has increasingly upped the ante by building skywards. Photo by: MVRDV. Buildings like a hilly landscape in Shanghai  This vertical, multi-level approach and principle is also reflected in the latest ambitious project by Rotterdam-based architectural firm MWRDV. All buildings of their Zhangjiang future park (including a library, an event space, a theater, and a sports center) will be embedded at different depths, resulting in a landscape and skyline of rolling hills with walkable roofs. The latter, planted with plenty of greenery, double as welcome insulation, coolant, and water filters. The future park an idea of Dutch studio MVRDV. Vertical forest France has swathes of vast woodlands, but not a single vertical forest. Italian architect aims to change this with his Fort Blanche on the outskirts of Paris, a 50-meter tower fashioned from stacked wood and glass cubes with thickly planted edges. The towers sustainable architecture not only boasts more than 2,000 plants (equivalent to an entire hectare of forest), but also a wooden facade, daylight wells, and a unique construction that favors natural ventilation. Stefano Boeri is bringing his green facades to Paris. Image: Compagnie De Phalsbourg Architectes Stacked glas cubes dominate the aesthetics of Boeris Fort Blanche. Image: Compagnie De Phalsbourg Architectes Floating university It almost sounds like a fairy-tale: Contaminated swampland becomes a sustainable utopia. Yet this fiction might soon become fact in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. The Floating University planned by Woha Architects recently won the worlds most prestigious award for sustainable architecture. The LafargeHolcim Awards jury praised the projects idea to place the classrooms on pontoons in the wetlands. Vertical gardens lower the buildings cooling requirements while photovoltaic panels and a rainwater recovery system add to the universitys overall sustainability. Wohas sustainable university campus within a formerly contaminated swamp. Image: WOHA Natural high The lower levels aim to convey the look and feel of the brightly green rice terraces of Vietnam. Yet the higher you move up the Empire City Towers, the more incredible the illusion: The mega project’s 333-meter-high spiralling towers include mezzanine floors with tropical gardens, lakes, and even waterfalls. Planned highlight of Ho Chi Minh City: the Empire City Towers. Image: Ole Scheeren Verdant all the way, the Ho Chi Minh City-based brainchild of Ole Scheeren definitely takes a leaf or three out of Vietnams stunning nature. Organic shapes and energy-neutral construction complete the harmonious picture, yet its up to each visitor to decide what ultimately takes their breath away: the view or the inspiration behind it all. Like rice fields high above the city. By: Janina Temmen. Cover photo: Paris Smart City 2050 with 8 Plus-Energy Towers | Vincent Callebaut https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/community/green-architecture
These surprisingly innovative construction projects have us looking forward in 2018. The first wooden skyscraper Wooden high-rise: Pendas Timber Tower. Image: Penda Most cities still resemble deserts of concrete and steel. The architects at Penda aim to change all that. Take their Toronto-based Timber Tower, planned together with the consultants at Tmber. Spanning an impressive 18 levels, the entirely wooden structure relies on a high-tech wood blend called CLT and a special, modular construction approach. To achieve the supremely resilient, 62-meter-high result, Penda will stack wood panel boxes in a particular pattern. ( Also interesting:  Sustainable Timber Micro House In Amsterdam: The Netherlands ) Architecture: sustainability is no longer just about materials The finished apartment building will pay proud homage to its roots by resembling a huge tree. The building in Toronto consists entirely of wood. Image: Penda Green hill Sometimes, architects can actually let their imagination roam and realize their wildest dreams. Thomas Heatherwick is one of the lucky few who gets to build his ambitious vision with the 100 Trees Complex in Shanghai. The immense project will not only cover more than 300,000 square meters, but also transcend the mere notion of being just another skyscraper block in the Chinese metropolis. 100 Trees is an entire district with schools, kindergartens, shopping centres, offices, and apartments, brought together in Heatherwick’s nature-inspired, hill-like complex covered in plenty of luscious greenery. Each pillar is topped by a tree, surrounded by more than 400 planted terraces. Liveable landscape – in the heart of Shanghai. Image: Mir Hybrid architecture: Inside/outside For his latest project in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnamese star architect Vo Tronh Nghia decided to turn the planning process upside down: He started with the plants and trees, only turning to the actual living space once the landscaping had been finalized. ( Also interesting:  Eco-friendly Sustainable Megacities Clean By Trees: Globally ) Photo by: Hiroyuki Oki. Vo Tronh Nghia built this house around its trees  As a result, the buildings residences are massively influenced and shaped by nature: Rooms are structured around enclosed gardens; concrete walls double as trellises for climbers. Many roofs leave deliberate gaps for growing trees or incoming daylight, infusing indoor areas with a distinct outdoor feel and appeal. Lots of daylight and lofty rooms.Image: Hiroyuki Oki Innovative exterior Anyone who automatically associates sustainable architecture with natural materials like bamboo is in for a big surprise. Architect Francois Perrin favours an innovative textile woven from aluminium threads. Francois Perrins Air Houses are made of a metallic mesh fabric. Image: Steve Hall For the 2017 Chicago Architecture Biennial, he spun this futuristic fabric into distinctive Air Houses: pyramid-shaped, treehouse-like structures based on a lightweight steel frame and an exterior skin fashioned from the aluminium material. The result is reflective, wind- and waterproof, and easily cools the interior without any additional input. Who needs air conditioning? ( Also interesting:  Australian Hype: Carbon-Neutral Houses Made Of Recycled Materials ) Amsterdam 'Desert Range' A desert range in Amsterdam might be the most accurate description of the Valley designed by the MVRDV architecture studio. The sizeable project, comprising three towers, 200 apartments, several public institutions, shops and restaurants, is set to revive Amsterdams Zuidas office district sometime after 2021. Individual segments are stacked like the striations of a mountain range, then connected across several levels via paths and strips of green. Natural stone facades, roof gardens, and water reservoirs are designed to make Valley dwellers feel far-removed from everyday life – towering high above the rest of the city. Natural stone, green terraces, and water reservoirs in Amsterdam Image: Vero Visuals, Rotterdam Inspired by the shapes of nature Its quite a lofty goal: If Henning Larsen Architects get their way, the Icone Tower will become a new landmark of Manila and possibly the entire Philippines. For their radical design, the Danish firm took inspiration from the countrys Mount Mayon volcano, basing the Icone Towers distinctive silhouette on the volcanos characteristic cone shape. Inside, a clever mix and match of public and private areas awaits: The net-style glass/steel facade lets in a maximum of daylight while affording great views of the surrounding park. And at night, the illuminated panorama platform on the buildings top promises to serve as a stylized beacon for progress and things to come. The Icone Tower will be visible for all of Manila. Image: Henning Larsen The building was inspired by the volcano Mount Mayon. Image: Henning Larsen Shanghai: saving space Shanghai is as flat as the Netherlands but much more densely populated. To solve the booming republics lack of living space, the Chinese mega metropolis has increasingly upped the ante by building skywards. Photo by: MVRDV. Buildings like a hilly landscape in Shanghai  This vertical, multi-level approach and principle is also reflected in the latest ambitious project by Rotterdam-based architectural firm MWRDV. All buildings of their Zhangjiang future park (including a library, an event space, a theater, and a sports center) will be embedded at different depths, resulting in a landscape and skyline of rolling hills with walkable roofs. The latter, planted with plenty of greenery, double as welcome insulation, coolant, and water filters. The future park an idea of Dutch studio MVRDV. Vertical forest France has swathes of vast woodlands, but not a single vertical forest. Italian architect aims to change this with his Fort Blanche on the outskirts of Paris, a 50-meter tower fashioned from stacked wood and glass cubes with thickly planted edges. The towers sustainable architecture not only boasts more than 2,000 plants (equivalent to an entire hectare of forest), but also a wooden facade, daylight wells, and a unique construction that favors natural ventilation. Stefano Boeri is bringing his green facades to Paris. Image: Compagnie De Phalsbourg Architectes Stacked glas cubes dominate the aesthetics of Boeris Fort Blanche. Image: Compagnie De Phalsbourg Architectes Floating university It almost sounds like a fairy-tale: Contaminated swampland becomes a sustainable utopia. Yet this fiction might soon become fact in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. The Floating University planned by Woha Architects recently won the worlds most prestigious award for sustainable architecture. The LafargeHolcim Awards jury praised the projects idea to place the classrooms on pontoons in the wetlands. Vertical gardens lower the buildings cooling requirements while photovoltaic panels and a rainwater recovery system add to the universitys overall sustainability. Wohas sustainable university campus within a formerly contaminated swamp. Image: WOHA Natural high The lower levels aim to convey the look and feel of the brightly green rice terraces of Vietnam. Yet the higher you move up the Empire City Towers, the more incredible the illusion: The mega project’s 333-meter-high spiralling towers include mezzanine floors with tropical gardens, lakes, and even waterfalls. Planned highlight of Ho Chi Minh City: the Empire City Towers. Image: Ole Scheeren Verdant all the way, the Ho Chi Minh City-based brainchild of Ole Scheeren definitely takes a leaf or three out of Vietnams stunning nature. Organic shapes and energy-neutral construction complete the harmonious picture, yet its up to each visitor to decide what ultimately takes their breath away: the view or the inspiration behind it all. Like rice fields high above the city. By: Janina Temmen. Cover photo: Paris Smart City 2050 with 8 Plus-Energy Towers | Vincent Callebaut https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/community/green-architecture
Sustainable Architecture 2018: How Does It Feel For You?
Sustainable Architecture 2018: How Does It Feel For You?
Architecture Designs: Green White Roofs To Cool Urban Area
The summers in the city can be hot, several degrees warmer than in the countryside. However, recent research indicates that this does not necessarily have to be the case. The systematic replacement of dark surfaces with white can reduce the temperature by 2 degrees Celsius or more. The heat island effect will increase with climate change and the ongoing urbanization. There is therefore sufficient reason to look for multiple ways to keep us cool. Are white roofs the solution for warming cities? The meteorological phenomenon of the 'urban heat island effect' has been known since the rise of large cities in the 19th century. The materials with which most cities and roads are built reflect much less solar radiation - and absorb it more - than the vegetation they have replaced. Part of that energy is again released in the air in the form of heat. The darker the surface, the stronger the warming. Fresh asphalt reflects only 4 percent of the sunlight, compared with 25 percent for grassland and up to 90 percent for a white surface such as fresh snow. Approximately 2 percent of the earth's surface is occupied by cities and is subject to a certain level of district heating. According to the American Environmental Protection Agency, New York City is on average 1 to 3 degrees Celsius warmer than the surrounding countryside, and up to 12 degrees warmer on some evenings. The effect is so overwhelming that some climate skeptics have already claimed that global warming is only an illusion created by thousands of meteorological stations that once stood in rural areas but were gradually surrounded by urbanization by more and more buildings. Climate scientists take this type of deviation from measurements into account, so the claim does not hold. Nevertheless, the effect is real. So, says a recent study published in the journal Nature Geoscience, if dark, heat-absorbing surfaces heat our cities, why not reverse the effect and install white roofs and other light-colored surfaces to reflect the sun's rays? White roofs from New York to Melbourne Photo: under Architecture, Environment, global warming, Green Roof During a heat wave, when the sun has free rein in a cloudless sky, the creation of lighter land surfaces can 'help to reduce extreme temperatures by 2 or 3 degrees Celsius' in much of Europe, North America and Asia, says co-author of the new study Sonia Seneviratne, which studies land-climate dynamics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. It could save lives, she says, and the warmer it gets, the stronger the effect. It could save lives, and the warmer it gets, the stronger the effect. Seneviratne is not alone in defending the reflection of sunlight. There are many small-scale initiatives in cities to make roof surfaces more reflective. For example, in 2012 New York introduced rules about white roofs in the building codes. Volunteers in the city have painted almost seven million square meters of roof covered with tar white. However, this is only about 1 percent of the potential roof surface. Chicago is trying something similar, and last year Los Angeles started a program to paint road surfaces in asphalt in light gray paint. Outside the United States there are initiatives on cooling roofs in cities such as Melbourne. However, these remain small-scale programs, the results rather anecdotal. It is therefore important that researchers now gather evidence around the world that shows that the benefits of converting that 1 percent into 100 percent every year can save many lives. Farming, light-colored stubble on the fields could reflect 30 percent of the sunlight Keith Oleson of the National Center for Atmospheric Research at Boulder, Colorado, looked at what would happen if every roof in large cities around the world was painted white. As a result, the reflectivity of objects - climate scientists would call the 'albedo' - increase from 32 percent today to 90 percent. He discovered that the heat island effect would be reduced by a third. That is enough to reduce the maximum daily temperatures by an average of 0.6 degrees Celsius, and more in hot regions such as the Arabian peninsula and Brazil. Other studies indicate even greater benefits in the US. In a 2014 publication, Matei Georgescu of Arizona State University shows that 'cooling roofs' can lower temperatures in California to 1.5 degrees and to 1.8 degrees in cities like Washington. Not only the cities benefit from a whitewashing, as it turns out. Seneviratne and her team suggested that farmers can also cool their residential areas with other farming methods. Modified methods, applied over large areas, can have a considerable effect according to her. In Europe, grain fields are almost always plowed shortly after harvesting. This makes the fields large, dark surfaces that absorb the sun's rays during the winter. However, if the land is not plowed immediately, the light-colored stubble that remains on the fields after harvesting could reflect about 30 percent of the sunlight, compared to only 20 percent for a field that is released immediately. This may sound like a relative trivial difference, but it can be calculated for large areas of arable land that the temperature in some rural areas may decrease by as much as 2 degrees on sunny days. In North America, early shifts occur much less often. But Peter Irvine, a researcher in the field of climate and geo-engineering at Harvard University, has suggested that crops can also be chosen on the basis of their ability to reflect sunlight. In Europe, for example, a cereal such as barley, which reflects 23 percent of the sunlight, can be replaced by sugar beet, an economically comparable crop that reflects 26 percent. In other words, farmers can simply choose more reflective varieties to grow. Again, the difference sounds marginal. But since arable land covers more than 10 percent of the land surface of the earth, about five times more than cities, the potential can be considerable. Solar radiation At first glance, such initiatives seem appropriate if countries have difficulty with the consequences of climate change. But there is also concern that if large parts of the world take such policy measures to reduce local heat waves, this may lead to noticeable and possibly unpleasant consequences for temperature and rain in neighboring regions. 'Local management of solar radiation differs from global geoengineering because it is not aimed at influencing the global temperature and global effects are therefore negligible' Proponents of local projects, such as suppressing the heat island effect, say that they are only trying to reverse the consequences of unintentional geo-engineering through urbanization and the growth of arable land. Moreover, they state that local adjustments will only have local effects. 'If all French farmers stop plowing in the summer, their impact on the temperature in Germany will be negligible', says Seneviratne. 'Local solar radiation management differs from global geo-engineering because it is not aimed at influencing the global temperature and global effects are therefore negligible', she says. It is only an 'adjustment measure'. But sometimes things are not that simple. For example, lowering local temperatures would limit evaporation and thus potentially affect rainfall. A model study by Irvine concluded that rumbling with reflection of sunlight in larger areas such as deserts could cause a "large decrease in the intensity of Indian and African monsoons in particular." But the same study also concluded that changing albedo in cities or likely to have no significant effect on agricultural land. Cities, cool them, save lives What is clear is that tackling the heat island effect by increasing solar reflection is not enough to ward off climate change. According to Oleson's calculations, the whitening of every urban roof and square in the world would only slow down global warming by eleven years. But the potential value of alleviating the most serious effects of overheating in cities can save lives. The heat island effect can be a killer. Counter-intuitively, the biggest effect is often at night. Vulnerable people, such as the elderly who suffer from the heat during the day, need the night to cool down again. Without this possibility they can succumb to heat stroke and dehydration. Research from this month shows that temperature peaks also cause a peak in heart attacks. This happened during the big European heat wave of 2003, where about 70,000 people died, mostly in houses without air conditioning. Doctors said that the killer was not so much the daytime temperature of 40 degrees Celsius or higher, but the fact that the nights were warmer than 30 degrees. Photo by: uneed2know.eu. Heatwave 2003 Such nightmares are likely to occur more and more in the future, because the urban area is increasing, and because of climate change. Taking into account the predicted urban expansion in the US this century 'the temperature near the earth's surface can be expected to increase by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius across large regional parts of the country', says Georgescu's paper from 2014. Similar scenarios threaten other parts of the country. world that is rapidly urbanizing, including China, India and Africa. These areas are expected to multiply their urban land area by 2030 compared to 1970. 'Vulnerable populations are thus exposed to climate change driven by land use.' Several studies suggest that climate change itself can fuel the heat island effect. Richard Betts of the British Met Office Hadley predicts that in some places this will increase the difference between urban and rural temperatures by as much as 30 percent, especially in the Middle East and South Asia, where deaths during heatwaves are already prevalent. The combination of rising temperatures due to  climate change and high humidity will make it likely that large parts of the Persian Gulf area will be the first in the world to become uninhabitable. And a study published in February predicted temperatures could rise to 10 degrees in most European cities by the end of the century. No wonder the call for cooling of cities sounds louder. Green, not white Photo by: greenrooftechnology.com Another option is not to spray roofs white, but to make green roofs. This is already being applied in different cities. In 2016, San Francisco became the first American city to make the installation of green roofs mandatory on some new buildings. New York announced last year a program of 100 million dollars for cooling neighborhoods by planting trees. So, what's better, a white roof or a green" roof? According to Georgescu, the direct cooling effect of white roofs is greater. Vincenzo Costanzo from the University of Reading, has a similar conclusion regarding Italian cities. But green roofs have other advantages. An investigation in Adelaide, Australia, has shown that in addition to cooling in the summer they also serve as an insulating layer to keep buildings warmer in the winter. Photovoltaic cells, whitewashed walls and fields full of stubble  Photo by: doityourself.com There is also a third option: covering roofs with photovoltaic cells. They are dark and therefore do not reflect much solar radiation in space. But that is because it is their job to capture the energy and convert it into sustainable electricity . Solar panels 'cool day temperatures in a way that is comparable to increasing albedo via white roofs', say scientists at the University of New South Wales. Their research, published last year in the journal Scientific Reports, showed that  solar panels in a city like Sydney in Australia could lower the temperature to 1 degree. That is the theory. The question is whether it will also work in practice. After all, research into the influence on local temperatures of large solar parks in deserts has yielded contradictory findings. Because while they prevent the sun's rays from reaching the desert surface, they also work at night as an insulating blanket, so that the desert sand cannot release the absorbed heat. The conclusion is then that light, reflective surfaces can have a major impact on cooling the ambient air - in cities, but also in rural areas. Whitewashed walls, photovoltaic cells and fields full of stubble can all provide local relief during the sweltering decades that are coming. But policy makers beware. It does not always work that way. There may be unintended consequences, both for temperature and for some other aspects of the climate such as rainfall. Even local geo-engineering must therefore be handled with care. By: Mondiaal Nieuws (MO). Cover photo: originaltravel.co.uk https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/community/green-architecture
The summers in the city can be hot, several degrees warmer than in the countryside. However, recent research indicates that this does not necessarily have to be the case. The systematic replacement of dark surfaces with white can reduce the temperature by 2 degrees Celsius or more. The heat island effect will increase with climate change and the ongoing urbanization. There is therefore sufficient reason to look for multiple ways to keep us cool. Are white roofs the solution for warming cities? The meteorological phenomenon of the 'urban heat island effect' has been known since the rise of large cities in the 19th century. The materials with which most cities and roads are built reflect much less solar radiation - and absorb it more - than the vegetation they have replaced. Part of that energy is again released in the air in the form of heat. The darker the surface, the stronger the warming. Fresh asphalt reflects only 4 percent of the sunlight, compared with 25 percent for grassland and up to 90 percent for a white surface such as fresh snow. Approximately 2 percent of the earth's surface is occupied by cities and is subject to a certain level of district heating. According to the American Environmental Protection Agency, New York City is on average 1 to 3 degrees Celsius warmer than the surrounding countryside, and up to 12 degrees warmer on some evenings. The effect is so overwhelming that some climate skeptics have already claimed that global warming is only an illusion created by thousands of meteorological stations that once stood in rural areas but were gradually surrounded by urbanization by more and more buildings. Climate scientists take this type of deviation from measurements into account, so the claim does not hold. Nevertheless, the effect is real. So, says a recent study published in the journal Nature Geoscience, if dark, heat-absorbing surfaces heat our cities, why not reverse the effect and install white roofs and other light-colored surfaces to reflect the sun's rays? White roofs from New York to Melbourne Photo: under Architecture, Environment, global warming, Green Roof During a heat wave, when the sun has free rein in a cloudless sky, the creation of lighter land surfaces can 'help to reduce extreme temperatures by 2 or 3 degrees Celsius' in much of Europe, North America and Asia, says co-author of the new study Sonia Seneviratne, which studies land-climate dynamics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. It could save lives, she says, and the warmer it gets, the stronger the effect. It could save lives, and the warmer it gets, the stronger the effect. Seneviratne is not alone in defending the reflection of sunlight. There are many small-scale initiatives in cities to make roof surfaces more reflective. For example, in 2012 New York introduced rules about white roofs in the building codes. Volunteers in the city have painted almost seven million square meters of roof covered with tar white. However, this is only about 1 percent of the potential roof surface. Chicago is trying something similar, and last year Los Angeles started a program to paint road surfaces in asphalt in light gray paint. Outside the United States there are initiatives on cooling roofs in cities such as Melbourne. However, these remain small-scale programs, the results rather anecdotal. It is therefore important that researchers now gather evidence around the world that shows that the benefits of converting that 1 percent into 100 percent every year can save many lives. Farming, light-colored stubble on the fields could reflect 30 percent of the sunlight Keith Oleson of the National Center for Atmospheric Research at Boulder, Colorado, looked at what would happen if every roof in large cities around the world was painted white. As a result, the reflectivity of objects - climate scientists would call the 'albedo' - increase from 32 percent today to 90 percent. He discovered that the heat island effect would be reduced by a third. That is enough to reduce the maximum daily temperatures by an average of 0.6 degrees Celsius, and more in hot regions such as the Arabian peninsula and Brazil. Other studies indicate even greater benefits in the US. In a 2014 publication, Matei Georgescu of Arizona State University shows that 'cooling roofs' can lower temperatures in California to 1.5 degrees and to 1.8 degrees in cities like Washington. Not only the cities benefit from a whitewashing, as it turns out. Seneviratne and her team suggested that farmers can also cool their residential areas with other farming methods. Modified methods, applied over large areas, can have a considerable effect according to her. In Europe, grain fields are almost always plowed shortly after harvesting. This makes the fields large, dark surfaces that absorb the sun's rays during the winter. However, if the land is not plowed immediately, the light-colored stubble that remains on the fields after harvesting could reflect about 30 percent of the sunlight, compared to only 20 percent for a field that is released immediately. This may sound like a relative trivial difference, but it can be calculated for large areas of arable land that the temperature in some rural areas may decrease by as much as 2 degrees on sunny days. In North America, early shifts occur much less often. But Peter Irvine, a researcher in the field of climate and geo-engineering at Harvard University, has suggested that crops can also be chosen on the basis of their ability to reflect sunlight. In Europe, for example, a cereal such as barley, which reflects 23 percent of the sunlight, can be replaced by sugar beet, an economically comparable crop that reflects 26 percent. In other words, farmers can simply choose more reflective varieties to grow. Again, the difference sounds marginal. But since arable land covers more than 10 percent of the land surface of the earth, about five times more than cities, the potential can be considerable. Solar radiation At first glance, such initiatives seem appropriate if countries have difficulty with the consequences of climate change. But there is also concern that if large parts of the world take such policy measures to reduce local heat waves, this may lead to noticeable and possibly unpleasant consequences for temperature and rain in neighboring regions. 'Local management of solar radiation differs from global geoengineering because it is not aimed at influencing the global temperature and global effects are therefore negligible' Proponents of local projects, such as suppressing the heat island effect, say that they are only trying to reverse the consequences of unintentional geo-engineering through urbanization and the growth of arable land. Moreover, they state that local adjustments will only have local effects. 'If all French farmers stop plowing in the summer, their impact on the temperature in Germany will be negligible', says Seneviratne. 'Local solar radiation management differs from global geo-engineering because it is not aimed at influencing the global temperature and global effects are therefore negligible', she says. It is only an 'adjustment measure'. But sometimes things are not that simple. For example, lowering local temperatures would limit evaporation and thus potentially affect rainfall. A model study by Irvine concluded that rumbling with reflection of sunlight in larger areas such as deserts could cause a "large decrease in the intensity of Indian and African monsoons in particular." But the same study also concluded that changing albedo in cities or likely to have no significant effect on agricultural land. Cities, cool them, save lives What is clear is that tackling the heat island effect by increasing solar reflection is not enough to ward off climate change. According to Oleson's calculations, the whitening of every urban roof and square in the world would only slow down global warming by eleven years. But the potential value of alleviating the most serious effects of overheating in cities can save lives. The heat island effect can be a killer. Counter-intuitively, the biggest effect is often at night. Vulnerable people, such as the elderly who suffer from the heat during the day, need the night to cool down again. Without this possibility they can succumb to heat stroke and dehydration. Research from this month shows that temperature peaks also cause a peak in heart attacks. This happened during the big European heat wave of 2003, where about 70,000 people died, mostly in houses without air conditioning. Doctors said that the killer was not so much the daytime temperature of 40 degrees Celsius or higher, but the fact that the nights were warmer than 30 degrees. Photo by: uneed2know.eu. Heatwave 2003 Such nightmares are likely to occur more and more in the future, because the urban area is increasing, and because of climate change. Taking into account the predicted urban expansion in the US this century 'the temperature near the earth's surface can be expected to increase by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius across large regional parts of the country', says Georgescu's paper from 2014. Similar scenarios threaten other parts of the country. world that is rapidly urbanizing, including China, India and Africa. These areas are expected to multiply their urban land area by 2030 compared to 1970. 'Vulnerable populations are thus exposed to climate change driven by land use.' Several studies suggest that climate change itself can fuel the heat island effect. Richard Betts of the British Met Office Hadley predicts that in some places this will increase the difference between urban and rural temperatures by as much as 30 percent, especially in the Middle East and South Asia, where deaths during heatwaves are already prevalent. The combination of rising temperatures due to  climate change and high humidity will make it likely that large parts of the Persian Gulf area will be the first in the world to become uninhabitable. And a study published in February predicted temperatures could rise to 10 degrees in most European cities by the end of the century. No wonder the call for cooling of cities sounds louder. Green, not white Photo by: greenrooftechnology.com Another option is not to spray roofs white, but to make green roofs. This is already being applied in different cities. In 2016, San Francisco became the first American city to make the installation of green roofs mandatory on some new buildings. New York announced last year a program of 100 million dollars for cooling neighborhoods by planting trees. So, what's better, a white roof or a green" roof? According to Georgescu, the direct cooling effect of white roofs is greater. Vincenzo Costanzo from the University of Reading, has a similar conclusion regarding Italian cities. But green roofs have other advantages. An investigation in Adelaide, Australia, has shown that in addition to cooling in the summer they also serve as an insulating layer to keep buildings warmer in the winter. Photovoltaic cells, whitewashed walls and fields full of stubble  Photo by: doityourself.com There is also a third option: covering roofs with photovoltaic cells. They are dark and therefore do not reflect much solar radiation in space. But that is because it is their job to capture the energy and convert it into sustainable electricity . Solar panels 'cool day temperatures in a way that is comparable to increasing albedo via white roofs', say scientists at the University of New South Wales. Their research, published last year in the journal Scientific Reports, showed that  solar panels in a city like Sydney in Australia could lower the temperature to 1 degree. That is the theory. The question is whether it will also work in practice. After all, research into the influence on local temperatures of large solar parks in deserts has yielded contradictory findings. Because while they prevent the sun's rays from reaching the desert surface, they also work at night as an insulating blanket, so that the desert sand cannot release the absorbed heat. The conclusion is then that light, reflective surfaces can have a major impact on cooling the ambient air - in cities, but also in rural areas. Whitewashed walls, photovoltaic cells and fields full of stubble can all provide local relief during the sweltering decades that are coming. But policy makers beware. It does not always work that way. There may be unintended consequences, both for temperature and for some other aspects of the climate such as rainfall. Even local geo-engineering must therefore be handled with care. By: Mondiaal Nieuws (MO). Cover photo: originaltravel.co.uk https://www.whatsorb.com/solution/community/green-architecture
Architecture Designs: Green White Roofs To Cool Urban Area
Architecture Designs: Green White Roofs To Cool Urban Area's
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A community is you and me. A network of social, economic, ecological and many other relationships. We all work together and live in urban, suburban and rural areas. Social sustainability is becoming increasingly important on our small planet. We define: support, quality of life, development, adaptation, rights and labour.

We belong to a group of individuals - our society - in which we belong geographically. Certain environmental issues play an important role in our society. Here, sustainable solutions are sought, developed and implemented. This may differ from societies in other countries, but because of our global environmental issues and dependence, we must learn to work more together so that we can all benefit from sharing sustainable knowledge to tackle, for example, climate change.

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