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Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?
Fashion from Algae - Biogarmentry clothes - can photosynthesise like plants. Canadian-Iranian designer Roya Aghighi has created clothes made from algae that turn carbon dioxide into oxygen via photosynthesis, as a more sustainable alternative to fast fashion and it feels like linen! Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Biogarmentry Named Biogarmentry, the clothes are the proof of concept for a textile made with living, photosynthetic cells. In a collaboration between the University of British Colombia (UBC) and Emily Carr Univeristy, Aghighi's biofabricated textiles are living organisms that respirate by turning carbon dioxide into oxygen. Sustainable Future With Fashion From Algae Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular "Biogarmentry suggests a complete overhaul rather than tinkering at the edges," said Aghighi. "The living aspect of the textile will transform users' relationship to their clothing, shifting collective behaviours around our consumption-oriented habits towards forming a sustainable future." Recommended:  CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? To make the fabric for Biogarmentry, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae, are spun together with nano polymers. The result, which feels like linen, is "the first non woven living and photosynthetic textile" to be created. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae Wearers would need to take care of their garment as they would a plant in order to keep them alive, rather than engaging in the environmentally destructive practice of making synthetic clothes and discarding them after a few uses. What are the characteristic of green algae? Cellular structure. Green algae have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll a and b, giving them a bright green color, as well as the accessory pigments beta carotene and xanthophylls, in stacked thylakoids. The cell walls of green algae usually contain cellulose, and they store carbohydrate in the form of starch. Recommended:  Israeli 3D Printed Fashion As Sustainable Works Of Art                                                  Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?                                                                                  Biogarmentry Biogarmentry is activated by being exposed to sunlight. Rather than wash their clothes, the owner would just need to spray them with water once a week. "By making textiles alive, users will develop an emotional attachments to their garments," said Aghighi. Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth "Since the life cycle of the living photosynthetic textile is directly dependent on how it is taken care of, caring for clothes would regain ascendance as a crucial part of the system." By turning carbon dioxide into oxygen, the clothes also improve the immediate environment of the wearer, and worn en masse could help regulate carbon emissions. After the user is finished with the garment, it could be disposed of via composting. Currently the textile is expected to live for around a month, but this period can be extended if it is cared for properly. Which algae used as food? Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are seaweeds that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food. They typically contain high amounts of fiber. They may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. Fashion From Algae: Biogarmentry Feasibility Biogarmentry's feasibility study was a joint undertaking by the Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Laboratory and the Botany Lab at UBC. Aghighi is currently a designer in residence at Material Experience Lab in the Netherlands. Other recent designs in the field of biofabrication include headphones made from fungus and food packaging made from algae. Headphones made from fungus EcoLogicStudio is harnessing the power of photosynthesis with an algae-filled facade covering for buildings that filters air pollution, and Dutch designer Ermi van Oers has invented a lamp that helps plants to grow indoors. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about Sustainable Fashion? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Fashion from Algae - Biogarmentry clothes - can photosynthesise like plants. Canadian-Iranian designer Roya Aghighi has created clothes made from algae that turn carbon dioxide into oxygen via photosynthesis, as a more sustainable alternative to fast fashion and it feels like linen! Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Biogarmentry Named Biogarmentry, the clothes are the proof of concept for a textile made with living, photosynthetic cells. In a collaboration between the University of British Colombia (UBC) and Emily Carr Univeristy, Aghighi's biofabricated textiles are living organisms that respirate by turning carbon dioxide into oxygen. Sustainable Future With Fashion From Algae Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular "Biogarmentry suggests a complete overhaul rather than tinkering at the edges," said Aghighi. "The living aspect of the textile will transform users' relationship to their clothing, shifting collective behaviours around our consumption-oriented habits towards forming a sustainable future." Recommended:  CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? To make the fabric for Biogarmentry, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae, are spun together with nano polymers. The result, which feels like linen, is "the first non woven living and photosynthetic textile" to be created. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae Wearers would need to take care of their garment as they would a plant in order to keep them alive, rather than engaging in the environmentally destructive practice of making synthetic clothes and discarding them after a few uses. What are the characteristic of green algae? Cellular structure. Green algae have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll a and b, giving them a bright green color, as well as the accessory pigments beta carotene and xanthophylls, in stacked thylakoids. The cell walls of green algae usually contain cellulose, and they store carbohydrate in the form of starch. Recommended:  Israeli 3D Printed Fashion As Sustainable Works Of Art                                                  Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?                                                                                  Biogarmentry Biogarmentry is activated by being exposed to sunlight. Rather than wash their clothes, the owner would just need to spray them with water once a week. "By making textiles alive, users will develop an emotional attachments to their garments," said Aghighi. Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth "Since the life cycle of the living photosynthetic textile is directly dependent on how it is taken care of, caring for clothes would regain ascendance as a crucial part of the system." By turning carbon dioxide into oxygen, the clothes also improve the immediate environment of the wearer, and worn en masse could help regulate carbon emissions. After the user is finished with the garment, it could be disposed of via composting. Currently the textile is expected to live for around a month, but this period can be extended if it is cared for properly. Which algae used as food? Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are seaweeds that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food. They typically contain high amounts of fiber. They may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. Fashion From Algae: Biogarmentry Feasibility Biogarmentry's feasibility study was a joint undertaking by the Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Laboratory and the Botany Lab at UBC. Aghighi is currently a designer in residence at Material Experience Lab in the Netherlands. Other recent designs in the field of biofabrication include headphones made from fungus and food packaging made from algae. Headphones made from fungus EcoLogicStudio is harnessing the power of photosynthesis with an algae-filled facade covering for buildings that filters air pollution, and Dutch designer Ermi van Oers has invented a lamp that helps plants to grow indoors. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about Sustainable Fashion? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?
Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?
Is Autumn’s Wild Food Healthy And Good For The Environment?
Autumn is an exciting time. Not only for cycling, running and photo’s like we wrote in our last NewsLetter but also for food and what you can find in nature. There is plenty to find, of course depending where you live. Healthier food choices almost always benefit the environment as well. Autumn’s Wild Food Autumn is a fantastic time to forage. With the end of the summer growing season, after everything has been blasted with sunshine, there are lots of exciting options for good eats to be found without us having to cultivate a thing. We just need to get better at responsibly taking advantage of what nature has to offer. Foraging requires both a knowledge of what can be found, as well as the drive to go out and find it. For enthusiasts, there are books upon books of edible wild plants, but for novices, these can be absolutely overwhelming. The trick for getting started with foraging - and Autumn is an awesome time to do it - is to tackle only a couple of plants at a time. Before long, both forests and fields will seem like smorgasbords. For now, get together a basket or something to carry the bounty in, a sharp knife or scissors for harvesting, and some decent shoes for clambering about. Here are some great Autumn finds for getting started with foraging. Autumn’s Wild Food: Mushrooms Mushrooms are probably the most terrifying thing to forage because we all know that there are poisonous ones out there. While this is something we definitely shouldn’t forget, that isn’t to say that we shouldn’t - even as beginners - go out in search of wild mushrooms. We just need to use caution, some common sense, and readily available information. What is a mushroom considered? A mushroom is neither a fruit nor a vegetable; technically mushrooms aren't even plants. They are a special type of fungus a notion that puts some people off. If you don't mind the fungus part, though, mushrooms are a great addition to a healthy diet not to mention totally delicious. There are some great websites to help identify mushrooms, as well as become aware of what’s on the go in your area at any time of year. These can be used to spur the hunt for particular types of mushrooms, choosing ones that are easy to find and identify. Recommended:  Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere Edible Wild Mushrooms And Some Not To Touch {youtube}                                                                   Mushroom Foraging for Beginners Throughout history, people around the world have foraged wild mushrooms for food. Gathering wild mushrooms can also be an extremely rewarding and interesting hobby. However, those who do it must proceed with the utmost caution. Though many wild mushrooms are highly nutritious, delicious, and safe to consume, others pose a serious risk to your health and can even cause death if ingested. For this reason, it’s critical to only hunt mushrooms with someone who’s highly experienced at identifying both edible and poisonous mushrooms. Hen-Of-The-Woods Grifola frondosa, commonly known as hen-of-the-woods or maitake, is an edible mushroom that’s a favourite of mushroom hunters. Growth Hen-of-the-woods is a polypore a type of fungus that has small pores covering its underside. They grow on the bases of trees in shelf-like clusters, favouring hardwoods like oak. These clusters resemble the tail feathers of a sitting hen hence the name ‘hen-of-the-woods’. Several hen-of-the-woods may grow on a single tree. This mushroom is native to China but also grows in Japan and North America, especially the northeaster United States. They are not common in Europe. It’s a perennial mushroom and often grows in the same spot for many years. Identification Hen-of-the-woods are grayish-brown in colour, while the underside of the caps and branch-like stalk are white, though colouring can vary. These mushrooms are most commonly found in the Autumn, but they can be found less frequently in the summer months as well. Hen-of-the-woods can grow quite large. Some mushroom hunters have scored massive mushrooms weighing up to 50 pounds (about 23 kg), but most weigh 3–15 pounds (1.5–7 kg). A helpful clue when identifying hen-of-the-woods is that it does not have gills, and the underside of its cap has tiny pores, which are smallest at the edges. Don’t eat older specimens that are orange or reddish in color, as they may be contaminated with bacteria or mold. Hen-of-the-woods is often favoured by beginner mushroom hunters. It’s distinctive and does not have many dangerous look-alikes, making it a safe option for novices. Nutrition Hen-of-the-woods are quite nutritious and particularly high in the B vitamins folate, niacin (B3), and riboflavin (B2), all of which are involved in energy metabolism and cellular growth. This mushroom also contains powerful health-promoting compounds, including complex carbohydrates called glucans. These mushrooms may have cholesterol-reducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Hen-of-the-woods have a savory, rich flavour and are delicious when added to stir-fries, sautés, grain dishes, and soups. What are the benefits of mushrooms? Mushrooms are packed with nutritional value. They're low in calories, are great sources of fiber and protein (good for plant-based diets). They also provide many important nutrients, including B vitamins, selenium, potassium, copper, and (particularly when exposed to the sun) vitamin D Oyster Mushroom The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a delicious edible mushroom that resembles an oyster in shape and is commonly sought after by mushroom hunters. Growth Oyster mushrooms grow in forests around the world, including throughout North America. These mushrooms grow on dead or dying hardwood trees like beech and oak trees. They can sometimes be found growing on Autumnen branches and dead stumps. Oyster mushrooms decompose decaying wood and release nutrients into the soil, recycling nutrients to be used by other plants and organisms in forest ecosystems. They can be found during the spring and Autumn months in the Northern United States and year-round in warmer climates. Identification Oyster mushrooms grow in clusters resembling shelves on dead or dying hardwood trees. Depending on the time of year, the tops of the oyster-shaped caps of these mushrooms can range from white to brownish-gray and are typically 2–8 inches (5–20 cm) wide. The undersides of the caps are covered with tightly spaced gills that run down the stubby, sometimes non-existent, stem and are white or tan in colour. Oyster mushrooms can grow in large numbers, and many different clusters can be found on the same tree. Nutrition Oyster mushrooms have thick, white, mild-tasting flesh that contains a variety of nutrients. They are particularly high in B vitamins, including niacin (B3) and riboflavin (B2), as well as the minerals potassium, copper, iron, and zinc. They also contain powerful anti-inflammatory plant compounds. Oyster mushrooms are excellent sautéed with onions and garlic as a side dish. You can also add them to soups, pastas, and meat dishes. Sulphur Shelf Mushroom The sulphur shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus) mushroom is also known as chicken-of-the-woods or chicken mushroom. It’s a bright orange or yellow mushroom with a unique, meaty flavour. Growth Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on hardwood trees in North America and Europe. These mushrooms can either act as parasites on living or dying trees, or derive nutrients from dead trees, such as rotting tree stumps. Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on trees in shelf-like clusters. They are commonly found on large oak trees and typically harvested during the summer and Autumn months. It should be noted that sulphur shelf look-alike Laetiporus species exist. They grow on conifer trees should be avoided, as they can cause severe allergic reactions in some people. Identification Sulphur shelf mushrooms are typically orange or yellow in colour and grow in overlapping shelf-like clusters on hardwoods, such as oak, willow, and chestnut. The caps of the mushroom are fan-like or semi-circular in shape and typically 2–12 inches (5–30 cm) across and up to 8 inches (20 cm) deep. The sulphur shelf does not have gills, and the underside of the caps is covered with tiny pores. This mushroom has a smooth, suede-like texture and yellow-orange colour, which fades to a dull white when the mushroom is past maturity. Many sulphur shelf mushrooms may grow on a single tree, with individual mushrooms growing heavier than 50 pounds (23 kg). Nutrition Like most mushrooms, sulphur shelf mushrooms are low in calories and offer a good amount of nutrients, including fiber, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium. They have been shown to have antifungal and antioxidant properties. Sulphur shelf mushrooms should be eaten cooked not raw. You can bring out their meaty texture and hearty flavour by sautéing them with butter, adding them to vegetable dishes, or mixing them into omelettes. How can you tell if a mushroom is safe to eat? Avoid mushrooms with white gills, a skirt or ring on the stem and a bulbous or sack like base called a volva. You may be missing out on some good edible fungi but it means you will be avoiding the deadly members of the Amanita family. Avoid mushrooms with red on the cap or stem. Recommended: Mushroom Recipes Poisonous mushrooms to avoid Though many wild mushrooms can be enjoyed safely, others pose a threat to your health. Never consume the following mushrooms: Death cap (Amanita phalloides) . Death caps are among the most poisonous of all mushrooms and responsible for the majority of mushroom-related deaths worldwide. They grow in many countries around the world. Conocybe filaris.  This mushroom grows in Europe, Asia, and North America and contains the same toxins as the Death cap. It has a smooth, cone-like cap that is brownish in color. They are highly toxic and can be fatal if ingested. Autumn skullcap (Galerina marginata) . Also known as the ‘deadly Galerina’, autumn skullcaps are among the most poisonous of mushrooms. They have small, brown caps and grow on rotting wood. Death angel (Amanita ocreata) . Related to the death cap, the death angel grows along the West Coast of the United States. This mushroom is mostly white and can cause severe illness and death if eaten. False morels (Gyromitra esculenta and Gyromitra infula).  These resemble edible true morels, making them especially dangerous. Unlike true morels, they are not completely hollow when cut. Fruits: Autumn’s Wild Food What fruits are found in the forest? The most common types of forest fruits are berries, such as blackberries, serviceberries, lignonberries, elderberries, blueberries. Wild plum, pawpaw and hardy kiwi are other forest fruits of interest. Though all of those lovely summer berries will have come and gone, lots of fruits produce their bounty in the Autumn, and depending on where we are, there is every bit of a possibility of stumbling upon wild varieties of these fruits. We just have to learn to harvest a bushel or two and make the most of the season. Apples are probably the number one Autumn time harvest, and these are often in neighbourhoods or areas where people have left a mark. Crab apples tend to be the wilder option. Persimmons and prickly pears are both reaching readiness in the autumn. In some areas, wild grapes will be producing tasty bunches, either for snacking or making jelly. Elderberries are also a possibility in Autumn. 'Go Nuts' Nuts are a great find on a forage because we can usually identify them without much trouble, and they are fairly common in the wild. Unlike any other foraged food, these will bring a good helping of calories and healthy fats to the bounty, which is a welcome thing for a plant-based, foraged feast. Autumn is the best time to find nuts. What are nuts considered? A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context ‘nut’ implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). There are lots of options to keep an eye out for, and some of these will definitely depend on location. Walnuts start in late summer and can be found into the middle of Autumn, at which time chestnuts are coming on in abundance. Pecans are late Autumn additions, and gingko nuts are available throughout the autumn. Acorns are usually present around October, and they’ll require some processing. Tree nuts are tasty, healthy and can be obtained for free. If you are willing to forage, then a bounty of food awaits you in the trees. Harvesting nuts does require patience. You need to identify the best trees, wait for the nuts to drop and check for ripeness. Once you have tapped your inner squirrel and gathered your nuts, they will need to be cleaned, dried, or husked (or all three) before they are ready to eat. Though it is not the easiest task, nut harvests are rewarding in the end. It is a fun project for the family. Black Walnuts Black walnuts are housed inside yellowish-green and brown husks (similar in colour to pears) that are about two inches in diameter. They are further housed inside a tough shell that is dark black. Harvest Time   September and October Harvesting   Allow walnut husks to Autumn from the tree. Remove the husks and cure the nuts before storing. Black walnut produces a mild toxin and husks should not be disposed of in your yard, garden or compost. Chestnuts Chestnuts are dark brown in colour, smooth in texture, are pointed at one end and have an oblong spot on the opposite end that is light brown. They are housed inside a spiny burr, which turns yellowish-brown and opens when the chestnuts are ready for harvest. Harvest Time September through December Harvesting Allow chestnuts to Autumn from the tree. Gather nuts with open burrs and remove burrs. Wear gloves to protect yourself from the spines. English Walnuts English walnuts are housed inside a greenish-black hull. They are further housed inside a tan shell. The nut itself is light brown to golden-brown. Harvest Time Late August through October Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or lay out a blanket and shake the tree. Check a few nuts for ripeness first. Remove husks with gloved hands, or they will stain. Rinse, inspect and dry the nuts Pecans Pecans are housed in a brown oval to an oblong shaped shell. The meat itself is brown in colour and possess two-lobes. Harvest Time Mid-October through November Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or shake the tree. Inspect pecans for damage or worms. Air dry for two weeks before Acorns In Autumn Become The Next ‘Superfood’ The humble acorn has long been ignored. That could all be about to change. In South Korea, acorns have achieved ‘superfood’ status, with people devouring ‘acorn noodles, jelly and powder’. Native Americans relied on acorns – rich in nutrients – as a staple part of their diet. They are farmed in China and South Korea, and often ground into flour. Many cultures make acorn ‘coffee’. They are rich in protein, fats, fibre and essential minerals. Recommended: Acorn Recipes For some people life revolves around acorns. These people produce cookies made from acorn flour. Protecting oak trees, and planting more, could help tackle the climate crisis and that acorns are good for food security because they can be stored, squirrel-like, long-term. Now is the perfect season. You might think to head off to the woods, but go to parks, gardens and golf courses. The acorns Autumn on to clean, short grass, which makes them easier to collect than rooting through leaf litter. Getting them ready to eat, takes a little bit of work. You need to shell them first. If you’re working small-scale, you could just slit them with a knife and pop them out of their shell. With bigger harvests (remembering to leave enough for wildlife), Drennan likes to dry them – you can do it on a radiator or spread out in a warm room – before sandwiching them between two sheets and getting some friends round to dance and stamp on them. Then you should leach them to get the bitter tannins out. Put them in a porous sack and stick them in a toilet cistern. That can take between two and six weeks, as the quantity of tannin can be variable. Don’t mix batches from different trees, even if they’re the same variety because they can have different tannin levels. Then they can be roasted, or ground for coffee or flour. You can make an acorn chocolate cake. More commonly, put it in bread, or tagliatelle with it. They taste, nutty, a bit earthy. There’s a kind of density to it. Leaves Foraging wild greens is amazing because they are crazy abundant and can be used in just about every meal. No surprise, the springtime is usually more revered for foraging greens, but that isn’t to say that autumn doesn’t have any to offer. In fact, as the summer heat dissipates, there are some herbs that are ready to leaf out again. Greens, like mushrooms, do require a bit of caution, as there are some toxic possibilities that are better left unexplored. Part of playing it safe is not harvesting from polluted areas, such as alongside highways or dumping sites. The other part is researching a little and double-checking once a potentially tasty leaf has been found. Again, go for the easy-to-identify stuff first. Here are five easy Autumn finds:  chickweed dandelion plantain sheep sorre wild mustard greens With just a few of these, it’s possible to forage a lot of food for free. Wild foods tend to have stronger flavours and be packed with nutrients. Foraging is a fun thing to do, another reason to get outdoors, enjoy nature, see the Autumn foliage, and make the most of what’s around us. In other words, Autumn is here, and it’s time to get started! Before you go! Recommended:  Spider-Woman: Tarantula Staple Food Gets A Snack: Cambodia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Autumn is an exciting time. Not only for cycling, running and photo’s like we wrote in our last NewsLetter but also for food and what you can find in nature. There is plenty to find, of course depending where you live. Healthier food choices almost always benefit the environment as well. Autumn’s Wild Food Autumn is a fantastic time to forage. With the end of the summer growing season, after everything has been blasted with sunshine, there are lots of exciting options for good eats to be found without us having to cultivate a thing. We just need to get better at responsibly taking advantage of what nature has to offer. Foraging requires both a knowledge of what can be found, as well as the drive to go out and find it. For enthusiasts, there are books upon books of edible wild plants, but for novices, these can be absolutely overwhelming. The trick for getting started with foraging - and Autumn is an awesome time to do it - is to tackle only a couple of plants at a time. Before long, both forests and fields will seem like smorgasbords. For now, get together a basket or something to carry the bounty in, a sharp knife or scissors for harvesting, and some decent shoes for clambering about. Here are some great Autumn finds for getting started with foraging. Autumn’s Wild Food: Mushrooms Mushrooms are probably the most terrifying thing to forage because we all know that there are poisonous ones out there. While this is something we definitely shouldn’t forget, that isn’t to say that we shouldn’t - even as beginners - go out in search of wild mushrooms. We just need to use caution, some common sense, and readily available information. What is a mushroom considered? A mushroom is neither a fruit nor a vegetable; technically mushrooms aren't even plants. They are a special type of fungus a notion that puts some people off. If you don't mind the fungus part, though, mushrooms are a great addition to a healthy diet not to mention totally delicious. There are some great websites to help identify mushrooms, as well as become aware of what’s on the go in your area at any time of year. These can be used to spur the hunt for particular types of mushrooms, choosing ones that are easy to find and identify. Recommended:  Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere Edible Wild Mushrooms And Some Not To Touch {youtube}                                                                   Mushroom Foraging for Beginners Throughout history, people around the world have foraged wild mushrooms for food. Gathering wild mushrooms can also be an extremely rewarding and interesting hobby. However, those who do it must proceed with the utmost caution. Though many wild mushrooms are highly nutritious, delicious, and safe to consume, others pose a serious risk to your health and can even cause death if ingested. For this reason, it’s critical to only hunt mushrooms with someone who’s highly experienced at identifying both edible and poisonous mushrooms. Hen-Of-The-Woods Grifola frondosa, commonly known as hen-of-the-woods or maitake, is an edible mushroom that’s a favourite of mushroom hunters. Growth Hen-of-the-woods is a polypore a type of fungus that has small pores covering its underside. They grow on the bases of trees in shelf-like clusters, favouring hardwoods like oak. These clusters resemble the tail feathers of a sitting hen hence the name ‘hen-of-the-woods’. Several hen-of-the-woods may grow on a single tree. This mushroom is native to China but also grows in Japan and North America, especially the northeaster United States. They are not common in Europe. It’s a perennial mushroom and often grows in the same spot for many years. Identification Hen-of-the-woods are grayish-brown in colour, while the underside of the caps and branch-like stalk are white, though colouring can vary. These mushrooms are most commonly found in the Autumn, but they can be found less frequently in the summer months as well. Hen-of-the-woods can grow quite large. Some mushroom hunters have scored massive mushrooms weighing up to 50 pounds (about 23 kg), but most weigh 3–15 pounds (1.5–7 kg). A helpful clue when identifying hen-of-the-woods is that it does not have gills, and the underside of its cap has tiny pores, which are smallest at the edges. Don’t eat older specimens that are orange or reddish in color, as they may be contaminated with bacteria or mold. Hen-of-the-woods is often favoured by beginner mushroom hunters. It’s distinctive and does not have many dangerous look-alikes, making it a safe option for novices. Nutrition Hen-of-the-woods are quite nutritious and particularly high in the B vitamins folate, niacin (B3), and riboflavin (B2), all of which are involved in energy metabolism and cellular growth. This mushroom also contains powerful health-promoting compounds, including complex carbohydrates called glucans. These mushrooms may have cholesterol-reducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Hen-of-the-woods have a savory, rich flavour and are delicious when added to stir-fries, sautés, grain dishes, and soups. What are the benefits of mushrooms? Mushrooms are packed with nutritional value. They're low in calories, are great sources of fiber and protein (good for plant-based diets). They also provide many important nutrients, including B vitamins, selenium, potassium, copper, and (particularly when exposed to the sun) vitamin D Oyster Mushroom The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a delicious edible mushroom that resembles an oyster in shape and is commonly sought after by mushroom hunters. Growth Oyster mushrooms grow in forests around the world, including throughout North America. These mushrooms grow on dead or dying hardwood trees like beech and oak trees. They can sometimes be found growing on Autumnen branches and dead stumps. Oyster mushrooms decompose decaying wood and release nutrients into the soil, recycling nutrients to be used by other plants and organisms in forest ecosystems. They can be found during the spring and Autumn months in the Northern United States and year-round in warmer climates. Identification Oyster mushrooms grow in clusters resembling shelves on dead or dying hardwood trees. Depending on the time of year, the tops of the oyster-shaped caps of these mushrooms can range from white to brownish-gray and are typically 2–8 inches (5–20 cm) wide. The undersides of the caps are covered with tightly spaced gills that run down the stubby, sometimes non-existent, stem and are white or tan in colour. Oyster mushrooms can grow in large numbers, and many different clusters can be found on the same tree. Nutrition Oyster mushrooms have thick, white, mild-tasting flesh that contains a variety of nutrients. They are particularly high in B vitamins, including niacin (B3) and riboflavin (B2), as well as the minerals potassium, copper, iron, and zinc. They also contain powerful anti-inflammatory plant compounds. Oyster mushrooms are excellent sautéed with onions and garlic as a side dish. You can also add them to soups, pastas, and meat dishes. Sulphur Shelf Mushroom The sulphur shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus) mushroom is also known as chicken-of-the-woods or chicken mushroom. It’s a bright orange or yellow mushroom with a unique, meaty flavour. Growth Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on hardwood trees in North America and Europe. These mushrooms can either act as parasites on living or dying trees, or derive nutrients from dead trees, such as rotting tree stumps. Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on trees in shelf-like clusters. They are commonly found on large oak trees and typically harvested during the summer and Autumn months. It should be noted that sulphur shelf look-alike Laetiporus species exist. They grow on conifer trees should be avoided, as they can cause severe allergic reactions in some people. Identification Sulphur shelf mushrooms are typically orange or yellow in colour and grow in overlapping shelf-like clusters on hardwoods, such as oak, willow, and chestnut. The caps of the mushroom are fan-like or semi-circular in shape and typically 2–12 inches (5–30 cm) across and up to 8 inches (20 cm) deep. The sulphur shelf does not have gills, and the underside of the caps is covered with tiny pores. This mushroom has a smooth, suede-like texture and yellow-orange colour, which fades to a dull white when the mushroom is past maturity. Many sulphur shelf mushrooms may grow on a single tree, with individual mushrooms growing heavier than 50 pounds (23 kg). Nutrition Like most mushrooms, sulphur shelf mushrooms are low in calories and offer a good amount of nutrients, including fiber, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium. They have been shown to have antifungal and antioxidant properties. Sulphur shelf mushrooms should be eaten cooked not raw. You can bring out their meaty texture and hearty flavour by sautéing them with butter, adding them to vegetable dishes, or mixing them into omelettes. How can you tell if a mushroom is safe to eat? Avoid mushrooms with white gills, a skirt or ring on the stem and a bulbous or sack like base called a volva. You may be missing out on some good edible fungi but it means you will be avoiding the deadly members of the Amanita family. Avoid mushrooms with red on the cap or stem. Recommended: Mushroom Recipes Poisonous mushrooms to avoid Though many wild mushrooms can be enjoyed safely, others pose a threat to your health. Never consume the following mushrooms: Death cap (Amanita phalloides) . Death caps are among the most poisonous of all mushrooms and responsible for the majority of mushroom-related deaths worldwide. They grow in many countries around the world. Conocybe filaris.  This mushroom grows in Europe, Asia, and North America and contains the same toxins as the Death cap. It has a smooth, cone-like cap that is brownish in color. They are highly toxic and can be fatal if ingested. Autumn skullcap (Galerina marginata) . Also known as the ‘deadly Galerina’, autumn skullcaps are among the most poisonous of mushrooms. They have small, brown caps and grow on rotting wood. Death angel (Amanita ocreata) . Related to the death cap, the death angel grows along the West Coast of the United States. This mushroom is mostly white and can cause severe illness and death if eaten. False morels (Gyromitra esculenta and Gyromitra infula).  These resemble edible true morels, making them especially dangerous. Unlike true morels, they are not completely hollow when cut. Fruits: Autumn’s Wild Food What fruits are found in the forest? The most common types of forest fruits are berries, such as blackberries, serviceberries, lignonberries, elderberries, blueberries. Wild plum, pawpaw and hardy kiwi are other forest fruits of interest. Though all of those lovely summer berries will have come and gone, lots of fruits produce their bounty in the Autumn, and depending on where we are, there is every bit of a possibility of stumbling upon wild varieties of these fruits. We just have to learn to harvest a bushel or two and make the most of the season. Apples are probably the number one Autumn time harvest, and these are often in neighbourhoods or areas where people have left a mark. Crab apples tend to be the wilder option. Persimmons and prickly pears are both reaching readiness in the autumn. In some areas, wild grapes will be producing tasty bunches, either for snacking or making jelly. Elderberries are also a possibility in Autumn. 'Go Nuts' Nuts are a great find on a forage because we can usually identify them without much trouble, and they are fairly common in the wild. Unlike any other foraged food, these will bring a good helping of calories and healthy fats to the bounty, which is a welcome thing for a plant-based, foraged feast. Autumn is the best time to find nuts. What are nuts considered? A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context ‘nut’ implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). There are lots of options to keep an eye out for, and some of these will definitely depend on location. Walnuts start in late summer and can be found into the middle of Autumn, at which time chestnuts are coming on in abundance. Pecans are late Autumn additions, and gingko nuts are available throughout the autumn. Acorns are usually present around October, and they’ll require some processing. Tree nuts are tasty, healthy and can be obtained for free. If you are willing to forage, then a bounty of food awaits you in the trees. Harvesting nuts does require patience. You need to identify the best trees, wait for the nuts to drop and check for ripeness. Once you have tapped your inner squirrel and gathered your nuts, they will need to be cleaned, dried, or husked (or all three) before they are ready to eat. Though it is not the easiest task, nut harvests are rewarding in the end. It is a fun project for the family. Black Walnuts Black walnuts are housed inside yellowish-green and brown husks (similar in colour to pears) that are about two inches in diameter. They are further housed inside a tough shell that is dark black. Harvest Time   September and October Harvesting   Allow walnut husks to Autumn from the tree. Remove the husks and cure the nuts before storing. Black walnut produces a mild toxin and husks should not be disposed of in your yard, garden or compost. Chestnuts Chestnuts are dark brown in colour, smooth in texture, are pointed at one end and have an oblong spot on the opposite end that is light brown. They are housed inside a spiny burr, which turns yellowish-brown and opens when the chestnuts are ready for harvest. Harvest Time September through December Harvesting Allow chestnuts to Autumn from the tree. Gather nuts with open burrs and remove burrs. Wear gloves to protect yourself from the spines. English Walnuts English walnuts are housed inside a greenish-black hull. They are further housed inside a tan shell. The nut itself is light brown to golden-brown. Harvest Time Late August through October Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or lay out a blanket and shake the tree. Check a few nuts for ripeness first. Remove husks with gloved hands, or they will stain. Rinse, inspect and dry the nuts Pecans Pecans are housed in a brown oval to an oblong shaped shell. The meat itself is brown in colour and possess two-lobes. Harvest Time Mid-October through November Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or shake the tree. Inspect pecans for damage or worms. Air dry for two weeks before Acorns In Autumn Become The Next ‘Superfood’ The humble acorn has long been ignored. That could all be about to change. In South Korea, acorns have achieved ‘superfood’ status, with people devouring ‘acorn noodles, jelly and powder’. Native Americans relied on acorns – rich in nutrients – as a staple part of their diet. They are farmed in China and South Korea, and often ground into flour. Many cultures make acorn ‘coffee’. They are rich in protein, fats, fibre and essential minerals. Recommended: Acorn Recipes For some people life revolves around acorns. These people produce cookies made from acorn flour. Protecting oak trees, and planting more, could help tackle the climate crisis and that acorns are good for food security because they can be stored, squirrel-like, long-term. Now is the perfect season. You might think to head off to the woods, but go to parks, gardens and golf courses. The acorns Autumn on to clean, short grass, which makes them easier to collect than rooting through leaf litter. Getting them ready to eat, takes a little bit of work. You need to shell them first. If you’re working small-scale, you could just slit them with a knife and pop them out of their shell. With bigger harvests (remembering to leave enough for wildlife), Drennan likes to dry them – you can do it on a radiator or spread out in a warm room – before sandwiching them between two sheets and getting some friends round to dance and stamp on them. Then you should leach them to get the bitter tannins out. Put them in a porous sack and stick them in a toilet cistern. That can take between two and six weeks, as the quantity of tannin can be variable. Don’t mix batches from different trees, even if they’re the same variety because they can have different tannin levels. Then they can be roasted, or ground for coffee or flour. You can make an acorn chocolate cake. More commonly, put it in bread, or tagliatelle with it. They taste, nutty, a bit earthy. There’s a kind of density to it. Leaves Foraging wild greens is amazing because they are crazy abundant and can be used in just about every meal. No surprise, the springtime is usually more revered for foraging greens, but that isn’t to say that autumn doesn’t have any to offer. In fact, as the summer heat dissipates, there are some herbs that are ready to leaf out again. Greens, like mushrooms, do require a bit of caution, as there are some toxic possibilities that are better left unexplored. Part of playing it safe is not harvesting from polluted areas, such as alongside highways or dumping sites. The other part is researching a little and double-checking once a potentially tasty leaf has been found. Again, go for the easy-to-identify stuff first. Here are five easy Autumn finds:  chickweed dandelion plantain sheep sorre wild mustard greens With just a few of these, it’s possible to forage a lot of food for free. Wild foods tend to have stronger flavours and be packed with nutrients. Foraging is a fun thing to do, another reason to get outdoors, enjoy nature, see the Autumn foliage, and make the most of what’s around us. In other words, Autumn is here, and it’s time to get started! Before you go! Recommended:  Spider-Woman: Tarantula Staple Food Gets A Snack: Cambodia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Is Autumn’s Wild Food Healthy And Good For The Environment?
Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere
Environmental action group Extinction Rebellion disrupted London Fashion Week to highlight the harms of throwaway culture and the concurrent climate emergency that the clothing market contributes to.  Calling for the cancellation of future fashion weeks in acknowledgement of the crisis, it plans to target show venues and hold a funeral procession called 'London Fashion Week: Rest in Peace'. These may be new tactics but the problems with the industry have long been known. Very high water usage, pollution, a high carbon footprint and bad working conditions mean that the fashion industry, and in particular cheap cotton garments such as denim jeans, are known to be extremely environmentally and socially damaging. This is before we even consider the impact of fast fashion, inexpensive clothing produced rapidly in response to the latest trends. Such items inevitably end up in an overfull landfill site before they are even near 'worn out'. Sustainable Fashion: Slow Fashion Currently in Vogue is the concept of 'slow fashion', an approach which considers the processes and resources required to make clothing and recommends that we buy quality garments that will last for longer. Another often touted option is the recommendation that we simply buy less, something encouraged by the protest groups involved in ‘Buy Nothing Day’ and initiatives such as Oxfam’s. Attempting to reduce the demand for new clothes is certainly going to be an important part of a more sustainable future. But what this ignores is the fact that the fashion industry is not a system that is about need. Rather, it is driven by desire, aspiration, gender politics and celebrity culture. Changing behaviour – by encouraging consumers to stop buying new things at all – would, to us, seem more immediately difficult and multifaceted than creating an alternative, aesthetically viable material solution. What is mushroom fabric? A new organic textile has been developed that is grown from mushroom spores and plant fibres. The material is called MYX, from the mycelium: the vegetable part of a mushroom. MYX is grown during a 3-4 week period, using the oyster mushroom, a common edible fungus. ... It is grown on a matrix of strands of plant fibre But this does not seem to be reflected in most design attempts so far to create sustainable, circular fashion. Take the rise of ‘fair trade fashion’ and organic cotton, for example. In our view, most of these purportedly sustainable alternatives do not seem to be able to tackle the complexity of the fashion system or the different components of it adequately. Organic cotton is still environmentally harmful and the price of “fair trade” fashion is often prohibitively expensive for many consumers. Another recent design trend is the use of electronics and 'smart materials' to make garments interactive and more engaging, supposedly giving them longevity. But there is little research into how such textiles may be disposed of – and they are not likely to be cheap, either. As such, we feel that materials that are already abundant in nature offer the best alternatives. Think of polylactic acid (PLA), a substance made from vegetable starch and already used to make biodegradable carrier bags but have the potential to be developed into textiles. Or Tencel and Lyocell, materials that are made from sustainable wood pulp and are already on the market. Then there’s anything made from collagen, “animal protein” and a natural polymer, which although not so popular with vegans, has been developed into ‘Zoa’, a luxury leather alternative by Modern Meadow, and our own experiments working with waste materials. Sustainable materials of this kind are what we should be focusing on. Mushroom Materials Create Sustainable Fashion Particularly exciting are the growing number of companies producing mushroom alternatives to packaging, building materials and leather. Stella McCartney, for example, is collaborating with Bolt Threads on a ‘Mylo’ mushroom leather range of accessories. Shoes made from mushrooms by Stella McCartney There are several projects and companies working in this area and their outputs are diverse and inventive. Of particular note are MycoWorks, who have created 'a new kind of leather grown rapidly from mycelium and agricultural by-products in a carbon-negative process'. They say that the material is sustainable, versatile, and animal–free. MuSkin, another leather alternative, is made out of Phellinus ellipsoideus, a fungus that rots wood in subtropical forests. Meanwhile, Ecovative Design, who started out making an alternative to plastic packaging but have branched out into creating leather and foam from mycelium. Package material made from mushrooms And in a similar area – not using fungi but microbes – is leather made from the cellulosic scoby bacteria that is used in the making of kombucha tea. There are lots of companies experimenting with this technique, such as Biocouture. This material, when dried out, looks like a clear, pale brown leather with a flexible plastic texture. How do you make mushroom bricks? The mushroom brick is "grown" by mixing together chopped-up corn husks with mycelium. The mixture is then put into a brick mould and left to grow for five days. The result is a brick that is solid, but lightweight. The 'mushroom tower' is then assembled using a custom algorithm to lay the bricks layer by layer. We have our own experience in this field: a couple of years ago we collaborated on an attempt to make a material out of mushrooms. We grew our material from the vegetable waste from a tuber-derived cellulose powder product made by a company in Scotland. We wanted to create a location-specific fungal material, differing from the other current projects mentioned. Our initial samples looked and had the texture and appearance of furry burnt crisps: it was clear we weren’t going to grow jeans or undermine the denim industry in the short space of time we had. But this objective and passion for the possibilities of mycelium in this context has stayed with us, and we are not the only ones. The benefits of growing a textile-like material from fungi or bacteria as opposed to cotton, man-made fabrics or worse still, blends such as ‘poly-cotton’ are many. Fungi are naturally abundant in nature, quick to grow (on a range of waste materials) and their growth uses a lot less water than traditional textile manufacture. In theory, a fungal product is also completely biodegradable, can be strong, can be colourful, water repellent, can be edible, and can have medicinal properties. And the list goes on. Bio 'Bomber Jack' made from mushrooms As a way to disrupt the fashion system as a whole, fungi or bacteria based textile alternatives might still be some way off. But while the over consumption and toxic wastefulness of the fashion and traditional textile industry continues, design in this area can also be seen as an act of environmental protest. One of the greatest challenges faced by the textiles and fashion industry is to make itself more sustainable, not just in terms of economic and labour force issues but in the face of ecological necessity. The production of textiles involves a long chain of complex processes to convert raw materials such as fibres or petroleum into finished fabrics or fashion products. These processes are typically resource intensive, requiring high concentrations of chemicals, large amounts of water and involving high temperatures and long processing times. This commonly results in high energy consumption and waste. Recommended:  Sustainable Fabric By IKEA and NIKE Textile Without Pollution A transition towards a more sustainable textiles and fashion sector requires approaches that can minimise its environmental and social impacts, therefore opting for cleaner manufacturing processes which can dramatically reduce carbon emissions and water use and eliminate the use of harmful chemicals. Here are five ways nature is being explored by individuals, research teams and industry to help make fashion more sustainable. Scientists are uncovering and exploiting underlying mechanisms and models found in nature to design new materials, processes and products as well as systems of production for the future. These range from traditional to contemporary processes that use low or high-tech methods, practised by artists in their studios to scientists in labs or artists and scientists working together collaboratively. Design Tools: Enzymes Enzymes are highly specific biocatalysts found within the cells of all living organisms. They offer the possibility of manufacturing textiles using simpler and less severe processing conditions which can reduce the consumption of chemicals, energy and water and the generation of waste. As a result, enzymes have successfully replaced a range of industrial textile processes, since they started being used in the early part of the 20th century. Cellulases and another group of enzymes called laccases are used in the production of stonewashed denim fabrics and garments. Stonewashed effects on indigo dyed cotton denim used to be created by pumice stones – but the use of pumice stones caused damage to both fibres and machines. Working with colleagues from De Montfort University, I have been investigating the possibilities of using laccase and protease as creative design tools to make industrial textile processes more sustainable. In our research we used enzymes to synthesise textile dyes and pattern fabrics using ambient processing conditions, such as temperatures as low as 50°C at atmospheric pressure. We now have ways to create many different colours with just a slight alteration of processing conditions, reacting enzymes and compounds together in various different conditions in a technique that eliminates the need to use pre-manufactured dyes. Leather: Zoa From collagen: The area of synthetic biology is growing at a rapid rate, and as a result many companies such as New York-based Modern Meadow are exploring the possibilities this area of modern science offers. The company has successfully bio-fabricated a leather alternative called Zoa. The advanced material is constructed from collagen (a protein) – the main component of natural leather – but Zoa is designed and grown in a lab from animal-free collagen derived from yeast. The material is capable of replicating the qualities of leather and offers new design aesthetics and performance properties not previously possible – while also eliminating the high environmental impact of raising cows and tanning their hides (which is often a toxic process). From fungi: Similarly, San Francisco-based MycoWorks – among others – has been exploring the possibilities of creating sustainable materials using fungi. Mycelium, (a mushroom root material) which is grown from fungi and agricultural by-products is custom engineered in a lab using a carbon negative process. It is easy to cultivate, fast growing and can be easily manipulated to adopt the properties similar to leather and many other mainstream materials such as wood and polystyrene. Sustainable Fashion: Roots, Inspidere Grass roots: An interesting project by the artist Diana Scherer called Interwoven explores the fabrication of materials using living plant networks which could be used to construct garments of the future. She has developed a process which manipulates oat and wheat plant roots to grow intricate lace-like textile materials. {youtube}                                            Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere                                                              The future of fashion: Diana Scherer She buries templates in the soil that act as moulds, which manipulates and channels the plants root systems to reveal woven structures constructed from geometrics and delicate motifs once the fabric is excavated. Cow manure: In a circular economy model, nothing is considered waste. In the Netherlands, a company called Inspidere has developed a method it has called Mestic that uses cow manure to produce new textiles. The processing method enables cellulose to be extracted from manure to produce two materials, viscose and cellulose acetate. The manure is separated and processed in a lab to extract pure cellulose, which is further processed to create viscose (regenerated cellulose) and cellulose acetate (bio-plastic), both of which can be turned into textiles. The group have achieved lab-scale success, the challenge remains to scale this process up commercially. These are just a few of the ways in which nature is being harnessed to provide the textile and fashion industry with realistic and viable options to move towards sustainability. Before you go! Recommended:  Israeli 3D Printed Fashion As Sustainable Works Of Art Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Environmental action group Extinction Rebellion disrupted London Fashion Week to highlight the harms of throwaway culture and the concurrent climate emergency that the clothing market contributes to.  Calling for the cancellation of future fashion weeks in acknowledgement of the crisis, it plans to target show venues and hold a funeral procession called 'London Fashion Week: Rest in Peace'. These may be new tactics but the problems with the industry have long been known. Very high water usage, pollution, a high carbon footprint and bad working conditions mean that the fashion industry, and in particular cheap cotton garments such as denim jeans, are known to be extremely environmentally and socially damaging. This is before we even consider the impact of fast fashion, inexpensive clothing produced rapidly in response to the latest trends. Such items inevitably end up in an overfull landfill site before they are even near 'worn out'. Sustainable Fashion: Slow Fashion Currently in Vogue is the concept of 'slow fashion', an approach which considers the processes and resources required to make clothing and recommends that we buy quality garments that will last for longer. Another often touted option is the recommendation that we simply buy less, something encouraged by the protest groups involved in ‘Buy Nothing Day’ and initiatives such as Oxfam’s. Attempting to reduce the demand for new clothes is certainly going to be an important part of a more sustainable future. But what this ignores is the fact that the fashion industry is not a system that is about need. Rather, it is driven by desire, aspiration, gender politics and celebrity culture. Changing behaviour – by encouraging consumers to stop buying new things at all – would, to us, seem more immediately difficult and multifaceted than creating an alternative, aesthetically viable material solution. What is mushroom fabric? A new organic textile has been developed that is grown from mushroom spores and plant fibres. The material is called MYX, from the mycelium: the vegetable part of a mushroom. MYX is grown during a 3-4 week period, using the oyster mushroom, a common edible fungus. ... It is grown on a matrix of strands of plant fibre But this does not seem to be reflected in most design attempts so far to create sustainable, circular fashion. Take the rise of ‘fair trade fashion’ and organic cotton, for example. In our view, most of these purportedly sustainable alternatives do not seem to be able to tackle the complexity of the fashion system or the different components of it adequately. Organic cotton is still environmentally harmful and the price of “fair trade” fashion is often prohibitively expensive for many consumers. Another recent design trend is the use of electronics and 'smart materials' to make garments interactive and more engaging, supposedly giving them longevity. But there is little research into how such textiles may be disposed of – and they are not likely to be cheap, either. As such, we feel that materials that are already abundant in nature offer the best alternatives. Think of polylactic acid (PLA), a substance made from vegetable starch and already used to make biodegradable carrier bags but have the potential to be developed into textiles. Or Tencel and Lyocell, materials that are made from sustainable wood pulp and are already on the market. Then there’s anything made from collagen, “animal protein” and a natural polymer, which although not so popular with vegans, has been developed into ‘Zoa’, a luxury leather alternative by Modern Meadow, and our own experiments working with waste materials. Sustainable materials of this kind are what we should be focusing on. Mushroom Materials Create Sustainable Fashion Particularly exciting are the growing number of companies producing mushroom alternatives to packaging, building materials and leather. Stella McCartney, for example, is collaborating with Bolt Threads on a ‘Mylo’ mushroom leather range of accessories. Shoes made from mushrooms by Stella McCartney There are several projects and companies working in this area and their outputs are diverse and inventive. Of particular note are MycoWorks, who have created 'a new kind of leather grown rapidly from mycelium and agricultural by-products in a carbon-negative process'. They say that the material is sustainable, versatile, and animal–free. MuSkin, another leather alternative, is made out of Phellinus ellipsoideus, a fungus that rots wood in subtropical forests. Meanwhile, Ecovative Design, who started out making an alternative to plastic packaging but have branched out into creating leather and foam from mycelium. Package material made from mushrooms And in a similar area – not using fungi but microbes – is leather made from the cellulosic scoby bacteria that is used in the making of kombucha tea. There are lots of companies experimenting with this technique, such as Biocouture. This material, when dried out, looks like a clear, pale brown leather with a flexible plastic texture. How do you make mushroom bricks? The mushroom brick is "grown" by mixing together chopped-up corn husks with mycelium. The mixture is then put into a brick mould and left to grow for five days. The result is a brick that is solid, but lightweight. The 'mushroom tower' is then assembled using a custom algorithm to lay the bricks layer by layer. We have our own experience in this field: a couple of years ago we collaborated on an attempt to make a material out of mushrooms. We grew our material from the vegetable waste from a tuber-derived cellulose powder product made by a company in Scotland. We wanted to create a location-specific fungal material, differing from the other current projects mentioned. Our initial samples looked and had the texture and appearance of furry burnt crisps: it was clear we weren’t going to grow jeans or undermine the denim industry in the short space of time we had. But this objective and passion for the possibilities of mycelium in this context has stayed with us, and we are not the only ones. The benefits of growing a textile-like material from fungi or bacteria as opposed to cotton, man-made fabrics or worse still, blends such as ‘poly-cotton’ are many. Fungi are naturally abundant in nature, quick to grow (on a range of waste materials) and their growth uses a lot less water than traditional textile manufacture. In theory, a fungal product is also completely biodegradable, can be strong, can be colourful, water repellent, can be edible, and can have medicinal properties. And the list goes on. Bio 'Bomber Jack' made from mushrooms As a way to disrupt the fashion system as a whole, fungi or bacteria based textile alternatives might still be some way off. But while the over consumption and toxic wastefulness of the fashion and traditional textile industry continues, design in this area can also be seen as an act of environmental protest. One of the greatest challenges faced by the textiles and fashion industry is to make itself more sustainable, not just in terms of economic and labour force issues but in the face of ecological necessity. The production of textiles involves a long chain of complex processes to convert raw materials such as fibres or petroleum into finished fabrics or fashion products. These processes are typically resource intensive, requiring high concentrations of chemicals, large amounts of water and involving high temperatures and long processing times. This commonly results in high energy consumption and waste. Recommended:  Sustainable Fabric By IKEA and NIKE Textile Without Pollution A transition towards a more sustainable textiles and fashion sector requires approaches that can minimise its environmental and social impacts, therefore opting for cleaner manufacturing processes which can dramatically reduce carbon emissions and water use and eliminate the use of harmful chemicals. Here are five ways nature is being explored by individuals, research teams and industry to help make fashion more sustainable. Scientists are uncovering and exploiting underlying mechanisms and models found in nature to design new materials, processes and products as well as systems of production for the future. These range from traditional to contemporary processes that use low or high-tech methods, practised by artists in their studios to scientists in labs or artists and scientists working together collaboratively. Design Tools: Enzymes Enzymes are highly specific biocatalysts found within the cells of all living organisms. They offer the possibility of manufacturing textiles using simpler and less severe processing conditions which can reduce the consumption of chemicals, energy and water and the generation of waste. As a result, enzymes have successfully replaced a range of industrial textile processes, since they started being used in the early part of the 20th century. Cellulases and another group of enzymes called laccases are used in the production of stonewashed denim fabrics and garments. Stonewashed effects on indigo dyed cotton denim used to be created by pumice stones – but the use of pumice stones caused damage to both fibres and machines. Working with colleagues from De Montfort University, I have been investigating the possibilities of using laccase and protease as creative design tools to make industrial textile processes more sustainable. In our research we used enzymes to synthesise textile dyes and pattern fabrics using ambient processing conditions, such as temperatures as low as 50°C at atmospheric pressure. We now have ways to create many different colours with just a slight alteration of processing conditions, reacting enzymes and compounds together in various different conditions in a technique that eliminates the need to use pre-manufactured dyes. Leather: Zoa From collagen: The area of synthetic biology is growing at a rapid rate, and as a result many companies such as New York-based Modern Meadow are exploring the possibilities this area of modern science offers. The company has successfully bio-fabricated a leather alternative called Zoa. The advanced material is constructed from collagen (a protein) – the main component of natural leather – but Zoa is designed and grown in a lab from animal-free collagen derived from yeast. The material is capable of replicating the qualities of leather and offers new design aesthetics and performance properties not previously possible – while also eliminating the high environmental impact of raising cows and tanning their hides (which is often a toxic process). From fungi: Similarly, San Francisco-based MycoWorks – among others – has been exploring the possibilities of creating sustainable materials using fungi. Mycelium, (a mushroom root material) which is grown from fungi and agricultural by-products is custom engineered in a lab using a carbon negative process. It is easy to cultivate, fast growing and can be easily manipulated to adopt the properties similar to leather and many other mainstream materials such as wood and polystyrene. Sustainable Fashion: Roots, Inspidere Grass roots: An interesting project by the artist Diana Scherer called Interwoven explores the fabrication of materials using living plant networks which could be used to construct garments of the future. She has developed a process which manipulates oat and wheat plant roots to grow intricate lace-like textile materials. {youtube}                                            Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere                                                              The future of fashion: Diana Scherer She buries templates in the soil that act as moulds, which manipulates and channels the plants root systems to reveal woven structures constructed from geometrics and delicate motifs once the fabric is excavated. Cow manure: In a circular economy model, nothing is considered waste. In the Netherlands, a company called Inspidere has developed a method it has called Mestic that uses cow manure to produce new textiles. The processing method enables cellulose to be extracted from manure to produce two materials, viscose and cellulose acetate. The manure is separated and processed in a lab to extract pure cellulose, which is further processed to create viscose (regenerated cellulose) and cellulose acetate (bio-plastic), both of which can be turned into textiles. The group have achieved lab-scale success, the challenge remains to scale this process up commercially. These are just a few of the ways in which nature is being harnessed to provide the textile and fashion industry with realistic and viable options to move towards sustainability. Before you go! Recommended:  Israeli 3D Printed Fashion As Sustainable Works Of Art Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere
Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere
Best Sustainable Autumn Life: Exercise, Food, Lifestyle
Autumn is an exciting time, and it’s great for cycling and running. Cycling and r unning all year round is great but there’s something special about lacing up for a run when the ground is covered in crunchy brown leaves and the sky is a hazy grey. Cycling, Running, Food And Photo's! Tips & Tricks Now is also the perfect time for snuggling up, all warm and cosy indoors with some comforting food . Comfort food doesn’t have to be unhealthy though! In fact, the wonderful array of foods in season at the moment are just right for cooking delicious, healthy and comforting meals. We present you some of the healthy foods that autumn has to offer and some delicious, healthy recipe ideas to use them in. For photographers, autumn is the most photogenic of seasons : once-uniformly green trees turn a thousand shades of red, brown and yellow; misty mornings give landscapes an eerie, otherworldly feel; nature is at its most spectacular as animals make last-minute preparations for hibernation or put on dramatic displays.  So lets start cycling and running in a beautiful coloured autumn. Treat yourself on a delicious meal while enjoying the photo’s you just made during your activities outside. Autumn Is The Perfect Time To Start Commuting By Bicycle You have places to go While you likely move around quite frequently year-round to the office, school, social events and to run errands, after summer life can feel a little busier. With a lot going on, it may seem intimidating to change the way you get around. Don’t let that stop you. Instead, use it as motivation to ride your bike consistently so you get everywhere you need to be in a timely manner energized and feeling great. You’ve gotten into a routine More commitments with school, work and family can mean you fall into an autumn routine quite quickly after the fluidity of the summer months. You can use that structure to your advantage to form a routine of commuting. You already know a lot of your schedule making it easier to slot in time for your bike commuting. You can even find yourself saving time because on some trips, taking your bike may be faster than walking or public transportation. The weather is cooler A big hurdle for commuting by bike for some people is arriving at your destination sweaty and a little dishevelled. Cooler temperatures mean you won’t sweat as much on your commute. Ride with a change of clothes to make sure you are able to freshen up upon arriving at your destination. The roads and public transportation networks are busy The academic year is in full swing and everyone is back in the city after their summer vacations. You may have noticed the roads are jammed with traffic and the public transportation networks are operating at full capacity. Use this as motivation to get on your bike finding a means of transportation that can be extremely rewarding mentally and physically. Getting out in fresh air and getting some exercise is a great way to start your day leaving the stress of congestion behind. Staying active is tough when you are busy with school/work If you are feeling staying active has fallen by the wayside because of your busy schedule, commuting by bike may just be the solution you are looking for. While it will depend on the length of the commutes you need to make, any exercise when you aren’t getting a lot is a good start that can start build positive momentum. Exersice and time outside is so important to your happiness and mental health. Cycling can be a big part of improving your headspace. Recommended:  Bicycles Without Battery: We Just Forgot They Are Cleanest {youtube}                                                                               Top 5 | 2020 Mountain Bikes Health In Autumn Amazing Benefits Of Running In Autumn Autumn is for many the favourite time of the year. The leaves are brown, the sky is grey, the air is crisp, and it’s time for harvest. The nights get dark quicker, and the temperature drops. The temperature is just right Running in Autumn is not too hot or too cold. It’s just right. In some countries we sometimes (if we’re lucky) have a boiling hot summer which can make running difficult. Not only is your risk of dehydration and sunburn higher, but the increased humidity and temperatures also makes running a sweaty and challenging ordeal. On the other side of the spectrum, running in early Spring or Winter can be extremely freezing and uncomfortable. Autumn is in the middle of hot and cold. With this comfortable temperature, you’ll be able to start the run without shivering, but you won’t get too hot when you get going. A great benefit of running in Autumn. Your favourite routes are less busy Summer is the peak time for tourist activity in most places. During Summer, scenic running routes are often populated by holidaymakers or visitors looking to enjoy themselves. There’s nothing wrong with people enjoying themselves, but lots of people make running routes chaotic and difficult to manoeuvre. In the summer, favourite routes are local parks and trails and they are often filled with tourists. Sidesteps have to be made to avoid picnics, dodge ice-cream vans, and keep a look out so I’m not in the path of a game of frisbee. Autumn grants a break from these hectic scenes. Most probably, the routes will be less busy, and you’ll have some peace and quiet to get on with our Autumn running. Autumn is a beautiful time of year Those who love taking pictures of the environment on route (for Instagram, WhatsOrb and Facebook) know that Autumn is a photogenic season. It’s a beautiful time of year. The leaves turn colour and fall off trees, birds (like nightingales and cuckoos) migrate to warmer climates, fruits and seeds start to produce tasty fruits, farmers harvest their food, and lots of fungi appear. It’s nature central in Autumn, and being a runner is a great way to experience this wonderful season. Go for a run through your favourite trail to see what wonders Autumn has brought to it. Workout by the river and breath in the crisp morning air. Run through a local park and watch for birds in the sky. Stop and take a moment to get some photos, if you like. Autumn runs are wonderful memories to cherish forever. Autumn has fewer distractions If Summer is known for one thing, it’s how social of a season it is. Parties, weddings, holidays, get-togethers, night outs and festivals, all make Summer a busy and chaotic season. There’s nothing wrong with all this activity, and it’s important to enjoy ourselves and make memories with our loved ones. However, amidst all the fun it can be difficult to find time for running. Autumn is when everyone’s social calendar tends to quieten down. The kids go back to school (or university), fewer events are on, and you have some free weekends. Something which rarely happens during the Summer. Take advantage of the free time you have in Autumn and get your running game on. Train for race season Spring and the end of Winter is the busiest time of year for races, like marathons and half marathons. If you want to run a personal best in a race, it’s a great idea to get into training mode during Spring. Get into the zone, focus on your game, and enjoy some proper training. Heading into the new year with a decent level of fitness will mean you’re ready to ace upcoming races and set new personal bests. It’s better to train before race season than to start training when you get to race season. Use Autumn as a training window for race season. You’ll establish strong foundations and set yourself up for fast times. You’re more likely to run in the morning Though some don’t mind, lots of runners prefer to run in the light rather than in the dark. For this reason, people choose to wake up early and run in the morning during the Autumn months which has a tonne of benefits. Benefits of morning running include enhanced productivity for the day, firing up your metabolism, building discipline, enjoying peace and quiet, improved mood and sleeping better, to name a few. When you start running in the morning instead of night during Autumn, you will see your quality of life improving and choose to become a morning runner from that point onwards. Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Enjoy Post-Run Comforts Like Hot Drinks, Showers And Your Bed Let’s be honest, who doesn’t love post-run comforts? These are little things we enjoy doing after an exhausting run to reward our efforts. A lovely coffee, tea, hot chocolate or a delicious meal after a run in the crisp cold that Autumn can bring, will make you feel rewarded. Alternatively, hop in the shower (or the bath if you’re lucky enough to have one) and go for a hot soak to relax your muscles and increase blood flow. If your run has made you sleepy, get into your duvet and snuggle up for some sleep. Beautiful Autumn Recipes Mushrooms On Toast Of an occasional Sunday evening, Dad would make the most delicious mushrooms on toast. Well, actually, he didn’t make toast; rather, he would make the most delicious, perfect squares of immaculately fried bread. It seems obvious when you think about it, for however well-toasted is a slice of bread – even the most accommodating of crusty sourdough – it will, inevitably, begin to slightly sog about halfway through munching. But a nicely thick slice of fried bread will hold its own until the last mouthful. Always the thoughtful and considered cook, my dear old dad. His mother, not the most inspired, kitchen-wise, would have simply opened a can of Chesswood creamed mushrooms and warmed them through on the Aga. But she did fry the bread … though possibly not as well as did her son. His trick was to lightly spread each surface with a smear of good dripping, then fry it on each side in a dry frying pan until super-crisp. His mushrooms were always button, cut in half, stewed in butter, a dusting of flour added and then milk stirred in until a smooth, thick-ish sauce was achieved; if there was some cream (or top-of-milk) in the fridge, a spoonful or two of that to finish. I have always believed he wanted to recreate that can of Chesswood’s but simply because our mother would never have countenanced such slovenly convenience, he made them his own. Serves 2 dried morels 20g (the tinier, the finer) boiled water 150g butter a thick slice salt and pepper white bread 2 thick-ish slices, crustless butter medium sherry 50g dry vermouth 50g shallot 1 small, chopped garlic a scrap, crushed flour 1 tsp whipping cream 100g lemon juice a healthy squeeze chives ½ tbsp, snipped Put the morels into a bowl, cover with the boiling water and leave to soak for at least 30 minutes. Lift out with a slotted spoon into a small saucepan, pop in the butter and add a little seasoning. Put to cook over a very low light, stirring together until the butter has melted and allow to stew for about 10 minutes, covered, really slowly. Sparsely spread the white bread with duck fat (or butter) and quietly fry on each side until golden and crisp. Strain the morel-soaking liquid, using a tea strainer, into another small saucepan and add the sherry, vermouth, shallot and garlic. Simmer until reduced by about two-thirds. Add the flour to the morels, stir around for a minute or 2, then strain in the reduced morel liquor. Simmer till thickened, then stir in the cream. Continue to simmer, uncovered, for a few minutes until the sauce is nicely clinging to the morels and is of a lovely ivory colour. Stir in the lemon juice and chives, then carefully spoon over the fried bread; sprinkle over a few extra chives, if you wish, just to pretty the thing. Eat at once. Maple Toffee Apple And Pear Crisp This is everything I want in an autumn pudding. Melting orchard fruits spiked with ginger and cardamom and a topping that’s half crisp and half crumble, which reminds me of oatmeal cookies. I eat this with thick Greek yogurt mixed with a little honey and vanilla or, if it’s really cold, good hot vanilla custard. Serves 4-6 apples 3 pears 3 maple syrup 2 tbsp prunes 75g dried figs 50g candied ginger, 2 pieces, finely chopped unwaxed lemon 1 vanilla pod 1, seeds scraped (or 1 tsp vanilla paste) ground cinnamon ½ tsp ground cardamom ½ tsp For the topping rolled oats 100g ground almonds 50g butter or coconut oil 100g light brown sugar 75g white spelt flour 100g salt a small pinch To serve Greek or coconut yogurt whipped with a little vanilla and honey Preheat your oven to 200C/gas mark 6. Peel the apples and pears and roughly slice them. Toss them with the maple syrup in a roasting tray and cover the tray with foil. Roast for 15 minutes in the hot oven, then remove the foil and roast for a further 10 minutes until the edges catch and caramelise. Meanwhile, roughly chop 50g of the prunes and all the figs, finely chop the ginger, and place the whole lot into the bottom of a 24cm round (or equivalently sized) baking dish. Grate over the lemon zest and add the juice of ½ the lemon, add the vanilla and spices and mix everything together. Cover the dish with a clean tea towel and leave to one side. Make the topping by rubbing the oats, almonds, butter, sugar, flour and salt together with your fingers. It will feel wetter than a crumble topping and you’ll be left with larger pieces of butter, but you should have a very rough crumbly dough after about 4 minutes. Chop the remaining prunes roughly and mix them through too. When your apples are ready, mix them with the fruit and spices in the baking dish, then sprinkle over the topping. Bake in the oven for 25 minutes, until deep golden. You can serve it with some Greek or coconut yogurt, whipped with a little vanilla and honey. Tagliatelle With White Truffles Piedmontese tagliatelle, called tajarin, with butter and parmesan are one of the best ways to enjoy a white truffle because they do not interfere with its sensational aroma. The Piedmontese white truffles are the most prized and extremely expensive. They must be used very fresh as they lose their aroma at an accelerating pace – their season is between the end of September and mid-January – or preserved in jars or tins, which are not quite as scented as fresh ones. Serves 4 white truffle 1 small unsalted butter 125g parmesan 40g, grated salt and freshly ground black pepper nutmeg a grating tagliatelle 300g, or fettuccine Truffles are generally exported already cleaned. If you need to clean your white truffle, scrub it with a stiff brush and rub it with a moist cloth. Melt the butter and add the grated parmesan and a little salt, pepper and nutmeg. Boil the tagliatelle or fettuccine until al dente, drain quickly and serve immediately, tossed with the melted butter mixture. Shave a little white truffle over each serving with a mandolin or a potato peeler. Variation Black summer truffles from Umbria are relatively cheap – you can buy them fresh in season from October to March – and they are available preserved in jars in some British supermarkets. Their flavour is not as sensational as that of white truffles but it is distinctive and delicate. For 2 small portions of Umbrian tagliatelle con tartufi nerri, cook 100g tagliatelle and prepare the sauce at the same time: bring to the boil 200ml double cream with a few drops of truffle oil (to taste), 2 tablespoons freshly grated parmesan, a little salt and a finely grated small black truffle. When the tagliatelle are al dente, drain and mix them in the pan with the truffle sauce. Red Lentil And Squash Soup With Za’atar Croutons Za’atar is a Palestinian spice mix made from wild thyme, sesame and sumac that has an affinity with sweet root vegetables. Here it is used to make crunchy, tangy croutons to adorn an aromatic soup of roasted butternut squash and spiced lentils. Roasting the squash intensifies its flavour and sweetness, and gives the soup a glorious silky texture that perfectly contrasts with the crispy croutons. Serves 4 butternut squash 1kg, peeled, deseeded and cut into 3cm pieces light olive oil onions 2, finely chopped garlic 4 cloves, crushed cumin seeds ¾ tsp coriander seeds ¾ tsp ground cinnamon ½ tsp red lentils 160g, rinsed vegetable or chicken stock 750ml lemon juice of ½ sea salt and freshly ground black pepper For the toppings stale bread 2 slices (I like to use sourdough for taste and texture) za’atar 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil parsley or coriander leaves chopped Preheat the oven to 200C/gas mark 6. Place the butternut squash on a baking tray and drizzle with light olive oil. Toss the chunks so they are evenly coated in the oil, then roast for 20-30 minutes, until they are soft. Heat 3 tablespoons light olive oil in a large saucepan, add the onions and fry for 10 minutes over a medium heat. Add the garlic, reduce the heat and cook for another few minutes. Meanwhile, toast the cumin and coriander seeds by stirring them in a dry pan over a low heat for a minute until their aromas are released. Grind the seeds in a mortar and pestle or a spice grinder, then add them and the cinnamon to the saucepan with the softened onions. Fry the spices for a few minutes. Add the lentils and 1 litre of just-boiled water. Cover and simmer the soup for 10 minutes. Once the lentils have softened, add the squash, stock, lemon juice, 1 teaspoon salt and ½ teaspoon pepper. Leave to simmer for another 10 minutes. Once the lentils are fully cooked, take the pan off the heat and blend the soup with a hand-held blender. Taste and adjust the seasoning to your preference. To make the croutons, roughly chop the bread into 3cm chunks. Heat 3 tablespoons light olive oil in a frying pan and, once it is very hot, add the bread and sprinkle over the za’atar. Fry the bread, stirring frequently, until it is toasted and crunchy. Place the croutons on some kitchen paper to soak up any excess oil. To serve, ladle the soup into warmed bowls, top with the croutons and finish with a drizzle of extra virgin olive oil and a sprinkling of chopped herbs. Recommended:  Vegan Food You Need To Develop Your Muscles: Protein Power Autumn Photography Tips for capturing colorful autumn photos As summer gives way to autumn, as the days get shorter and nights get longer, and as T-shirts are exchanged for scarves and coats, many people begin to long for balmier days to come around again far too quickly. So wrap up warm and get out among the elements with your camera. Here are ten ideas for easy autumn photography projects… Stag silhouettes Autumn sees one of nature’s greatest spectacles – the rut. Stags lock antlers in ferocious battles as they compete for females in the September to November breeding season. Shoot from a distance – more so for safety as to avoid scaring the deer off – as the creatures are pumped full of testosterone and attacks on humans are not unheard of. A long telephoto lens paired with a wide aperture helps separate deer from their background. Another classic shot is to shoot into the light on an early, misty morning, exposing for the brighter sky so that the deer itself is in silhouette. Autumn portraits For an autumnal portrait you can’t beat a model well-wrapped against the elements surrounded with russet-colored leaves. With a low sun in the sky, you’ll be able to get a well-lit shot without the need for flash or reflectors up until late morning or from early afternoon, by simply facing your models into the sun. Throwing or kicking leaves up into the air adds a sense of fun and movement to the shot, it also gives people something to do, helping avoid a stilted pose. Set Aperture Priority mode on your camera and use a fairly shallow aperture – around f/4 – to ensure the model’s facial features are in sharp focus but to give a layered effect, so that leaves in the foreground and background become progressively out of focus.  Shooting from further back and zooming in with a short telephoto lens will further accentuate the effect. In autumn sunlight this should result in a fast enough shutter speed around 1/200sec to freeze the falling leaves, though a little bit of motion blur can add a sense of dynamism to the shot, too. Take lots of shots as you’re bound to have plenty of duffers – with leaves in front of faces and so on – so set continuous drive mode and shoot in bursts. Pre-focus on the model’s face, but then switch to manual focus, or use the back-button focus technique, to prevent the camera inadvertently switching focus to a nearby leaf.  Luscious landscapes The golden hour – directly after sunrise or just before sunset – is a favourite time for photographers as light is blessed with a wonderful soft, warm quality as it’s filtered by particles in the atmosphere. The downside is that you have to get up at the crack of dawn to make the most of it… But the great thing about autumn time is that sunrise gets later and later, particularly when the clocks go back at the end of October, so dragging yourself out of bed isn’t such a chore as it is in the summer months. The sun stays lower in the sky for longer too, meaning the ‘hour’ lasts a little longer. Shoot with the sun behind you to light up the landscape, to the side to capture elongated shadows, or into the sun for dramatic sunrises. A set of ND grad filters comes in handy, as the sky will be far brighter than the land below, leading to exposure problems. Seasonal wildlife Autumn can be a busy time for animals as they prepare for the winter months ahead when food is scarce. The trick is to learn the habits of your target species – at what time of day and where are they most active? With this established, it’s essential not to get too close – and that means a big telephoto lens of at least 300mm. A fast lens (eg f/2.8 or f/4) is a benefit for more skittish subjects too, and when you need to shoot in low light.  Generally, you’ll be shooting with your lens close to wide open to maximize the light, and to separate your subject from its background. It’s also important to get down to the eye level of your subject, for a far more intimate portrait, and to reduce empty foreground in your shots.  You can increase your success rate by encouraging hungry animals to come to you; set up a feeding station and resort to bribery by leaving food out. Morning mist In early autumn, cold nights are often followed by warm days, and this big variation in temperature provides the ideal conditions for creating mist and fog; as night air cools, moisture in it condenses and then forms low-lying pockets of ground-hugging mist as the temperature rises.  All the same, it’s hard to predict with any certainty when the conditions will be just right for mist to form, and exactly where and how thick it will be. A cold, still night followed by a warm morning, with visibility dropping overnight, is a good indicator of mist forming.   Mist is at its most atmospheric around sunrise – and soon begins to evaporate and disperse, so your window of opportunity is limited. You’ll need to be at an elevated position; shooting into a valley, with trees or castle ruins poking out of the mist works well, as does shooting across low-lying fields, with foliage and distant hills breaking through the fog. Mist often forms over large bodies of water, so shooting over lakes is another good option.  You’ll need a tripod as you’ll be shooting at slow shutter speeds in the low dawn light. A long lens, such as a 70-200mm telephoto, compresses perspective and emphasizes the layered effect of mist. The relatively bright mist is likely to fool your metering system into underexposing, so check your histogram and apply around +1 stop of exposure compensation, as required. Reflections Make the most of the abundant color in the landscape by doubling the rich autumn palette. You’ll need a high vantage point to shoot down to a lake to reflect as much of the scene as possible.  Ideal conditions are a calm windless day, so the surface of the water is as still as possible for a mirror-like reflection. Shoot with your back to the sun so that the landscape is illuminated to maximize the reflected color. If there’s an attractive blue sky, shoot wide to capture the shape of the mountaintops in the scene, but if it’s overcast then zoom in to focus on the landscape and foliage – and these conditions are handy for avoiding problems of glare bouncing off the water. As you’re shooting from a distance, a mid-range aperture, around f/8, will give plenty of depth of field. A long exposure will smooth out any ripples, so use an ND filter. Plus, putting your camera on a tripod will keep it perfectly still over a long exposure, and aids in fine-tuning your composition, too. Color in close-up As leaves fall they turn beautiful multicolored shades and reveal their delicate structure of veins, making them perfect for close-up photography. For larger-than-life detail, a macro lens is capable of projecting an image onto the sensor at actual size, though this will only project a portion of the leaf, so any lens capable of focusing reasonably close up will do to photograph a leaf in its entirety – or group of leaves. Pop your camera on a tripod pointing straight down – a pivoting centre column is useful here – so that the plane of focus is as flat-on to the leaf as possible. Use Live View and Manual focus, and zoom in to 5x or 10x view and twist the focus ring until you achieve optimum focus. Shooting up close reduces depth of field significantly, and even when shooting flat, lumps and bumps could fall out of focus. A mid-range aperture of f/8 to f/11 not only not only minimizes this, but your lens is likely to be at its sharpest too, vital for bringing out detail. Still life When the weather becomes so intolerable that even the most intrepid photographer has second thoughts about venturing outside, how about an autumn-themed still life shoot? Set up a makeshift studio on your kitchen table. The best thing about still life is you’re completely in charge; you can position your subjects as you like, and have total control over lighting.    Set your camera on tripod and use Live View. This way you can fine tune your composition until it’s bang on. A narrow aperture ensures your whole scene is in focus, or try a shallow depth of field so that only the main subject of your scene is in focus; this is particularly effective when photographing food.  Contre-jour One of the first lessons we learn in photography is to shoot with the sun over one shoulder so it illuminates the subject, but the lower and weaker autumn light lends itself to doing just the opposite.  ‘Contre jour’ is French for ‘against daylight’ and involves shooting with subjects backlit against the sun’s rays. It’s particularly effective with autumnal leaves; as they turn colour they also become more translucent, so the sunlight reveals their structure. Alternatively a wider shot of the woods, the sunlight filtering through the tree trunks, can work well too. Or how about getting down low and shooting toadstools so the sun creates an attractive rim light that wraps around the edges of the subject.   You’ll need to shoot in the morning or afternoon but when the sun is fairly high to provide strong backlighting. It’s usually best to make sure that the sun itself is at least partially blocked by the subject to avoid it being completely burnt out. Use Photoshop after to reveal detail in shadows and highlights.  We hope you enjoy Autumn as much as we do! The colours, the holidays, the changes it's all so magical to us. Every year it's similar, but every year feels like you experiencing it for the first time.  Before you go! Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Autumn is an exciting time, and it’s great for cycling and running. Cycling and r unning all year round is great but there’s something special about lacing up for a run when the ground is covered in crunchy brown leaves and the sky is a hazy grey. Cycling, Running, Food And Photo's! Tips & Tricks Now is also the perfect time for snuggling up, all warm and cosy indoors with some comforting food . Comfort food doesn’t have to be unhealthy though! In fact, the wonderful array of foods in season at the moment are just right for cooking delicious, healthy and comforting meals. We present you some of the healthy foods that autumn has to offer and some delicious, healthy recipe ideas to use them in. For photographers, autumn is the most photogenic of seasons : once-uniformly green trees turn a thousand shades of red, brown and yellow; misty mornings give landscapes an eerie, otherworldly feel; nature is at its most spectacular as animals make last-minute preparations for hibernation or put on dramatic displays.  So lets start cycling and running in a beautiful coloured autumn. Treat yourself on a delicious meal while enjoying the photo’s you just made during your activities outside. Autumn Is The Perfect Time To Start Commuting By Bicycle You have places to go While you likely move around quite frequently year-round to the office, school, social events and to run errands, after summer life can feel a little busier. With a lot going on, it may seem intimidating to change the way you get around. Don’t let that stop you. Instead, use it as motivation to ride your bike consistently so you get everywhere you need to be in a timely manner energized and feeling great. You’ve gotten into a routine More commitments with school, work and family can mean you fall into an autumn routine quite quickly after the fluidity of the summer months. You can use that structure to your advantage to form a routine of commuting. You already know a lot of your schedule making it easier to slot in time for your bike commuting. You can even find yourself saving time because on some trips, taking your bike may be faster than walking or public transportation. The weather is cooler A big hurdle for commuting by bike for some people is arriving at your destination sweaty and a little dishevelled. Cooler temperatures mean you won’t sweat as much on your commute. Ride with a change of clothes to make sure you are able to freshen up upon arriving at your destination. The roads and public transportation networks are busy The academic year is in full swing and everyone is back in the city after their summer vacations. You may have noticed the roads are jammed with traffic and the public transportation networks are operating at full capacity. Use this as motivation to get on your bike finding a means of transportation that can be extremely rewarding mentally and physically. Getting out in fresh air and getting some exercise is a great way to start your day leaving the stress of congestion behind. Staying active is tough when you are busy with school/work If you are feeling staying active has fallen by the wayside because of your busy schedule, commuting by bike may just be the solution you are looking for. While it will depend on the length of the commutes you need to make, any exercise when you aren’t getting a lot is a good start that can start build positive momentum. Exersice and time outside is so important to your happiness and mental health. Cycling can be a big part of improving your headspace. Recommended:  Bicycles Without Battery: We Just Forgot They Are Cleanest {youtube}                                                                               Top 5 | 2020 Mountain Bikes Health In Autumn Amazing Benefits Of Running In Autumn Autumn is for many the favourite time of the year. The leaves are brown, the sky is grey, the air is crisp, and it’s time for harvest. The nights get dark quicker, and the temperature drops. The temperature is just right Running in Autumn is not too hot or too cold. It’s just right. In some countries we sometimes (if we’re lucky) have a boiling hot summer which can make running difficult. Not only is your risk of dehydration and sunburn higher, but the increased humidity and temperatures also makes running a sweaty and challenging ordeal. On the other side of the spectrum, running in early Spring or Winter can be extremely freezing and uncomfortable. Autumn is in the middle of hot and cold. With this comfortable temperature, you’ll be able to start the run without shivering, but you won’t get too hot when you get going. A great benefit of running in Autumn. Your favourite routes are less busy Summer is the peak time for tourist activity in most places. During Summer, scenic running routes are often populated by holidaymakers or visitors looking to enjoy themselves. There’s nothing wrong with people enjoying themselves, but lots of people make running routes chaotic and difficult to manoeuvre. In the summer, favourite routes are local parks and trails and they are often filled with tourists. Sidesteps have to be made to avoid picnics, dodge ice-cream vans, and keep a look out so I’m not in the path of a game of frisbee. Autumn grants a break from these hectic scenes. Most probably, the routes will be less busy, and you’ll have some peace and quiet to get on with our Autumn running. Autumn is a beautiful time of year Those who love taking pictures of the environment on route (for Instagram, WhatsOrb and Facebook) know that Autumn is a photogenic season. It’s a beautiful time of year. The leaves turn colour and fall off trees, birds (like nightingales and cuckoos) migrate to warmer climates, fruits and seeds start to produce tasty fruits, farmers harvest their food, and lots of fungi appear. It’s nature central in Autumn, and being a runner is a great way to experience this wonderful season. Go for a run through your favourite trail to see what wonders Autumn has brought to it. Workout by the river and breath in the crisp morning air. Run through a local park and watch for birds in the sky. Stop and take a moment to get some photos, if you like. Autumn runs are wonderful memories to cherish forever. Autumn has fewer distractions If Summer is known for one thing, it’s how social of a season it is. Parties, weddings, holidays, get-togethers, night outs and festivals, all make Summer a busy and chaotic season. There’s nothing wrong with all this activity, and it’s important to enjoy ourselves and make memories with our loved ones. However, amidst all the fun it can be difficult to find time for running. Autumn is when everyone’s social calendar tends to quieten down. The kids go back to school (or university), fewer events are on, and you have some free weekends. Something which rarely happens during the Summer. Take advantage of the free time you have in Autumn and get your running game on. Train for race season Spring and the end of Winter is the busiest time of year for races, like marathons and half marathons. If you want to run a personal best in a race, it’s a great idea to get into training mode during Spring. Get into the zone, focus on your game, and enjoy some proper training. Heading into the new year with a decent level of fitness will mean you’re ready to ace upcoming races and set new personal bests. It’s better to train before race season than to start training when you get to race season. Use Autumn as a training window for race season. You’ll establish strong foundations and set yourself up for fast times. You’re more likely to run in the morning Though some don’t mind, lots of runners prefer to run in the light rather than in the dark. For this reason, people choose to wake up early and run in the morning during the Autumn months which has a tonne of benefits. Benefits of morning running include enhanced productivity for the day, firing up your metabolism, building discipline, enjoying peace and quiet, improved mood and sleeping better, to name a few. When you start running in the morning instead of night during Autumn, you will see your quality of life improving and choose to become a morning runner from that point onwards. Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Enjoy Post-Run Comforts Like Hot Drinks, Showers And Your Bed Let’s be honest, who doesn’t love post-run comforts? These are little things we enjoy doing after an exhausting run to reward our efforts. A lovely coffee, tea, hot chocolate or a delicious meal after a run in the crisp cold that Autumn can bring, will make you feel rewarded. Alternatively, hop in the shower (or the bath if you’re lucky enough to have one) and go for a hot soak to relax your muscles and increase blood flow. If your run has made you sleepy, get into your duvet and snuggle up for some sleep. Beautiful Autumn Recipes Mushrooms On Toast Of an occasional Sunday evening, Dad would make the most delicious mushrooms on toast. Well, actually, he didn’t make toast; rather, he would make the most delicious, perfect squares of immaculately fried bread. It seems obvious when you think about it, for however well-toasted is a slice of bread – even the most accommodating of crusty sourdough – it will, inevitably, begin to slightly sog about halfway through munching. But a nicely thick slice of fried bread will hold its own until the last mouthful. Always the thoughtful and considered cook, my dear old dad. His mother, not the most inspired, kitchen-wise, would have simply opened a can of Chesswood creamed mushrooms and warmed them through on the Aga. But she did fry the bread … though possibly not as well as did her son. His trick was to lightly spread each surface with a smear of good dripping, then fry it on each side in a dry frying pan until super-crisp. His mushrooms were always button, cut in half, stewed in butter, a dusting of flour added and then milk stirred in until a smooth, thick-ish sauce was achieved; if there was some cream (or top-of-milk) in the fridge, a spoonful or two of that to finish. I have always believed he wanted to recreate that can of Chesswood’s but simply because our mother would never have countenanced such slovenly convenience, he made them his own. Serves 2 dried morels 20g (the tinier, the finer) boiled water 150g butter a thick slice salt and pepper white bread 2 thick-ish slices, crustless butter medium sherry 50g dry vermouth 50g shallot 1 small, chopped garlic a scrap, crushed flour 1 tsp whipping cream 100g lemon juice a healthy squeeze chives ½ tbsp, snipped Put the morels into a bowl, cover with the boiling water and leave to soak for at least 30 minutes. Lift out with a slotted spoon into a small saucepan, pop in the butter and add a little seasoning. Put to cook over a very low light, stirring together until the butter has melted and allow to stew for about 10 minutes, covered, really slowly. Sparsely spread the white bread with duck fat (or butter) and quietly fry on each side until golden and crisp. Strain the morel-soaking liquid, using a tea strainer, into another small saucepan and add the sherry, vermouth, shallot and garlic. Simmer until reduced by about two-thirds. Add the flour to the morels, stir around for a minute or 2, then strain in the reduced morel liquor. Simmer till thickened, then stir in the cream. Continue to simmer, uncovered, for a few minutes until the sauce is nicely clinging to the morels and is of a lovely ivory colour. Stir in the lemon juice and chives, then carefully spoon over the fried bread; sprinkle over a few extra chives, if you wish, just to pretty the thing. Eat at once. Maple Toffee Apple And Pear Crisp This is everything I want in an autumn pudding. Melting orchard fruits spiked with ginger and cardamom and a topping that’s half crisp and half crumble, which reminds me of oatmeal cookies. I eat this with thick Greek yogurt mixed with a little honey and vanilla or, if it’s really cold, good hot vanilla custard. Serves 4-6 apples 3 pears 3 maple syrup 2 tbsp prunes 75g dried figs 50g candied ginger, 2 pieces, finely chopped unwaxed lemon 1 vanilla pod 1, seeds scraped (or 1 tsp vanilla paste) ground cinnamon ½ tsp ground cardamom ½ tsp For the topping rolled oats 100g ground almonds 50g butter or coconut oil 100g light brown sugar 75g white spelt flour 100g salt a small pinch To serve Greek or coconut yogurt whipped with a little vanilla and honey Preheat your oven to 200C/gas mark 6. Peel the apples and pears and roughly slice them. Toss them with the maple syrup in a roasting tray and cover the tray with foil. Roast for 15 minutes in the hot oven, then remove the foil and roast for a further 10 minutes until the edges catch and caramelise. Meanwhile, roughly chop 50g of the prunes and all the figs, finely chop the ginger, and place the whole lot into the bottom of a 24cm round (or equivalently sized) baking dish. Grate over the lemon zest and add the juice of ½ the lemon, add the vanilla and spices and mix everything together. Cover the dish with a clean tea towel and leave to one side. Make the topping by rubbing the oats, almonds, butter, sugar, flour and salt together with your fingers. It will feel wetter than a crumble topping and you’ll be left with larger pieces of butter, but you should have a very rough crumbly dough after about 4 minutes. Chop the remaining prunes roughly and mix them through too. When your apples are ready, mix them with the fruit and spices in the baking dish, then sprinkle over the topping. Bake in the oven for 25 minutes, until deep golden. You can serve it with some Greek or coconut yogurt, whipped with a little vanilla and honey. Tagliatelle With White Truffles Piedmontese tagliatelle, called tajarin, with butter and parmesan are one of the best ways to enjoy a white truffle because they do not interfere with its sensational aroma. The Piedmontese white truffles are the most prized and extremely expensive. They must be used very fresh as they lose their aroma at an accelerating pace – their season is between the end of September and mid-January – or preserved in jars or tins, which are not quite as scented as fresh ones. Serves 4 white truffle 1 small unsalted butter 125g parmesan 40g, grated salt and freshly ground black pepper nutmeg a grating tagliatelle 300g, or fettuccine Truffles are generally exported already cleaned. If you need to clean your white truffle, scrub it with a stiff brush and rub it with a moist cloth. Melt the butter and add the grated parmesan and a little salt, pepper and nutmeg. Boil the tagliatelle or fettuccine until al dente, drain quickly and serve immediately, tossed with the melted butter mixture. Shave a little white truffle over each serving with a mandolin or a potato peeler. Variation Black summer truffles from Umbria are relatively cheap – you can buy them fresh in season from October to March – and they are available preserved in jars in some British supermarkets. Their flavour is not as sensational as that of white truffles but it is distinctive and delicate. For 2 small portions of Umbrian tagliatelle con tartufi nerri, cook 100g tagliatelle and prepare the sauce at the same time: bring to the boil 200ml double cream with a few drops of truffle oil (to taste), 2 tablespoons freshly grated parmesan, a little salt and a finely grated small black truffle. When the tagliatelle are al dente, drain and mix them in the pan with the truffle sauce. Red Lentil And Squash Soup With Za’atar Croutons Za’atar is a Palestinian spice mix made from wild thyme, sesame and sumac that has an affinity with sweet root vegetables. Here it is used to make crunchy, tangy croutons to adorn an aromatic soup of roasted butternut squash and spiced lentils. Roasting the squash intensifies its flavour and sweetness, and gives the soup a glorious silky texture that perfectly contrasts with the crispy croutons. Serves 4 butternut squash 1kg, peeled, deseeded and cut into 3cm pieces light olive oil onions 2, finely chopped garlic 4 cloves, crushed cumin seeds ¾ tsp coriander seeds ¾ tsp ground cinnamon ½ tsp red lentils 160g, rinsed vegetable or chicken stock 750ml lemon juice of ½ sea salt and freshly ground black pepper For the toppings stale bread 2 slices (I like to use sourdough for taste and texture) za’atar 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil parsley or coriander leaves chopped Preheat the oven to 200C/gas mark 6. Place the butternut squash on a baking tray and drizzle with light olive oil. Toss the chunks so they are evenly coated in the oil, then roast for 20-30 minutes, until they are soft. Heat 3 tablespoons light olive oil in a large saucepan, add the onions and fry for 10 minutes over a medium heat. Add the garlic, reduce the heat and cook for another few minutes. Meanwhile, toast the cumin and coriander seeds by stirring them in a dry pan over a low heat for a minute until their aromas are released. Grind the seeds in a mortar and pestle or a spice grinder, then add them and the cinnamon to the saucepan with the softened onions. Fry the spices for a few minutes. Add the lentils and 1 litre of just-boiled water. Cover and simmer the soup for 10 minutes. Once the lentils have softened, add the squash, stock, lemon juice, 1 teaspoon salt and ½ teaspoon pepper. Leave to simmer for another 10 minutes. Once the lentils are fully cooked, take the pan off the heat and blend the soup with a hand-held blender. Taste and adjust the seasoning to your preference. To make the croutons, roughly chop the bread into 3cm chunks. Heat 3 tablespoons light olive oil in a frying pan and, once it is very hot, add the bread and sprinkle over the za’atar. Fry the bread, stirring frequently, until it is toasted and crunchy. Place the croutons on some kitchen paper to soak up any excess oil. To serve, ladle the soup into warmed bowls, top with the croutons and finish with a drizzle of extra virgin olive oil and a sprinkling of chopped herbs. Recommended:  Vegan Food You Need To Develop Your Muscles: Protein Power Autumn Photography Tips for capturing colorful autumn photos As summer gives way to autumn, as the days get shorter and nights get longer, and as T-shirts are exchanged for scarves and coats, many people begin to long for balmier days to come around again far too quickly. So wrap up warm and get out among the elements with your camera. Here are ten ideas for easy autumn photography projects… Stag silhouettes Autumn sees one of nature’s greatest spectacles – the rut. Stags lock antlers in ferocious battles as they compete for females in the September to November breeding season. Shoot from a distance – more so for safety as to avoid scaring the deer off – as the creatures are pumped full of testosterone and attacks on humans are not unheard of. A long telephoto lens paired with a wide aperture helps separate deer from their background. Another classic shot is to shoot into the light on an early, misty morning, exposing for the brighter sky so that the deer itself is in silhouette. Autumn portraits For an autumnal portrait you can’t beat a model well-wrapped against the elements surrounded with russet-colored leaves. With a low sun in the sky, you’ll be able to get a well-lit shot without the need for flash or reflectors up until late morning or from early afternoon, by simply facing your models into the sun. Throwing or kicking leaves up into the air adds a sense of fun and movement to the shot, it also gives people something to do, helping avoid a stilted pose. Set Aperture Priority mode on your camera and use a fairly shallow aperture – around f/4 – to ensure the model’s facial features are in sharp focus but to give a layered effect, so that leaves in the foreground and background become progressively out of focus.  Shooting from further back and zooming in with a short telephoto lens will further accentuate the effect. In autumn sunlight this should result in a fast enough shutter speed around 1/200sec to freeze the falling leaves, though a little bit of motion blur can add a sense of dynamism to the shot, too. Take lots of shots as you’re bound to have plenty of duffers – with leaves in front of faces and so on – so set continuous drive mode and shoot in bursts. Pre-focus on the model’s face, but then switch to manual focus, or use the back-button focus technique, to prevent the camera inadvertently switching focus to a nearby leaf.  Luscious landscapes The golden hour – directly after sunrise or just before sunset – is a favourite time for photographers as light is blessed with a wonderful soft, warm quality as it’s filtered by particles in the atmosphere. The downside is that you have to get up at the crack of dawn to make the most of it… But the great thing about autumn time is that sunrise gets later and later, particularly when the clocks go back at the end of October, so dragging yourself out of bed isn’t such a chore as it is in the summer months. The sun stays lower in the sky for longer too, meaning the ‘hour’ lasts a little longer. Shoot with the sun behind you to light up the landscape, to the side to capture elongated shadows, or into the sun for dramatic sunrises. A set of ND grad filters comes in handy, as the sky will be far brighter than the land below, leading to exposure problems. Seasonal wildlife Autumn can be a busy time for animals as they prepare for the winter months ahead when food is scarce. The trick is to learn the habits of your target species – at what time of day and where are they most active? With this established, it’s essential not to get too close – and that means a big telephoto lens of at least 300mm. A fast lens (eg f/2.8 or f/4) is a benefit for more skittish subjects too, and when you need to shoot in low light.  Generally, you’ll be shooting with your lens close to wide open to maximize the light, and to separate your subject from its background. It’s also important to get down to the eye level of your subject, for a far more intimate portrait, and to reduce empty foreground in your shots.  You can increase your success rate by encouraging hungry animals to come to you; set up a feeding station and resort to bribery by leaving food out. Morning mist In early autumn, cold nights are often followed by warm days, and this big variation in temperature provides the ideal conditions for creating mist and fog; as night air cools, moisture in it condenses and then forms low-lying pockets of ground-hugging mist as the temperature rises.  All the same, it’s hard to predict with any certainty when the conditions will be just right for mist to form, and exactly where and how thick it will be. A cold, still night followed by a warm morning, with visibility dropping overnight, is a good indicator of mist forming.   Mist is at its most atmospheric around sunrise – and soon begins to evaporate and disperse, so your window of opportunity is limited. You’ll need to be at an elevated position; shooting into a valley, with trees or castle ruins poking out of the mist works well, as does shooting across low-lying fields, with foliage and distant hills breaking through the fog. Mist often forms over large bodies of water, so shooting over lakes is another good option.  You’ll need a tripod as you’ll be shooting at slow shutter speeds in the low dawn light. A long lens, such as a 70-200mm telephoto, compresses perspective and emphasizes the layered effect of mist. The relatively bright mist is likely to fool your metering system into underexposing, so check your histogram and apply around +1 stop of exposure compensation, as required. Reflections Make the most of the abundant color in the landscape by doubling the rich autumn palette. You’ll need a high vantage point to shoot down to a lake to reflect as much of the scene as possible.  Ideal conditions are a calm windless day, so the surface of the water is as still as possible for a mirror-like reflection. Shoot with your back to the sun so that the landscape is illuminated to maximize the reflected color. If there’s an attractive blue sky, shoot wide to capture the shape of the mountaintops in the scene, but if it’s overcast then zoom in to focus on the landscape and foliage – and these conditions are handy for avoiding problems of glare bouncing off the water. As you’re shooting from a distance, a mid-range aperture, around f/8, will give plenty of depth of field. A long exposure will smooth out any ripples, so use an ND filter. Plus, putting your camera on a tripod will keep it perfectly still over a long exposure, and aids in fine-tuning your composition, too. Color in close-up As leaves fall they turn beautiful multicolored shades and reveal their delicate structure of veins, making them perfect for close-up photography. For larger-than-life detail, a macro lens is capable of projecting an image onto the sensor at actual size, though this will only project a portion of the leaf, so any lens capable of focusing reasonably close up will do to photograph a leaf in its entirety – or group of leaves. Pop your camera on a tripod pointing straight down – a pivoting centre column is useful here – so that the plane of focus is as flat-on to the leaf as possible. Use Live View and Manual focus, and zoom in to 5x or 10x view and twist the focus ring until you achieve optimum focus. Shooting up close reduces depth of field significantly, and even when shooting flat, lumps and bumps could fall out of focus. A mid-range aperture of f/8 to f/11 not only not only minimizes this, but your lens is likely to be at its sharpest too, vital for bringing out detail. Still life When the weather becomes so intolerable that even the most intrepid photographer has second thoughts about venturing outside, how about an autumn-themed still life shoot? Set up a makeshift studio on your kitchen table. The best thing about still life is you’re completely in charge; you can position your subjects as you like, and have total control over lighting.    Set your camera on tripod and use Live View. This way you can fine tune your composition until it’s bang on. A narrow aperture ensures your whole scene is in focus, or try a shallow depth of field so that only the main subject of your scene is in focus; this is particularly effective when photographing food.  Contre-jour One of the first lessons we learn in photography is to shoot with the sun over one shoulder so it illuminates the subject, but the lower and weaker autumn light lends itself to doing just the opposite.  ‘Contre jour’ is French for ‘against daylight’ and involves shooting with subjects backlit against the sun’s rays. It’s particularly effective with autumnal leaves; as they turn colour they also become more translucent, so the sunlight reveals their structure. Alternatively a wider shot of the woods, the sunlight filtering through the tree trunks, can work well too. Or how about getting down low and shooting toadstools so the sun creates an attractive rim light that wraps around the edges of the subject.   You’ll need to shoot in the morning or afternoon but when the sun is fairly high to provide strong backlighting. It’s usually best to make sure that the sun itself is at least partially blocked by the subject to avoid it being completely burnt out. Use Photoshop after to reveal detail in shadows and highlights.  We hope you enjoy Autumn as much as we do! The colours, the holidays, the changes it's all so magical to us. Every year it's similar, but every year feels like you experiencing it for the first time.  Before you go! Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Best Sustainable Autumn Life: Exercise, Food, Lifestyle
Hydrogen Powered Gin: Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality
Sustainable gin could become a reality after project receives funding to investigate potential conversion of distillery. In the global bid to reduce carbon emissions, The Orkney Distillery is looking to create sustainable gin, using hydrogen as a fuel in its distilling process. Hydrogen Powered Gin: Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality The project has been given funding by the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to carry out this ‘feasibility study’. This is part of the government’s £390 million project to reduce emissions from industry. Investigations will focus on the development of a thermal fluid heater system to use hydrogen as a combustion fuel within the distilling process instead of fuels such as kerosene and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). In doing this, the use of fossil fuels would be completely replaced. "Developing hydrogen technology has the potential to not only reduce emissions from industry, but could also help seize the opportunities of the global shift to cleaner economies – with the prize of up to two million jobs and £170 billion of annual exports by 2030," commented Lord Duncan, Climate Change Minister. If successful, this should reduce emissions from the plant by around 86 tonnes of CO2 per year. This is the equivalent to the annual emissions from 10 homes or 18 cars. The technology is being designed with existing infrastructure in mind. It is hoped, therefore, that it can be easily implemented into other areas across the sector in the future. Hydrogen Powered Gin from HySpirits The HySpirits project has been awarded £148,600 of funding from the Department of Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to conduct a feasibility study into the development of technology to enable The Orkney Distillery to use hydrogen as a fuel to decarbonise the distilling process. Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa                                                 Hydrogen Powered Gin from HySpirits. The Orkney Distillery The project aims to investigate the development of a thermal fluid heater system to operate with hydrogen as the combustion fuel within the distilling process. This system will remove the need to use fossil fuels such as kerosene and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), for the process. HySpirits. Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality The HySpirits study brings together three different organisations with a common drive to decarbonise energy. Led by the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), the other partners are Orkney Distilling Ltd, the site selected for hydrogen fuel integration, and Edinburgh Napier University who will assess the distillery site and develop the hydrogen system design and specification.   Recommended:  Hydrogen Energy Storage Revolution In The Netherlands Funding for the HySpirits project was awarded after successfully competing in the Industrial Fuels Switching Competition run by BEIS earlier this year, which aims to stimulate early investment in fuel switching processes and technologies. Now in its second phase, the competition offers funding for feasibility studies looking into developing technologies to enable the use of a low-carbon fuel across industrial processes. Industrial Fuel Switching Competition The winners of the Industrial Fuel Switching competition were announced on Thursday 29 August 2019 by Lord Duncan, in advance of a ministerial visit to Orkney. Lord Duncan, Climate Change Minister, said: Using the power of hydrogen could help cut emissions, create jobs and make industrial processes cleaner and greener, benefitting the whole economy as we work towards net zero by 2050. This innovative project from HySprits/EMEC will help our efforts to roll out hydrogen at scale by the 2030s – a crucial step towards the end of the UK’s contribution to global warming.  Hydrogen has been identified as an alternative fuel for energy intensive industrial processes, such as distilleries. If the technology and business case detailed in the feasibility study proves viable, this offers a substantial decarbonisation opportunity for the wider industry and The Orkney Distillery could become the world’s first hydrogen fuelled distillery. Additionally, it is hoped that the findings of this study can be replicated across the sector with the added benefit that the technology will be designed to be retrofitted into existing infrastructure. Lord Duncan (front), Jon Clipsham from Emec (back) and Stephen Kemp from Orkney Distilling (right) were at the project launch Orkney Distilling Ltd: Hydrogen Stephen Kemp, Director of Orkney Distilling Ltd, said:  "As we look to the future development of The Orkney Distillery and our product offering, it is essential that we innovate in order to drive a low carbon, energy efficient spirit production process. This collaboration with EMEC and Edinburgh Napier University is incredibly exciting, and a world first for the industry." Jon Clipsham, Hydrogen Manager at EMEC, said:  "Working with a world class craft distillery, the HySpirits project blends tradition with innovation. Decarbonising the distilling process with green hydrogen derived from local renewables is a great example of the creative ways Orkney is addressing the challenges of the energy transition. We’re proud to be partnering with Orkney Distilling Ltd and Edinburgh Napier University on this transformational project."    Professor John Currie, Director of the Scottish Energy Centre at Edinburgh Napier University, said:  "Industrial fuel switching, in order to lower carbon emissions, provides a significant challenge, particularly in the food and drink sector. This project has brought together a partnership which has enabled the development and exploitation of a readily-deployable hydrogen technology which can make a significant impact across the process industries in order to help achieve our global objectives."   Recommended:  Solar And Hydrogen Boats Win The Future: France, Monaco Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Sustainable gin could become a reality after project receives funding to investigate potential conversion of distillery. In the global bid to reduce carbon emissions, The Orkney Distillery is looking to create sustainable gin, using hydrogen as a fuel in its distilling process. Hydrogen Powered Gin: Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality The project has been given funding by the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to carry out this ‘feasibility study’. This is part of the government’s £390 million project to reduce emissions from industry. Investigations will focus on the development of a thermal fluid heater system to use hydrogen as a combustion fuel within the distilling process instead of fuels such as kerosene and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). In doing this, the use of fossil fuels would be completely replaced. "Developing hydrogen technology has the potential to not only reduce emissions from industry, but could also help seize the opportunities of the global shift to cleaner economies – with the prize of up to two million jobs and £170 billion of annual exports by 2030," commented Lord Duncan, Climate Change Minister. If successful, this should reduce emissions from the plant by around 86 tonnes of CO2 per year. This is the equivalent to the annual emissions from 10 homes or 18 cars. The technology is being designed with existing infrastructure in mind. It is hoped, therefore, that it can be easily implemented into other areas across the sector in the future. Hydrogen Powered Gin from HySpirits The HySpirits project has been awarded £148,600 of funding from the Department of Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to conduct a feasibility study into the development of technology to enable The Orkney Distillery to use hydrogen as a fuel to decarbonise the distilling process. Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa                                                 Hydrogen Powered Gin from HySpirits. The Orkney Distillery The project aims to investigate the development of a thermal fluid heater system to operate with hydrogen as the combustion fuel within the distilling process. This system will remove the need to use fossil fuels such as kerosene and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), for the process. HySpirits. Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality The HySpirits study brings together three different organisations with a common drive to decarbonise energy. Led by the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), the other partners are Orkney Distilling Ltd, the site selected for hydrogen fuel integration, and Edinburgh Napier University who will assess the distillery site and develop the hydrogen system design and specification.   Recommended:  Hydrogen Energy Storage Revolution In The Netherlands Funding for the HySpirits project was awarded after successfully competing in the Industrial Fuels Switching Competition run by BEIS earlier this year, which aims to stimulate early investment in fuel switching processes and technologies. Now in its second phase, the competition offers funding for feasibility studies looking into developing technologies to enable the use of a low-carbon fuel across industrial processes. Industrial Fuel Switching Competition The winners of the Industrial Fuel Switching competition were announced on Thursday 29 August 2019 by Lord Duncan, in advance of a ministerial visit to Orkney. Lord Duncan, Climate Change Minister, said: Using the power of hydrogen could help cut emissions, create jobs and make industrial processes cleaner and greener, benefitting the whole economy as we work towards net zero by 2050. This innovative project from HySprits/EMEC will help our efforts to roll out hydrogen at scale by the 2030s – a crucial step towards the end of the UK’s contribution to global warming.  Hydrogen has been identified as an alternative fuel for energy intensive industrial processes, such as distilleries. If the technology and business case detailed in the feasibility study proves viable, this offers a substantial decarbonisation opportunity for the wider industry and The Orkney Distillery could become the world’s first hydrogen fuelled distillery. Additionally, it is hoped that the findings of this study can be replicated across the sector with the added benefit that the technology will be designed to be retrofitted into existing infrastructure. Lord Duncan (front), Jon Clipsham from Emec (back) and Stephen Kemp from Orkney Distilling (right) were at the project launch Orkney Distilling Ltd: Hydrogen Stephen Kemp, Director of Orkney Distilling Ltd, said:  "As we look to the future development of The Orkney Distillery and our product offering, it is essential that we innovate in order to drive a low carbon, energy efficient spirit production process. This collaboration with EMEC and Edinburgh Napier University is incredibly exciting, and a world first for the industry." Jon Clipsham, Hydrogen Manager at EMEC, said:  "Working with a world class craft distillery, the HySpirits project blends tradition with innovation. Decarbonising the distilling process with green hydrogen derived from local renewables is a great example of the creative ways Orkney is addressing the challenges of the energy transition. We’re proud to be partnering with Orkney Distilling Ltd and Edinburgh Napier University on this transformational project."    Professor John Currie, Director of the Scottish Energy Centre at Edinburgh Napier University, said:  "Industrial fuel switching, in order to lower carbon emissions, provides a significant challenge, particularly in the food and drink sector. This project has brought together a partnership which has enabled the development and exploitation of a readily-deployable hydrogen technology which can make a significant impact across the process industries in order to help achieve our global objectives."   Recommended:  Solar And Hydrogen Boats Win The Future: France, Monaco Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.
Hydrogen Powered Gin: Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality
Hydrogen Powered Gin: Sustainable Gin Could Become Reality
Community

A community is you and me. A network of social, economic, ecological and many other relationships. We all work together and live in urban, suburban and rural areas. Social sustainability is becoming increasingly important on our small planet. We define: support, quality of life, development, adaptation, rights and labour.

We belong to a group of individuals - our society - in which we belong geographically. Certain environmental issues play an important role in our society. Here, sustainable solutions are sought, developed and implemented. This may differ from societies in other countries, but because of our global environmental issues and dependence, we must learn to work more together so that we can all benefit from sharing sustainable knowledge to tackle, for example, climate change.

Green architecture is important. Building with local materials that can be recycled and reused brings us a big step forward to have less impact on the environment. With green architecture we can build smart cities where resources can be used more efficiently and information can be shared, thus improving our society, your community.

Lifestyle is the way we live, the dynamics of personality. Fashion defines our self and together with food it is getting - at present - an even more important role in our society. It's not just about taste, but especially about the burden that the fashion industry, agriculture and the meat industry have on our resources, especially water.

If there was an urge to come up with a sustainable way of living solutions and share these topics globally it’s now! WhatsOrb Global Sustainability X-change Platform is for you, storytellers and influencers to write about tiny houses, your experiences and expectations for the future at home and globally. 

Global Sustainability X-change, that’s what you can do together with WhatsOrb. What's in for me?

 

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