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Wintersport Impact: Fake Snow And Wildlife Destruction
Wintersport is a great ways to be outdoors during winter. Nevertheless, the impact of ski resorts on the environment is huge: they rely on a complex and energy-demanding infrastructure, with scores of employees and heavy use of water.  Wintersport Impact: Fake Snow And Water Use How do ski resorts make fake snow? Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," also known as a "snow cannon." Snowmaking is mainly used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. The production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. While many ski-resort owners are switching to environmentally friendly practices such as renewable energy, recycling and composting, some feel that these adjustments fail to mitigate the overall negative effect of ski areas on the environment. What is the solution? 'Making snow' in a warming world! One of the problems is the excessive amount of water use in ski resorts. As a result of global climate change, most ski areas experience winters of increasingly shorter duration. If the snow base falls below a certain level, resort managers must use artificial snow-making systems. Artificial snow is made by mixing large volumes of water and high-pressure air, so the process demands an abundance of water and energy. When the water is taken from the local rivers and streams, it has a negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem. Are there chemicals in artificial snow? There are two main kinds of artificial snow: powders and spray-on aerosols. The powders that turn into artificial snow flakes when mixed with water are sometimes called instant snow. The mixture is almost entirely water (99%), but a very small amount is made out of a non-toxic polymer. {youtube}                                       Behind the Scenes - How Snowmaking at Ski Resorts Works                                       Ski Resorts Environmental Impact And Sustainability Efforts Recommended:  COP25: Can Paris Accord Signatories Beat The Fossil Industry Wintersport And Wildlife  Destruction How bad is skiing for the environment? The impact of skiing in mountainous environments is negative as trees need to be cut down to make way for the skiers and ski lifts. Not only is the lack of trees affecting the environment, but it is also affecting the animals that live in the trees. It can be said that skiing is bad for the environment in this sense. Alpine habitats above the tree line are already threatened by global climate change, and disturbance from skiers is one more stressor. These disturbances can come from scaring wildlife or harming their habitat by damaging vegetation and compacting soils. An example: the population of black grouse, a creature that lives in the Swiss Alps, is usually found at half its normal density around ski areas. Photo by: Mike Lane. Two Black Grouse fighting Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Wintersport Impact: Ski Trails Land Use Change To create ski trails, a large amount of clear-cutting in forested areas is required. The resulting fragmented landscape negatively impacts habitat quality for many bird and mammal species. Also: wind, light, and disturbance levels increase near the open slopes, reducing habitat quality. To create ski trailers, a large amount of clear-cutting in forested areas is required. The resulting fragmented landscape negatively impacts habitat quality for many bird and mammal species. To create new trailers, ski resorts have to remove woody vegetation. The fastest way to achieve that is with a bulldozer, graded to remove tree stumps and any sort of slope irregularity. This process reduces topsoil depth and causes soil erosion. Also: wind, light, and disturbance levels increase near the open slopes, reducing habitat quality. Recommended:  Deforestation: No! Celebrate National Tree Day With WhatsOrb Ski Resorts Environmental Impact: Fossil Fuel Energy Resort skiing is an energy-intensive operation, relying on fossil fuels, producing greenhouse gases and contributing to global warming. For example: ski lifts usually run on electricity, and operating a single ski lift for a month requires about the same energy needed to power 3.8 households for a year. Another one: to maintain the surface of the snow on the ski runs, a resort deploys nightly a fleet of trail groomers each operating on about 5 gallons of diesel per hour and producing carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. Recommended:  Carbon-Negative Fuel Set: Burning The World To A Better Place A complete estimate of the greenhouse gases emitted in association with resort skiing would need to include those produced by skiers driving or flying to the mountains. Ironically, climate change is affecting most ski regions. As global atmospheric temperatures go up, snowpacks are thinning, and the ski seasons are getting shorter. The environmental costs associated with resort skiing come in multiple dimensions, and so do the solutions. Many ski resorts have made substantial efforts to minimize their environmental impacts. Solar panels, wind turbines, and small hydro turbines have been deployed to supply renewable energy. Improved waste management and composting programs have been implemented, just like green building technologies have been employed. Forest management efforts have been planned to improve wildlife habitat. But it this enough? What did they use for snow in old movies? And it wasn't the only film set to use asbestos in the 1930s. Over the years, filmmakers have used a number of other substances to create the illusion of snow: marble dust in Dr. Zhivago (1965), salt and flour in Charlie Chaplin's The Gold Rush (1925) and plain old salt in 1978's Superman. The Wizard of Oz, where asbestos was used to make 'fake snow'  Sustainability Wintersport Efforts: Initiatives You Can Take Research, research, research: it is now possible for skiers to gather information about a resort’s sustainability efforts and make informed consumer decisions. An increasing number of outdoor enthusiasts seek snowy slopes by practicing lower-impact forms of skiing. These backcountry skiers and snowboarders use specialized equipment that allows them to make their way up the mountain on their own power, and then to ski down natural terrain that has not been logged or groomed. These skiers have to be self-sufficient and able to mitigate a multitude of mountain-related safety risks. The learning curve is steep, but backcountry skiing has a lighter environmental impact than resort skiing. Before you go! Recommended:  Earth Matters. Nature And Us: What Was, What’s Left: Hope? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your wintersport experience? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Wintersport is a great ways to be outdoors during winter. Nevertheless, the impact of ski resorts on the environment is huge: they rely on a complex and energy-demanding infrastructure, with scores of employees and heavy use of water.  Wintersport Impact: Fake Snow And Water Use How do ski resorts make fake snow? Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," also known as a "snow cannon." Snowmaking is mainly used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. The production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. While many ski-resort owners are switching to environmentally friendly practices such as renewable energy, recycling and composting, some feel that these adjustments fail to mitigate the overall negative effect of ski areas on the environment. What is the solution? 'Making snow' in a warming world! One of the problems is the excessive amount of water use in ski resorts. As a result of global climate change, most ski areas experience winters of increasingly shorter duration. If the snow base falls below a certain level, resort managers must use artificial snow-making systems. Artificial snow is made by mixing large volumes of water and high-pressure air, so the process demands an abundance of water and energy. When the water is taken from the local rivers and streams, it has a negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem. Are there chemicals in artificial snow? There are two main kinds of artificial snow: powders and spray-on aerosols. The powders that turn into artificial snow flakes when mixed with water are sometimes called instant snow. The mixture is almost entirely water (99%), but a very small amount is made out of a non-toxic polymer. {youtube}                                       Behind the Scenes - How Snowmaking at Ski Resorts Works                                       Ski Resorts Environmental Impact And Sustainability Efforts Recommended:  COP25: Can Paris Accord Signatories Beat The Fossil Industry Wintersport And Wildlife  Destruction How bad is skiing for the environment? The impact of skiing in mountainous environments is negative as trees need to be cut down to make way for the skiers and ski lifts. Not only is the lack of trees affecting the environment, but it is also affecting the animals that live in the trees. It can be said that skiing is bad for the environment in this sense. Alpine habitats above the tree line are already threatened by global climate change, and disturbance from skiers is one more stressor. These disturbances can come from scaring wildlife or harming their habitat by damaging vegetation and compacting soils. An example: the population of black grouse, a creature that lives in the Swiss Alps, is usually found at half its normal density around ski areas. Photo by: Mike Lane. Two Black Grouse fighting Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Wintersport Impact: Ski Trails Land Use Change To create ski trails, a large amount of clear-cutting in forested areas is required. The resulting fragmented landscape negatively impacts habitat quality for many bird and mammal species. Also: wind, light, and disturbance levels increase near the open slopes, reducing habitat quality. To create ski trailers, a large amount of clear-cutting in forested areas is required. The resulting fragmented landscape negatively impacts habitat quality for many bird and mammal species. To create new trailers, ski resorts have to remove woody vegetation. The fastest way to achieve that is with a bulldozer, graded to remove tree stumps and any sort of slope irregularity. This process reduces topsoil depth and causes soil erosion. Also: wind, light, and disturbance levels increase near the open slopes, reducing habitat quality. Recommended:  Deforestation: No! Celebrate National Tree Day With WhatsOrb Ski Resorts Environmental Impact: Fossil Fuel Energy Resort skiing is an energy-intensive operation, relying on fossil fuels, producing greenhouse gases and contributing to global warming. For example: ski lifts usually run on electricity, and operating a single ski lift for a month requires about the same energy needed to power 3.8 households for a year. Another one: to maintain the surface of the snow on the ski runs, a resort deploys nightly a fleet of trail groomers each operating on about 5 gallons of diesel per hour and producing carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. Recommended:  Carbon-Negative Fuel Set: Burning The World To A Better Place A complete estimate of the greenhouse gases emitted in association with resort skiing would need to include those produced by skiers driving or flying to the mountains. Ironically, climate change is affecting most ski regions. As global atmospheric temperatures go up, snowpacks are thinning, and the ski seasons are getting shorter. The environmental costs associated with resort skiing come in multiple dimensions, and so do the solutions. Many ski resorts have made substantial efforts to minimize their environmental impacts. Solar panels, wind turbines, and small hydro turbines have been deployed to supply renewable energy. Improved waste management and composting programs have been implemented, just like green building technologies have been employed. Forest management efforts have been planned to improve wildlife habitat. But it this enough? What did they use for snow in old movies? And it wasn't the only film set to use asbestos in the 1930s. Over the years, filmmakers have used a number of other substances to create the illusion of snow: marble dust in Dr. Zhivago (1965), salt and flour in Charlie Chaplin's The Gold Rush (1925) and plain old salt in 1978's Superman. The Wizard of Oz, where asbestos was used to make 'fake snow'  Sustainability Wintersport Efforts: Initiatives You Can Take Research, research, research: it is now possible for skiers to gather information about a resort’s sustainability efforts and make informed consumer decisions. An increasing number of outdoor enthusiasts seek snowy slopes by practicing lower-impact forms of skiing. These backcountry skiers and snowboarders use specialized equipment that allows them to make their way up the mountain on their own power, and then to ski down natural terrain that has not been logged or groomed. These skiers have to be self-sufficient and able to mitigate a multitude of mountain-related safety risks. The learning curve is steep, but backcountry skiing has a lighter environmental impact than resort skiing. Before you go! Recommended:  Earth Matters. Nature And Us: What Was, What’s Left: Hope? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your wintersport experience? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Wintersport Impact: Fake Snow And Wildlife Destruction
Wintersport Impact: Fake Snow And Wildlife Destruction
Storms Ellen, Francis After Dennis: Extreme Weather Rising?
Storm Dennis left a trail of devastation as it swept across Flanders and the UK on Sunday. Gusts were stronger than last weekend when Storm Ciara had the country in its grip. Two storms in a week isn’t all that exceptional and the worst may not be over. Storms Ellen and Francis could be on the way as early as next weekend (22, 23th of February 2020). Storms Ellen, Francis After Dennis and Ciara: Is Extreme Weather Rising? At the minute it’s too early to offer details. They are coming from the North of the Atlantic. They still need to be formed. Storm Dennis meant gusty conditions and heavy rain especially towards evening. In Stabroek (Antwerp Province, Belgium) gusts of 108 km/h were recorded. Average rainfall of 5 to 15 litres per square metre were measured. Highs at 16.6° C in Brussels remained exceptionally mild.  It was nearly 18°C in the Kempen District. Storm Dennis caused greater damage than Storm Ciara thanks to stronger gusts inland.  Storm Dennis Knocked On Your Door Last Weekend (15/16 February 2020) Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Extreme Weather Events In Europe On The Rise Damage Statistics Storm And Flood Trends Recommended:  Climate Extremes Australia Floods, Wildfires And Destruction After storm Ciara came storm Dennis. Dennis started in the Atlantic Ocean and reached Ireland and the Uk on Saterday (15th) and the Netherlands on Sunday (16th) afternoon. Storm Dennis generated winds of up to 100 to 120km/h on the northwest coast and on the Wadden Islands. Storm Dennis caused more damage then Ciara. When did the North Sea 'flood'? The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland. {youtube}                                           STORM DENNIS to batter UK this weekend with heavy rain and gales Dennis got his name from the Brits, just like Ciara. The names don’t carry any significance, they were sent in by the public, says a Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) spokesperson. The next storm will also get a name sent in by the Brits, but after that, it’s time for one sent in by the Dutch public. Goeree-Overflakkee (Zuid-Holland, Netherlands) during the major flood in 1953 The sixth storm will get the name Francis, after Francis Beaufort, creator of the Beaufort scale used to measure wind speed. The storm after Francis will get the Dutch name Gerda. After that, we’ll have to wait until J and P for the Dutch names Jan and Piet. Does Europe get hit by hurricanes? There is only one modern tropical cyclone officially regarded as directly impacting Europe, Hurricane Vince in 2005, which struck southwestern Spain—having made landfall in the European mainland while still fully tropical. Storms can move around the Bermuda high and turn to the northeast and affect Europe. Storm Dennis Passed: One Storm After Another It seemed we had to wait some more for calm spring weather, as Storm Dennis emerged last Sunday. First it was a nameless storm on Sunday the 9 th  when it appeared. Yes, it was nameless, unlike the recent Ciara because it was significantly weaker, reaching only 98 kilometres, compared to the heavier Ciara which had winds of up to 129 kilometres. Recommended:  Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2 Windy, Rainy And Snowy The Rest Of Week 7 Unfortunately, the weather did not significantly improve in week 7 of 2020. It showed it's typical mix of hail, the occasional sunshine peak, long enough only for you to miss it when it was gone, as well as potential wet snow in some places. The wind force also remained substantial at the coasts, reaching level 8, while being level 5 inland.  Was Ciara a hurricane? Storm Ciara was an active extratropical cyclone, and the third named storm of the 2019–20 Ireland, Netherlands and UK windstorm season. Ciara brought heavy rain and severe winds across much of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden and other northern regions in Europe. Ciara is a popular Irish given name. Storm Dennis  Another 'named windy' visitor came last weekend. The weather teased us by becoming somewhat better on Friday (14th of February), but you needed not to be 'worried', there was no calm after the Ciara storm, just more storm. On Sunday Storm Dennis came on our doorway. It also got 15 degrees Celsius in some areas in the south last weekend. What is your weather forecast for this week: first days of spring or last days of winter? Let us know in the comment Boxes below this article. Recommended:  Climate Change Africa, Pakistan: Locust Destroy All Crops Storm Dennis At 'Our Neighbors' Ireland And The UK A number of sailings from Belfast, Dublin and Rosslare had been delayed or cancelled as an orange weather marine warning remained in place, along with a yellow weather snow/ice warning which was in place until midnight last Sunday the 16th of February 2020. Met Éireann issued a number of warnings over the days before as a cold snap set in across the country in the aftermath of a nationwide orange weather warning at the weekend when Storm Ciara made landfall. Storm Dennis on it's way The Met Office in the UK, meanwhile had issued a warning over Storm Dennis which was on the way but predicted not to be as severe as Storm Ciara. Strong westerly winds continuid and high seas resulted in coastal floodings, especially around high tide. Gale force Meanwhile, an orange weather warning for coastal waters was in place as westerly winds reached gale force 8 or stronger gale 9 on all Irish coastal waters and on the Irish Sea. What was the heaviest storm in the UK The Great Storm of 1987 was a violent extratropical cyclone that occurred on the night of 15–16 October, with hurricane-force winds causing casualties in England, France and the Channel Islands as a severe depression in the Bay of Biscay moved northeast. It 'occasionally touched storm force 10', Met Éireann announced. The wind warning prompted ferry operator Stena Line to cancel a number of crossings as a result. In a statement, it stated, Stena Line is continuing to see disruptions to its ferry sailings on the Irish Sea caused by high winds and rough seas in the aftermath of Storm Ciara. As a result, sailings from Belfast to Liverpool have been delayed and Belfast to Heysham sailings have been cancelled. The Dublin to Holyhead route experienced delays of around an hour, while an early morning sailing was cancelled. All sailings from Rosslare were cancelled and resumed at 8am. Overall, the weather forecast for the coming week looked 'unsettled but turning less cold from Thursday (13th of February0'. Ahead of Storm Dennis’ landfall in the UK, the Met Office had issued wind warnings for much of England and Wales for Saturday the 15th. A statement said: 'Storm Dennis brought a range of impacts, including delays and cancellations to transport services, damage to power supplies and large coastal waves. Another spell of very wet and windy ​weather came on Saturday, although Storm Dennis was not expected to be as severe as Ciara disruption came. Below a checklist (UK) of five steps that every household at risk of flooding should implement: Have a home emergency plan in place, which would include what to do in a flood and other scenarios such as a fire. Check that home insurance includes flood cover, and make sure that any changes to the T&Cs in the future do not change the type of cover you think you have. Sign up to receive Floodline alerts – the service is free and messages can be received in different formats (by phone, SMS). If Sepa (or bodies such as the Environment Agency in other parts of the UK) make river level data for a water body near where you live publicly available use this resource. Make use of publicly available resources such as Sepa’s flood risk maps to find out if a property you are considering buying is at risk of flooding. Damage And Fatalities Extreme Weather Events In Europe On The Rise: Before Dennis In the last two decades there has hardly been a year without weather disasters like storms in Europe. There were (mostly river) floods, in Italy, France and Switzerland in 2000, in the upper Elbe and Danube catchments in 2002 and 2013, along the lower Danube in 2006, in the United Kingdom in 2007, in the Adriatic region in 2014, and in Germany and France in 2016. Flood in Dresden (Germany) Severe heat waves and droughts marked the summers of 2003, 2010 and 2018, and large-scale wildfires burned in southern and eastern Europe in 2007, 2010 and 2017. Hailstorms caused a lot of damage in Germany in 2013, and the winter storms Kyrill (2007) and Xynthia (2010) left a trail of destruction in Western Europe. Social Disruption resulted from extreme snowpack in the northern Alps in 2006 and 2019. Storms Like Dennis: Munich Re Has Collected Information On These Events Since 1974  The company’s NatCatSERVICE database on losses caused by natural extreme events is among the world's largest and contains more than 40,000 entries. A distinction is made between disastrous weather events and geophysical events. The latter include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. The weather disasters include winter storms and storm surges, thunderstorms and flash floods, river and lake flooding, landslides, winter hazards, heat waves, droughts, and wildfires.   Damage Statistics: Storms And Floods Dominate 95% of all loss events in the period 1980-2018 are weather-related. Storms make up almost 50% of all events, and flooding almost another third. The so-called 'climatological' events, such as heat waves, droughts, wildfires and frost, account for 16%. The remaining 5% refer to geophysical hazards. A man walks amidst rubble following an earthquake in Pescara del Tronto Winter storms produce losses in excess of one billion dollars practically every year. The most expensive storm disasters since 1990 are winter storms Daria (1990), Lothar (1999), Kyrill (2007), and Xynthia (2010), with overall losses of US$ 7bn, 11.5bn, 9bn, and 6.1bn, respectively. The most expensive weather-related disaster in Europe, affecting large parts of Germany and neighbouring countries, was the 2002 summer flood: two flood events caused a total of US$ 21.5bn (original values, not adjusted for inflation) across the continent. As a result, flood insurance has gained importance. The penetration of flood insurance for private homes in Germany increased countrywide to about 41% in 2018, as compared to around 26% in 2009 and only less than 10% in the year 2002. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse Europe's Average Annual Overall Losses For 1980-2018 Are Equal To US$ 16.2bn. Casualties: 2003 and 2010 heat waves stand out In all 1,719 events in Europe in which at least one person was killed, storms and floods are leading by a long way. However, 2003 and 2010 stand out as years with extremely high numbers of fatalities in Europe caused by heat waves: 70,000 and 56,000, respectively. These two events dominate the number of weather-related fatalities in Europe since 1980: the number of fatalities by all natural hazards combined in the period 1980-2018 is about 155,000. High Temperature And Storms Also Enhance The Wildfire Danger Wildfires in 2003 caused US$ 1.2bn of damage and killed 70 people in southern Europe. In 2010, the fires around Moscow approached a US$ 2bn loss and claimed 130 lives. More recently, in the summer of 2017, 123 people died in several wildfire episodes, 110 of them in Portugal alone. In 2018, 100 people perished in wildfires in Greece.   Storm And Flood Trends? With respect to damage, the number of severe floods seems to be increasing. With respect to fatalities, the mortality risk related to heat waves has been on the rise. Heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity are increasing, while resistance is decreasing because European societies are ageing. Local inhabitants are evacuated from a flooded village of Sokolniki in Southern Poland, May 20, 2010 Altogether, from 1980 to 2018, 4,890 destructive weather events have been recorded in this database for Europe. 837 Of the events occurred in the 1980s, 1,239 in the 1990s, 1,345 in the first decade of the 21stcentury and 1,469 since 2010. The losses of 525 of these events exceeded US$ 100 m (in original values, not inflation-corrected); 92 were above US$ 1bn, and four even topped US$ 10bn. The number of disastrous weather events in the Munich Re database is growing much faster than the number of geophysical events. Is this due to climate change? For a small part at most. Non-climatic factors such as land-use and land-cover change play a role as well. Nowadays, more people and more valuable assets are exposed to disasters because more people live in unsafe areas, such as floodplains. Future Weather Outlook Weather catastrophes constitute a growing burden on national economies and insurance companies, not least because of the costs of precautionary measures. The projections for the future look grim, the authors of this study conclude. The percentage of the European population affected by weather-related disasters may increase by an order of magnitude in a hundred years: from 5% in 1981-2010 to two-thirds by 2100. The record number of heat-related fatalities of 2003 may become the new norm by 2050. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change: Hurricane Season With Big And Wet Storms Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the weather? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Storm Dennis left a trail of devastation as it swept across Flanders and the UK on Sunday. Gusts were stronger than last weekend when Storm Ciara had the country in its grip. Two storms in a week isn’t all that exceptional and the worst may not be over. Storms Ellen and Francis could be on the way as early as next weekend (22, 23th of February 2020). Storms Ellen, Francis After Dennis and Ciara: Is Extreme Weather Rising? At the minute it’s too early to offer details. They are coming from the North of the Atlantic. They still need to be formed. Storm Dennis meant gusty conditions and heavy rain especially towards evening. In Stabroek (Antwerp Province, Belgium) gusts of 108 km/h were recorded. Average rainfall of 5 to 15 litres per square metre were measured. Highs at 16.6° C in Brussels remained exceptionally mild.  It was nearly 18°C in the Kempen District. Storm Dennis caused greater damage than Storm Ciara thanks to stronger gusts inland.  Storm Dennis Knocked On Your Door Last Weekend (15/16 February 2020) Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Extreme Weather Events In Europe On The Rise Damage Statistics Storm And Flood Trends Recommended:  Climate Extremes Australia Floods, Wildfires And Destruction After storm Ciara came storm Dennis. Dennis started in the Atlantic Ocean and reached Ireland and the Uk on Saterday (15th) and the Netherlands on Sunday (16th) afternoon. Storm Dennis generated winds of up to 100 to 120km/h on the northwest coast and on the Wadden Islands. Storm Dennis caused more damage then Ciara. When did the North Sea 'flood'? The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland. {youtube}                                           STORM DENNIS to batter UK this weekend with heavy rain and gales Dennis got his name from the Brits, just like Ciara. The names don’t carry any significance, they were sent in by the public, says a Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) spokesperson. The next storm will also get a name sent in by the Brits, but after that, it’s time for one sent in by the Dutch public. Goeree-Overflakkee (Zuid-Holland, Netherlands) during the major flood in 1953 The sixth storm will get the name Francis, after Francis Beaufort, creator of the Beaufort scale used to measure wind speed. The storm after Francis will get the Dutch name Gerda. After that, we’ll have to wait until J and P for the Dutch names Jan and Piet. Does Europe get hit by hurricanes? There is only one modern tropical cyclone officially regarded as directly impacting Europe, Hurricane Vince in 2005, which struck southwestern Spain—having made landfall in the European mainland while still fully tropical. Storms can move around the Bermuda high and turn to the northeast and affect Europe. Storm Dennis Passed: One Storm After Another It seemed we had to wait some more for calm spring weather, as Storm Dennis emerged last Sunday. First it was a nameless storm on Sunday the 9 th  when it appeared. Yes, it was nameless, unlike the recent Ciara because it was significantly weaker, reaching only 98 kilometres, compared to the heavier Ciara which had winds of up to 129 kilometres. Recommended:  Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2 Windy, Rainy And Snowy The Rest Of Week 7 Unfortunately, the weather did not significantly improve in week 7 of 2020. It showed it's typical mix of hail, the occasional sunshine peak, long enough only for you to miss it when it was gone, as well as potential wet snow in some places. The wind force also remained substantial at the coasts, reaching level 8, while being level 5 inland.  Was Ciara a hurricane? Storm Ciara was an active extratropical cyclone, and the third named storm of the 2019–20 Ireland, Netherlands and UK windstorm season. Ciara brought heavy rain and severe winds across much of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden and other northern regions in Europe. Ciara is a popular Irish given name. Storm Dennis  Another 'named windy' visitor came last weekend. The weather teased us by becoming somewhat better on Friday (14th of February), but you needed not to be 'worried', there was no calm after the Ciara storm, just more storm. On Sunday Storm Dennis came on our doorway. It also got 15 degrees Celsius in some areas in the south last weekend. What is your weather forecast for this week: first days of spring or last days of winter? Let us know in the comment Boxes below this article. Recommended:  Climate Change Africa, Pakistan: Locust Destroy All Crops Storm Dennis At 'Our Neighbors' Ireland And The UK A number of sailings from Belfast, Dublin and Rosslare had been delayed or cancelled as an orange weather marine warning remained in place, along with a yellow weather snow/ice warning which was in place until midnight last Sunday the 16th of February 2020. Met Éireann issued a number of warnings over the days before as a cold snap set in across the country in the aftermath of a nationwide orange weather warning at the weekend when Storm Ciara made landfall. Storm Dennis on it's way The Met Office in the UK, meanwhile had issued a warning over Storm Dennis which was on the way but predicted not to be as severe as Storm Ciara. Strong westerly winds continuid and high seas resulted in coastal floodings, especially around high tide. Gale force Meanwhile, an orange weather warning for coastal waters was in place as westerly winds reached gale force 8 or stronger gale 9 on all Irish coastal waters and on the Irish Sea. What was the heaviest storm in the UK The Great Storm of 1987 was a violent extratropical cyclone that occurred on the night of 15–16 October, with hurricane-force winds causing casualties in England, France and the Channel Islands as a severe depression in the Bay of Biscay moved northeast. It 'occasionally touched storm force 10', Met Éireann announced. The wind warning prompted ferry operator Stena Line to cancel a number of crossings as a result. In a statement, it stated, Stena Line is continuing to see disruptions to its ferry sailings on the Irish Sea caused by high winds and rough seas in the aftermath of Storm Ciara. As a result, sailings from Belfast to Liverpool have been delayed and Belfast to Heysham sailings have been cancelled. The Dublin to Holyhead route experienced delays of around an hour, while an early morning sailing was cancelled. All sailings from Rosslare were cancelled and resumed at 8am. Overall, the weather forecast for the coming week looked 'unsettled but turning less cold from Thursday (13th of February0'. Ahead of Storm Dennis’ landfall in the UK, the Met Office had issued wind warnings for much of England and Wales for Saturday the 15th. A statement said: 'Storm Dennis brought a range of impacts, including delays and cancellations to transport services, damage to power supplies and large coastal waves. Another spell of very wet and windy ​weather came on Saturday, although Storm Dennis was not expected to be as severe as Ciara disruption came. Below a checklist (UK) of five steps that every household at risk of flooding should implement: Have a home emergency plan in place, which would include what to do in a flood and other scenarios such as a fire. Check that home insurance includes flood cover, and make sure that any changes to the T&Cs in the future do not change the type of cover you think you have. Sign up to receive Floodline alerts – the service is free and messages can be received in different formats (by phone, SMS). If Sepa (or bodies such as the Environment Agency in other parts of the UK) make river level data for a water body near where you live publicly available use this resource. Make use of publicly available resources such as Sepa’s flood risk maps to find out if a property you are considering buying is at risk of flooding. Damage And Fatalities Extreme Weather Events In Europe On The Rise: Before Dennis In the last two decades there has hardly been a year without weather disasters like storms in Europe. There were (mostly river) floods, in Italy, France and Switzerland in 2000, in the upper Elbe and Danube catchments in 2002 and 2013, along the lower Danube in 2006, in the United Kingdom in 2007, in the Adriatic region in 2014, and in Germany and France in 2016. Flood in Dresden (Germany) Severe heat waves and droughts marked the summers of 2003, 2010 and 2018, and large-scale wildfires burned in southern and eastern Europe in 2007, 2010 and 2017. Hailstorms caused a lot of damage in Germany in 2013, and the winter storms Kyrill (2007) and Xynthia (2010) left a trail of destruction in Western Europe. Social Disruption resulted from extreme snowpack in the northern Alps in 2006 and 2019. Storms Like Dennis: Munich Re Has Collected Information On These Events Since 1974  The company’s NatCatSERVICE database on losses caused by natural extreme events is among the world's largest and contains more than 40,000 entries. A distinction is made between disastrous weather events and geophysical events. The latter include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. The weather disasters include winter storms and storm surges, thunderstorms and flash floods, river and lake flooding, landslides, winter hazards, heat waves, droughts, and wildfires.   Damage Statistics: Storms And Floods Dominate 95% of all loss events in the period 1980-2018 are weather-related. Storms make up almost 50% of all events, and flooding almost another third. The so-called 'climatological' events, such as heat waves, droughts, wildfires and frost, account for 16%. The remaining 5% refer to geophysical hazards. A man walks amidst rubble following an earthquake in Pescara del Tronto Winter storms produce losses in excess of one billion dollars practically every year. The most expensive storm disasters since 1990 are winter storms Daria (1990), Lothar (1999), Kyrill (2007), and Xynthia (2010), with overall losses of US$ 7bn, 11.5bn, 9bn, and 6.1bn, respectively. The most expensive weather-related disaster in Europe, affecting large parts of Germany and neighbouring countries, was the 2002 summer flood: two flood events caused a total of US$ 21.5bn (original values, not adjusted for inflation) across the continent. As a result, flood insurance has gained importance. The penetration of flood insurance for private homes in Germany increased countrywide to about 41% in 2018, as compared to around 26% in 2009 and only less than 10% in the year 2002. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse Europe's Average Annual Overall Losses For 1980-2018 Are Equal To US$ 16.2bn. Casualties: 2003 and 2010 heat waves stand out In all 1,719 events in Europe in which at least one person was killed, storms and floods are leading by a long way. However, 2003 and 2010 stand out as years with extremely high numbers of fatalities in Europe caused by heat waves: 70,000 and 56,000, respectively. These two events dominate the number of weather-related fatalities in Europe since 1980: the number of fatalities by all natural hazards combined in the period 1980-2018 is about 155,000. High Temperature And Storms Also Enhance The Wildfire Danger Wildfires in 2003 caused US$ 1.2bn of damage and killed 70 people in southern Europe. In 2010, the fires around Moscow approached a US$ 2bn loss and claimed 130 lives. More recently, in the summer of 2017, 123 people died in several wildfire episodes, 110 of them in Portugal alone. In 2018, 100 people perished in wildfires in Greece.   Storm And Flood Trends? With respect to damage, the number of severe floods seems to be increasing. With respect to fatalities, the mortality risk related to heat waves has been on the rise. Heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity are increasing, while resistance is decreasing because European societies are ageing. Local inhabitants are evacuated from a flooded village of Sokolniki in Southern Poland, May 20, 2010 Altogether, from 1980 to 2018, 4,890 destructive weather events have been recorded in this database for Europe. 837 Of the events occurred in the 1980s, 1,239 in the 1990s, 1,345 in the first decade of the 21stcentury and 1,469 since 2010. The losses of 525 of these events exceeded US$ 100 m (in original values, not inflation-corrected); 92 were above US$ 1bn, and four even topped US$ 10bn. The number of disastrous weather events in the Munich Re database is growing much faster than the number of geophysical events. Is this due to climate change? For a small part at most. Non-climatic factors such as land-use and land-cover change play a role as well. Nowadays, more people and more valuable assets are exposed to disasters because more people live in unsafe areas, such as floodplains. Future Weather Outlook Weather catastrophes constitute a growing burden on national economies and insurance companies, not least because of the costs of precautionary measures. The projections for the future look grim, the authors of this study conclude. The percentage of the European population affected by weather-related disasters may increase by an order of magnitude in a hundred years: from 5% in 1981-2010 to two-thirds by 2100. The record number of heat-related fatalities of 2003 may become the new norm by 2050. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change: Hurricane Season With Big And Wet Storms Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the weather? 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Storms Ellen, Francis After Dennis: Extreme Weather Rising?
Climate Extremes Australia Floods, Wildfires And Destruction
Fires and floods: Australia already seesaws between climate extremes and there's more to come. With climate change, Australia is predicted to face more extreme weather.. Climate Extremes Australia: Unprecedented 'Unprecedented' is the word that keeps being tied to the apocalyptic weather Australia has faced over the past few months. Bushfires have always been a reality in Australia, but never recorded on this scale with such widespread damage. It’s estimated that more than 60,000 sq km have been scorched in New South Wales and Victoria alone. Days of smoke have shrouded Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne. And after the fires, flooding at the weekend in NSW and parts of Queensland left thousands without power and dozens of schools closed on Monday. While the country is still grappling with the economic reality and human devastation caused by the fires, it’s easy to think the worst of this disaster is over. But unfortunately other extreme weather may yet occur this summer and these will also require safety preparations and rapid responses. Residents in NSW evacuated already from flooded areas and thousands left without power Climate Extremes: Continental floods Last year 2019 was the driest and hottest year on record in Australia. Some parts of the country have had several years of drought in a row. But all droughts end eventually. At the weekend devastating storms swept through eastern NSW, causing flooding, power outages and commuter chaos. The Bureau of Meteorology says 391.6mm of rain fell over Sydney in the past four days, the most since 414.2mm fell from 2 to 5 February 1990. Historically Australian continental-scale droughts are often broken by widespread heavy rain, leading to an increased risk of flooding, including potentially lethal flash floods. The flood risk from the heavy rains is exacerbated by the bare soil and lack of vegetation caused by the drought and by bushfires that destroy forest and grassland. When a decade-long drought ended in 2009, what followed were two extremely wet years with serious flooding. Flooding also brings the risk that ash might contaminate water supplies. The heavy rain falling on bare soil can also lead to serious erosion. Damage at Collaroy at Sydney's northern beaches Heavy Rain: Positive and Negative Effects By the heavy rain all fires in the state may be out by the end of the week (16 th of February 2020). Evacuation orders are in place for several areas around Sydney, with thousands of homes still without power after Sunday’s rainfall. The Warragamba Dam recouped a year’s worth of water in one weekend, rising 17.7 percentage points to sit at 60.7% at 10.30am on Monday, AAP reports. Some 360,000 megalitres of water flowed into the dam, almost as much as 150,000 Olympic-size swimming pools Greater Sydney dam levels were at 64.2% on Monday morning, up from 41.9% in seven days The ash and debris generated by recent bushfires around the Warragamba area will not affect water quality, and two silt curtains are in place to intercept ash run-off, WaterNSW said Prospect Dam is more than 90% full, and Woronora Dam in Sydney’s south is almost 60% full, jumping 25 percentage points Up to 25 metres of beach at Collaroy and Narrabeen has been swept away by huge waves generated by the east coast low. While properties along the beach have been spared serious damage today, the threat is expected to return in coming days when more storms are forecast. Ausgrid crews are continuing to deal with 3,100 hazards, including fallen powerlines, fallen trees, damaged wires and extensive flash flooding. The company has restored power to 61,000 customers and is continuing efforts to reconnect 79,000 still without power. Climate Extremes Australia: Tropical Cyclones The onset of the tropical wet season over northern Australia has been very much delayed, as predicted in the middle of last year by the Bureau of Meteorology. Most of the Australian tropics have had well below average rainfall in the past few months, and some areas had their lowest November-January rainfall. As well, the tropical cyclone season was late, also predicted by the bureau months ago. In recent weeks there has been some cyclone activity and some rain. But the wait is still on for widespread tropical rains and for more cyclones to cross the coast as Damien did at the weekend. Although rain brought by cyclones are often welcome, these systems can also leave serious damage. Extremes Australia: Southern Heatwaves We are at the riskiest time for heatwaves in southern Australia. The risk usually peaks around the middle to the end of summer. Weather conducive to increased bushfire risk also usually peaks in February for southern states. So although media, community and political attention have focused on the horrendous bushfires we have already suffered, we should not overlook the likelihood of other extreme weather, including cyclones, floods and heatwaves, or think that the bushfire risk is over for the year. It is important to remain vigilant for all weather extremes. It would probably be an understatement to say that Australia and Brazil did not have their best year in 2019 in their existence. World leaders are tripping over each other to offer their assistance to Australia and the troubled Brazilian government, who are still struggling to get a grip on the problem. Meanwhile, hectares and hectares of forestland are catching fire with each passing minute.   Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Artic, Siberia While the Amazon is grabbing headlines with these historically fierce and ferocious fires, it is not the only part of our world that is on fire. Central Africa is facing some of the worst wildfires in its history as well, standing by more or less helplessly as vast areas of savanna are ablaze. And just before those started, we were confronted with the startling headline that the Artic is on fire: with Siberia, a place usually associated with icey cold tundras, now in danger of being burned to the ground. And what about Australia? Its bushfires threaten thousand of people, natura, cities, animals like Koalas. Recommended:  Heatwaves Worldwide: Nothing New! How To Protect Your Self The one thing that really stands out here is that wildfires are becoming much more severe - and occurring in places where these was previously unheard of. Many are exclaiming that this surely means that the world is ‘on fire’, and climate change is shifting to a higher gear. While this does make for some interest-grabbing headlines, it surely would be too easy to say that climate change has caused these fires. Or wouldn’t it be? What we can safely do, is turn the matter around. We do know for a fact that wildfires are active contributors to climate change. They kill millions of trees and vegetation, which function as the lungs of the earth. With fewer trees and plants, the earth cannot remove as many harmful emissions from the air - while a wildfire is pretty much the equivalent of a cigarette, releasing a lot of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Think of it as smoking one pack of cigarettes per day at a time when your lung function is decreasing rapidly as the result of a lung disease of sorts. Wildfires Globally: What On Earth Is Going On? Wildfires Globally. What are the different types of wildfires? There are three basic types of forest fires: Crown fires burn trees up their entire length to the top Surface fires burn only surface litter and duff Ground fires (sometimes called underground or subsurface fires) occur in deep accumulations of humus, peat and similar dead vegetation that become dry enough to burn The numbers are - staggering, to say the least. Take Siberia, where some six million acres have been burned to a crisp. Or Alaska, another part of the Artic, which has already lost 2.5 million acres to wildfires. This is a huge loss for the Artic region, which is actually already suffering disproportionally from global warming, warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet. Potentially catastrophic, especially as this will lead to an increase in lightning - a leading cause for fire. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Here, it seems as if we are entering some sort of vicious circle. As the world gets warmer, wildfires will become more prevalent. And as there are more wildfires, it will leave us with fewer vegetation and higher carbon emissions. This will only serve to speed up global warming, particularly if those wildfires occur in regions - like the Amazon or Arctic - that are powerful catalysts for our climate system.   Complicating matters even further is the unpredictability and variety of wildfires: there is no easy way to categorise them, nor is there a single root cause that can be identified that causes those fires. Some fires may be set intentionally, to obtain land for agricultural purposes, while others are accidental or perhaps more directly linked to global warming, as in the example of the Artic. Wildfires Globally: Australia. First Impression In Australia, beds are burning. So are entire towns, irreplaceable forests and endangered and precious animal species such as the koala. {youtube}                                  Deaths, losses mounting in Australia's disastrous bush fires, 1 of January 2020                                              Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Artic, Siberia What are the linkages between climate change and extreme weather events. The Great Barrier Reef, one of the great wonders of this planet. Subject to the twin assaults of warming-caused bleaching and ocean acidification, it will be gone in a matter of decades in the absence of a dramatic reduction in global carbon emissions. Wildfires Globally. How does a wildfire form? Sometimes, fires occur naturally, ignited by heat from the sun or a lightning strike. However, the majority of wildfires are the result of human carelessness. Causes include arson, campfires, discarding lit cigarettes, not burning debris properly, playing with matches or fireworks. The Blue Mountains, another of Australia’s natural wonders, known for its lush temperate rainforests, majestic cliffs and rock formations and panoramic vistas that challenge any the world has to offer. It too is now threatened by climate change. Wildfires Globally: Australia Gone are the vast expanses of rainforest framed by distant blue-tinged mountain ranges. Instead there are now smoke-filled valleys, with only the faintest ghosts of distant ridges and peaks in the background. The iconic blue tint (which derives from a haze formed from ‘terpenes’ emitted by the Eucalyptus trees that are so plentiful here) was replaced by a brown haze. The blue sky, too, had been replaced by that brown haze. Locals, would volunteer that they have never seen anything like this before. Some even uttered the words ‘climate change’ without any prompting. Wildfires Globally. Does fire reproduce? Fire is a self-sustaining chemical reaction where heat produces flammable gases, which burn and produce more heat. So to answer your question, “Can fire reproduce?”, reproduction is a process by which living creatures perpetuate their species. Fire is not a living thing and therefore does not reproduce The brown skies observed now in the Blue Mountains are a product of human-caused climate change. Take record heat, combine it with unprecedented drought in already dry regions and you get unprecedented bushfires like the ones engulfing the Blue Mountains and spreading across the continent. It’s not complicated. Wildfires Globally: Australia, New South Wales In the worst-affected state, New South Wales, fires have burned more than 4 million hectares (9.9m acres) destroying more than 900 houses. Across the country, 12 people have died - including three volunteer firefighters - with most of the casualties in New South Wales. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Current Situation NSW Hot, dry weather combined with prolonged drought and strong winds have created perfect conditions for fire to spread rapidly. Around 100 fires are burning across the state, with up to half as yet uncontained by firefighters and continuing to threaten lives. The fires have been exacerbated by 40C temperatures and strong winds, creating difficult conditions for the 2,500 firefighters deployed in the field. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Source: new South Wales Rural Fire Service. 31-12-2019 The small town of Balmoral, south-west of Sydney, was largely destroyed and scores of homes were razed amid catastrophic conditions on 22 December. In northern NSW large fires are burning in the region between Port Macquarie and Byron Bay. Wildfires Globally: Australia, Balmoral: A VW Beetle on fire In the countryside to the west of Sydney, there are fears that the vast Gospers Mountain fire, which originated in the Wollemi National Park, may merge with the Green Wattle Creek blaze in the lower Blue Mountains. The fire in the Blue Mountains, a world heritage area and popular tourist destination, has burnt over 64,000 hectares, though much of it is now being controlled, according to the NSW Rural Fire Service. Fire crews in the region took advantage of cooler conditions last week to perform 'back burning', where small areas are deliberately burned to create breaks to stop or slow the main fire. Smoke from bushfires has periodically blown south-eastwards to reach Sydney, causing severe air pollution in Australia's largest city. Further south of Sydney major roads have been closed major roads have been closed at several times during the last week with emergency-level fires spanning a 500km (310 miles) area across New South Wales and the neighbouring state of Victoria. An Australian farmer was forced to shoot 20 of his cows after they were badly injured in the bushfires ravaging the coastal areas of southern New South Wales. Steve Shipton from Coolagolite, between the hard-hit towns of Cobargo and Bermagui, was consoled by neighbouring farmers after the heart-wrenching task of putting down the cattle which had been severely burnt by fires that swept through his property. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Source: new South Wales Rural Fire Service.  To put the fire damage in New South Wales in perspective, 1.8 million hectares burned in the 2018 California wildfires and some 900,000 hectares were lost in the 2019 Amazon fires. Flames up to 70m (230ft) in height have been reported. Wildfires Globally: Australia. The Situation In Other States? In Victoria, the state's Country Fire Authority issued emergency warnings across the region of East Gippsland telling 30,000 people to leave the area before roads became too dangerous. Fires have been burning in the area since late November but the latest warnings for East Gippsland are of bushfire-driven thunderstorms, which would increase the risk of the fires spreading further out of control. In the small town of Mallacoota residents fled to the beach following a warning siren, with only a change in the wind direction keeping the fire from reaching them on the shore. In the state of South Australia, the Cudlee Creek fire is reported to have destroyed more than 80 homes in the Adelaide Hills region. The fires are also thought to have destroyed up to a third of the vines that provide grapes for the Adelaide Hills wine industry. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Are Bushfires Getting Worse? Many Australians are asking that very question and whether these fires are linked to climate change - but the science is complicated. Scientists have long warned that a hotter, drier climate will contribute to fires becoming more frequent and more intense. Australia's deadliest bushfire disaster was 'Black Saturday' in February 2009, when some 180 people died in Victoria. Data shows that Australia has warmed overall by slightly more than one degree Celsius since 1910, with most of the heating occurring since 1950, the Bureau of Meteorology says. Australia is getting warmer Wildfires Globally: Australia. Hottest Day On Record Australia broke its all-time temperature record twice in December. An average maximum of 40.9C was recorded on 17 December, broken a day later by 41.9C, both beating 2013's record of 40.3C. By the end of the month every state had measured temperatures above 40C - including Tasmania. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Maximum temperature 29 December 2019 The main climate driver behind the heat has been a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) - an event where sea surface temperatures are warmer in the western half of the ocean, cooler in the east. The difference between the two temperatures is currently the strongest in 60 years. Wildfires Globally. Are wildfires good? Wildfires, when allowed to burn in areas where they do not impact human development, are regenerative for the forest, revitalizing for the watershed, renew the soil, and reset the clock for the ecosystem. As a researcher on wildfire and streams let me recount the many ways that natural wildfire is beneficial. The Amazon And Indonesia: Intentionally Set Fires The Amazon, though, is a perfect example of a wildfire that was set intentionally. Brazil is looking to expand its presence on the economic world stage, for instance through its growing export of soybeans and cattle. These agricultural products require more land, which can, in the Brazilians’ minds, easily be obtained by ‘borrowing’ it from the rainforest. Recommended:  Brazil Is Burning For Your Beef: Amazon’s Nature, Our Luxury New president Jair Bolsonaro is more focused on the economic gains and is, in doing so, rolling back all kinds of measures that were put in place to protect both the environment as well as the indigenous groups living in the forest. All of this has certainly added to fears of further deforestation, and while numbers of the exact amount of forest that has gone to waste are not yet available, fears are that it will only get worse in years to come. Firefighters at a palm oil plantation in Pekanbaru, Indonesia Southeast Asia is looking at a similar issue. Under pressure to live up to rising demand, more and more agricultural land is ‘forged’ in countries like Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia. Up to 71% of so-called peat forests have gone to waste in the past three decades, making room for farms producing palm oil. This hazardous practice does not only significantly add to global warming, as peat releases some of the most damaging and polluting gases, it also poses a significant risk to those living around it. Although the government has attempted to call a halt to this trend, it has not really had much of an effect yet: as wildfires are back in full force this year. Recommended:  Amazon’s Fires, Madonna And DiCaprio: Questions & Answers Wildfires Worldwide: The Arctic An area that is new to wildfires is the Arctic, including Alaska, Greenland and Siberia. These areas have not dealt with the issue previously, but are facing the worst effects of global warming thus far - with temperatures rising to record heights and plants and vegetation becoming drier than they have ever been. Combined with the increased likelihood of lightning, it is kind of like throwing a lighted match into a stack of hay.   In total, 180 megatons of carbon dioxide has been emitted as a result from the Arctic wildfires - a massive number that is a multiple of the amount as emitted by entire countries. This is essentially speeding up global warming, the very same thing causing the Arctic to suffer so badly from wildfires and melting glaciers. Wildfires Globally. Why don't trees burn in fires? Trees in fire-prone areas develop thicker bark, in part, because thick bark does not catch fire or burn easily. The species also drops lower branches as the trees grow older, which helps prevent fire from climbing up and burning the green needles higher up the tree. Indigenous leaders call for Arctic cooperation against wildfires California And Africa: The Seasonal Cycle Of Burning One other category of wildfires are those that are expected and - one could say - even needed. The western part of the United States and Africa, to mention just a few, have a seasonal cycle of fires that actually ‘replenish’ the landscape. Take the lodgepole pines, for instance, a staple tree that requires the wildfire heat to release its seeds. In Sub-Saharan Africa, savanna ecosystems are used to their periodical ‘burn’ and will flourish once again not long after the fires have passed. Wildfires Globally: America, California This does, however, not mean that we should stand by and idly watch those wildfires destroy large pieces of land. Often, the root cause will be accidental - like someone dropping a cigarette or a campfire gone wrong. This still sets in motion an event that is potentially dangerous and disastrous to the surrounding area, and that is bound to become even more so in years to come as the direct result of climate change. Research has shown that the Californian wildfires are a staggering 500 percent larger than they would have been without it. They are unnecessarily large, so to speak, endangering both human and animal lives in the process. Wildfires Globally. What plants grow after a fire? Fire-activated Seeds Perhaps the most amazing fire adaptation is that some species actually require fire for their seeds to sprout. Some plants, such as the lodgepole pine, Eucalyptus, and Banksia, have serotinous cones or fruits that are completely sealed with resin. This World Is On Fire While it may feel and look as if our world is quite literally on fire, one should always consider the root cause first. And while some of those huge wildfires that have been raging in the past months have other causes, there are a few that can already be traced back to global warming directly - and all of them can, without a doubt, be considered a major contributor. Funny how it works: global warming-induced wildfires ending up accelerating that very same phenomenon. Although one might wonder if ‘funny’ really is the most appropriate word. Cover photo: Five Australian children were reunited with their parents after their grandparents helped them dramatically escape from blazing bush fires by clinging to a wooden jetty for three hours. Grandfather Tim Holmes alongside his wife and and his daughter's five children had to shelter in the sea to survive the potentially deadly inferno that raged on the shore. Recommended:  Climate Change And Its Effects Like Droughts: The Heat Is On Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Fires and floods: Australia already seesaws between climate extremes and there's more to come. With climate change, Australia is predicted to face more extreme weather.. Climate Extremes Australia: Unprecedented 'Unprecedented' is the word that keeps being tied to the apocalyptic weather Australia has faced over the past few months. Bushfires have always been a reality in Australia, but never recorded on this scale with such widespread damage. It’s estimated that more than 60,000 sq km have been scorched in New South Wales and Victoria alone. Days of smoke have shrouded Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne. And after the fires, flooding at the weekend in NSW and parts of Queensland left thousands without power and dozens of schools closed on Monday. While the country is still grappling with the economic reality and human devastation caused by the fires, it’s easy to think the worst of this disaster is over. But unfortunately other extreme weather may yet occur this summer and these will also require safety preparations and rapid responses. Residents in NSW evacuated already from flooded areas and thousands left without power Climate Extremes: Continental floods Last year 2019 was the driest and hottest year on record in Australia. Some parts of the country have had several years of drought in a row. But all droughts end eventually. At the weekend devastating storms swept through eastern NSW, causing flooding, power outages and commuter chaos. The Bureau of Meteorology says 391.6mm of rain fell over Sydney in the past four days, the most since 414.2mm fell from 2 to 5 February 1990. Historically Australian continental-scale droughts are often broken by widespread heavy rain, leading to an increased risk of flooding, including potentially lethal flash floods. The flood risk from the heavy rains is exacerbated by the bare soil and lack of vegetation caused by the drought and by bushfires that destroy forest and grassland. When a decade-long drought ended in 2009, what followed were two extremely wet years with serious flooding. Flooding also brings the risk that ash might contaminate water supplies. The heavy rain falling on bare soil can also lead to serious erosion. Damage at Collaroy at Sydney's northern beaches Heavy Rain: Positive and Negative Effects By the heavy rain all fires in the state may be out by the end of the week (16 th of February 2020). Evacuation orders are in place for several areas around Sydney, with thousands of homes still without power after Sunday’s rainfall. The Warragamba Dam recouped a year’s worth of water in one weekend, rising 17.7 percentage points to sit at 60.7% at 10.30am on Monday, AAP reports. Some 360,000 megalitres of water flowed into the dam, almost as much as 150,000 Olympic-size swimming pools Greater Sydney dam levels were at 64.2% on Monday morning, up from 41.9% in seven days The ash and debris generated by recent bushfires around the Warragamba area will not affect water quality, and two silt curtains are in place to intercept ash run-off, WaterNSW said Prospect Dam is more than 90% full, and Woronora Dam in Sydney’s south is almost 60% full, jumping 25 percentage points Up to 25 metres of beach at Collaroy and Narrabeen has been swept away by huge waves generated by the east coast low. While properties along the beach have been spared serious damage today, the threat is expected to return in coming days when more storms are forecast. Ausgrid crews are continuing to deal with 3,100 hazards, including fallen powerlines, fallen trees, damaged wires and extensive flash flooding. The company has restored power to 61,000 customers and is continuing efforts to reconnect 79,000 still without power. Climate Extremes Australia: Tropical Cyclones The onset of the tropical wet season over northern Australia has been very much delayed, as predicted in the middle of last year by the Bureau of Meteorology. Most of the Australian tropics have had well below average rainfall in the past few months, and some areas had their lowest November-January rainfall. As well, the tropical cyclone season was late, also predicted by the bureau months ago. In recent weeks there has been some cyclone activity and some rain. But the wait is still on for widespread tropical rains and for more cyclones to cross the coast as Damien did at the weekend. Although rain brought by cyclones are often welcome, these systems can also leave serious damage. Extremes Australia: Southern Heatwaves We are at the riskiest time for heatwaves in southern Australia. The risk usually peaks around the middle to the end of summer. Weather conducive to increased bushfire risk also usually peaks in February for southern states. So although media, community and political attention have focused on the horrendous bushfires we have already suffered, we should not overlook the likelihood of other extreme weather, including cyclones, floods and heatwaves, or think that the bushfire risk is over for the year. It is important to remain vigilant for all weather extremes. It would probably be an understatement to say that Australia and Brazil did not have their best year in 2019 in their existence. World leaders are tripping over each other to offer their assistance to Australia and the troubled Brazilian government, who are still struggling to get a grip on the problem. Meanwhile, hectares and hectares of forestland are catching fire with each passing minute.   Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Artic, Siberia While the Amazon is grabbing headlines with these historically fierce and ferocious fires, it is not the only part of our world that is on fire. Central Africa is facing some of the worst wildfires in its history as well, standing by more or less helplessly as vast areas of savanna are ablaze. And just before those started, we were confronted with the startling headline that the Artic is on fire: with Siberia, a place usually associated with icey cold tundras, now in danger of being burned to the ground. And what about Australia? Its bushfires threaten thousand of people, natura, cities, animals like Koalas. Recommended:  Heatwaves Worldwide: Nothing New! How To Protect Your Self The one thing that really stands out here is that wildfires are becoming much more severe - and occurring in places where these was previously unheard of. Many are exclaiming that this surely means that the world is ‘on fire’, and climate change is shifting to a higher gear. While this does make for some interest-grabbing headlines, it surely would be too easy to say that climate change has caused these fires. Or wouldn’t it be? What we can safely do, is turn the matter around. We do know for a fact that wildfires are active contributors to climate change. They kill millions of trees and vegetation, which function as the lungs of the earth. With fewer trees and plants, the earth cannot remove as many harmful emissions from the air - while a wildfire is pretty much the equivalent of a cigarette, releasing a lot of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Think of it as smoking one pack of cigarettes per day at a time when your lung function is decreasing rapidly as the result of a lung disease of sorts. Wildfires Globally: What On Earth Is Going On? Wildfires Globally. What are the different types of wildfires? There are three basic types of forest fires: Crown fires burn trees up their entire length to the top Surface fires burn only surface litter and duff Ground fires (sometimes called underground or subsurface fires) occur in deep accumulations of humus, peat and similar dead vegetation that become dry enough to burn The numbers are - staggering, to say the least. Take Siberia, where some six million acres have been burned to a crisp. Or Alaska, another part of the Artic, which has already lost 2.5 million acres to wildfires. This is a huge loss for the Artic region, which is actually already suffering disproportionally from global warming, warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet. Potentially catastrophic, especially as this will lead to an increase in lightning - a leading cause for fire. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Here, it seems as if we are entering some sort of vicious circle. As the world gets warmer, wildfires will become more prevalent. And as there are more wildfires, it will leave us with fewer vegetation and higher carbon emissions. This will only serve to speed up global warming, particularly if those wildfires occur in regions - like the Amazon or Arctic - that are powerful catalysts for our climate system.   Complicating matters even further is the unpredictability and variety of wildfires: there is no easy way to categorise them, nor is there a single root cause that can be identified that causes those fires. Some fires may be set intentionally, to obtain land for agricultural purposes, while others are accidental or perhaps more directly linked to global warming, as in the example of the Artic. Wildfires Globally: Australia. First Impression In Australia, beds are burning. So are entire towns, irreplaceable forests and endangered and precious animal species such as the koala. {youtube}                                  Deaths, losses mounting in Australia's disastrous bush fires, 1 of January 2020                                              Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Artic, Siberia What are the linkages between climate change and extreme weather events. The Great Barrier Reef, one of the great wonders of this planet. Subject to the twin assaults of warming-caused bleaching and ocean acidification, it will be gone in a matter of decades in the absence of a dramatic reduction in global carbon emissions. Wildfires Globally. How does a wildfire form? Sometimes, fires occur naturally, ignited by heat from the sun or a lightning strike. However, the majority of wildfires are the result of human carelessness. Causes include arson, campfires, discarding lit cigarettes, not burning debris properly, playing with matches or fireworks. The Blue Mountains, another of Australia’s natural wonders, known for its lush temperate rainforests, majestic cliffs and rock formations and panoramic vistas that challenge any the world has to offer. It too is now threatened by climate change. Wildfires Globally: Australia Gone are the vast expanses of rainforest framed by distant blue-tinged mountain ranges. Instead there are now smoke-filled valleys, with only the faintest ghosts of distant ridges and peaks in the background. The iconic blue tint (which derives from a haze formed from ‘terpenes’ emitted by the Eucalyptus trees that are so plentiful here) was replaced by a brown haze. The blue sky, too, had been replaced by that brown haze. Locals, would volunteer that they have never seen anything like this before. Some even uttered the words ‘climate change’ without any prompting. Wildfires Globally. Does fire reproduce? Fire is a self-sustaining chemical reaction where heat produces flammable gases, which burn and produce more heat. So to answer your question, “Can fire reproduce?”, reproduction is a process by which living creatures perpetuate their species. Fire is not a living thing and therefore does not reproduce The brown skies observed now in the Blue Mountains are a product of human-caused climate change. Take record heat, combine it with unprecedented drought in already dry regions and you get unprecedented bushfires like the ones engulfing the Blue Mountains and spreading across the continent. It’s not complicated. Wildfires Globally: Australia, New South Wales In the worst-affected state, New South Wales, fires have burned more than 4 million hectares (9.9m acres) destroying more than 900 houses. Across the country, 12 people have died - including three volunteer firefighters - with most of the casualties in New South Wales. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Current Situation NSW Hot, dry weather combined with prolonged drought and strong winds have created perfect conditions for fire to spread rapidly. Around 100 fires are burning across the state, with up to half as yet uncontained by firefighters and continuing to threaten lives. The fires have been exacerbated by 40C temperatures and strong winds, creating difficult conditions for the 2,500 firefighters deployed in the field. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Source: new South Wales Rural Fire Service. 31-12-2019 The small town of Balmoral, south-west of Sydney, was largely destroyed and scores of homes were razed amid catastrophic conditions on 22 December. In northern NSW large fires are burning in the region between Port Macquarie and Byron Bay. Wildfires Globally: Australia, Balmoral: A VW Beetle on fire In the countryside to the west of Sydney, there are fears that the vast Gospers Mountain fire, which originated in the Wollemi National Park, may merge with the Green Wattle Creek blaze in the lower Blue Mountains. The fire in the Blue Mountains, a world heritage area and popular tourist destination, has burnt over 64,000 hectares, though much of it is now being controlled, according to the NSW Rural Fire Service. Fire crews in the region took advantage of cooler conditions last week to perform 'back burning', where small areas are deliberately burned to create breaks to stop or slow the main fire. Smoke from bushfires has periodically blown south-eastwards to reach Sydney, causing severe air pollution in Australia's largest city. Further south of Sydney major roads have been closed major roads have been closed at several times during the last week with emergency-level fires spanning a 500km (310 miles) area across New South Wales and the neighbouring state of Victoria. An Australian farmer was forced to shoot 20 of his cows after they were badly injured in the bushfires ravaging the coastal areas of southern New South Wales. Steve Shipton from Coolagolite, between the hard-hit towns of Cobargo and Bermagui, was consoled by neighbouring farmers after the heart-wrenching task of putting down the cattle which had been severely burnt by fires that swept through his property. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Source: new South Wales Rural Fire Service.  To put the fire damage in New South Wales in perspective, 1.8 million hectares burned in the 2018 California wildfires and some 900,000 hectares were lost in the 2019 Amazon fires. Flames up to 70m (230ft) in height have been reported. Wildfires Globally: Australia. The Situation In Other States? In Victoria, the state's Country Fire Authority issued emergency warnings across the region of East Gippsland telling 30,000 people to leave the area before roads became too dangerous. Fires have been burning in the area since late November but the latest warnings for East Gippsland are of bushfire-driven thunderstorms, which would increase the risk of the fires spreading further out of control. In the small town of Mallacoota residents fled to the beach following a warning siren, with only a change in the wind direction keeping the fire from reaching them on the shore. In the state of South Australia, the Cudlee Creek fire is reported to have destroyed more than 80 homes in the Adelaide Hills region. The fires are also thought to have destroyed up to a third of the vines that provide grapes for the Adelaide Hills wine industry. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Are Bushfires Getting Worse? Many Australians are asking that very question and whether these fires are linked to climate change - but the science is complicated. Scientists have long warned that a hotter, drier climate will contribute to fires becoming more frequent and more intense. Australia's deadliest bushfire disaster was 'Black Saturday' in February 2009, when some 180 people died in Victoria. Data shows that Australia has warmed overall by slightly more than one degree Celsius since 1910, with most of the heating occurring since 1950, the Bureau of Meteorology says. Australia is getting warmer Wildfires Globally: Australia. Hottest Day On Record Australia broke its all-time temperature record twice in December. An average maximum of 40.9C was recorded on 17 December, broken a day later by 41.9C, both beating 2013's record of 40.3C. By the end of the month every state had measured temperatures above 40C - including Tasmania. Wildfires Globally: Australia. Maximum temperature 29 December 2019 The main climate driver behind the heat has been a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) - an event where sea surface temperatures are warmer in the western half of the ocean, cooler in the east. The difference between the two temperatures is currently the strongest in 60 years. Wildfires Globally. Are wildfires good? Wildfires, when allowed to burn in areas where they do not impact human development, are regenerative for the forest, revitalizing for the watershed, renew the soil, and reset the clock for the ecosystem. As a researcher on wildfire and streams let me recount the many ways that natural wildfire is beneficial. The Amazon And Indonesia: Intentionally Set Fires The Amazon, though, is a perfect example of a wildfire that was set intentionally. Brazil is looking to expand its presence on the economic world stage, for instance through its growing export of soybeans and cattle. These agricultural products require more land, which can, in the Brazilians’ minds, easily be obtained by ‘borrowing’ it from the rainforest. Recommended:  Brazil Is Burning For Your Beef: Amazon’s Nature, Our Luxury New president Jair Bolsonaro is more focused on the economic gains and is, in doing so, rolling back all kinds of measures that were put in place to protect both the environment as well as the indigenous groups living in the forest. All of this has certainly added to fears of further deforestation, and while numbers of the exact amount of forest that has gone to waste are not yet available, fears are that it will only get worse in years to come. Firefighters at a palm oil plantation in Pekanbaru, Indonesia Southeast Asia is looking at a similar issue. Under pressure to live up to rising demand, more and more agricultural land is ‘forged’ in countries like Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia. Up to 71% of so-called peat forests have gone to waste in the past three decades, making room for farms producing palm oil. This hazardous practice does not only significantly add to global warming, as peat releases some of the most damaging and polluting gases, it also poses a significant risk to those living around it. Although the government has attempted to call a halt to this trend, it has not really had much of an effect yet: as wildfires are back in full force this year. Recommended:  Amazon’s Fires, Madonna And DiCaprio: Questions & Answers Wildfires Worldwide: The Arctic An area that is new to wildfires is the Arctic, including Alaska, Greenland and Siberia. These areas have not dealt with the issue previously, but are facing the worst effects of global warming thus far - with temperatures rising to record heights and plants and vegetation becoming drier than they have ever been. Combined with the increased likelihood of lightning, it is kind of like throwing a lighted match into a stack of hay.   In total, 180 megatons of carbon dioxide has been emitted as a result from the Arctic wildfires - a massive number that is a multiple of the amount as emitted by entire countries. This is essentially speeding up global warming, the very same thing causing the Arctic to suffer so badly from wildfires and melting glaciers. Wildfires Globally. Why don't trees burn in fires? Trees in fire-prone areas develop thicker bark, in part, because thick bark does not catch fire or burn easily. The species also drops lower branches as the trees grow older, which helps prevent fire from climbing up and burning the green needles higher up the tree. Indigenous leaders call for Arctic cooperation against wildfires California And Africa: The Seasonal Cycle Of Burning One other category of wildfires are those that are expected and - one could say - even needed. The western part of the United States and Africa, to mention just a few, have a seasonal cycle of fires that actually ‘replenish’ the landscape. Take the lodgepole pines, for instance, a staple tree that requires the wildfire heat to release its seeds. In Sub-Saharan Africa, savanna ecosystems are used to their periodical ‘burn’ and will flourish once again not long after the fires have passed. Wildfires Globally: America, California This does, however, not mean that we should stand by and idly watch those wildfires destroy large pieces of land. Often, the root cause will be accidental - like someone dropping a cigarette or a campfire gone wrong. This still sets in motion an event that is potentially dangerous and disastrous to the surrounding area, and that is bound to become even more so in years to come as the direct result of climate change. Research has shown that the Californian wildfires are a staggering 500 percent larger than they would have been without it. They are unnecessarily large, so to speak, endangering both human and animal lives in the process. Wildfires Globally. What plants grow after a fire? Fire-activated Seeds Perhaps the most amazing fire adaptation is that some species actually require fire for their seeds to sprout. Some plants, such as the lodgepole pine, Eucalyptus, and Banksia, have serotinous cones or fruits that are completely sealed with resin. This World Is On Fire While it may feel and look as if our world is quite literally on fire, one should always consider the root cause first. And while some of those huge wildfires that have been raging in the past months have other causes, there are a few that can already be traced back to global warming directly - and all of them can, without a doubt, be considered a major contributor. Funny how it works: global warming-induced wildfires ending up accelerating that very same phenomenon. Although one might wonder if ‘funny’ really is the most appropriate word. Cover photo: Five Australian children were reunited with their parents after their grandparents helped them dramatically escape from blazing bush fires by clinging to a wooden jetty for three hours. Grandfather Tim Holmes alongside his wife and and his daughter's five children had to shelter in the sea to survive the potentially deadly inferno that raged on the shore. Recommended:  Climate Change And Its Effects Like Droughts: The Heat Is On Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Climate Extremes Australia Floods, Wildfires And Destruction
Climate Extremes Australia Floods, Wildfires And Destruction
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
Can nature itself be our leading example in solving climate issues? Yes: this artificial leaf might be one of the solutions for global warming. With new and low-cost technology where CO2 is converted into liquid fuel by sunlight, scientists of the University of Waterloo may be able to solve the enormous problem of rising greenhouse levels. A Breakthrough In Converting CO2 Into Liquid Scientists from the University of Waterloo claim that their artificial leaf can be a breakthrough in converting CO2 into liquid. The new technology can turn carbon dioxide into fuel, with Mother Earth as an inspiration. The artificial leaf mimics photosynthesis in nature, hence the invention’s name, ‘leaf’. With the help of a cheap red powder called cuprous oxide, CO2 can be converted into methanol and oxygen – and these substances are again converted into fuel. This cuprous oxide is found in abundance in nature. What is cuprous oxide? Curpous oxide, or red copper oxide or Cu2O, is a red coloured crystal of powder, and oxide of copper - and found in nature as cuprite. Fuel Efficiency Larger Than Natural Photosynthesis Oil buble abstract {youtube}                             Artificial Leaves Designed By Scientists Absorb More CO2 Than Natural Leaves                                                How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! The inexpensive technology can hopefully help in the fight against rising greenhouse gas levels. The research team of the University of Waterloo's motivation to develop this artificial leaf is to ‘reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, and hopefully reduce global warming and to provide sustainable energy.’  It seems to be working: lead researcher Yimin Wu said: "This technology has achieved the solar to fuel efficiency about 10 per cent. This is already larger than the natural photosynthesis (about one per cent)." Recommended: Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! What´s Next For The Artificial Leaf? How does photosynthesis work simple? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. It could take a while for the artificial leaf to be commercialised. Further research is needed to increase the amount of ethanol during the process before the technology is offered to industrial companies. In a partnership with industry companies, more efficient artificial leaves can be developed – but this can take up to a few years. Professor Wu says that oil, steel, and automotive companies will take advantage of the technology to help reduce their carbon emissions. On that note, he tells Independent: “I’m extremely excited about the potential of this discovery to change the game. Climate change is an urgent problem, and we can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also creating an alternative fuel.” Lead researcher Yimin Wu Before you go! Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about CO2 Absorbing Techniques? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Can nature itself be our leading example in solving climate issues? Yes: this artificial leaf might be one of the solutions for global warming. With new and low-cost technology where CO2 is converted into liquid fuel by sunlight, scientists of the University of Waterloo may be able to solve the enormous problem of rising greenhouse levels. A Breakthrough In Converting CO2 Into Liquid Scientists from the University of Waterloo claim that their artificial leaf can be a breakthrough in converting CO2 into liquid. The new technology can turn carbon dioxide into fuel, with Mother Earth as an inspiration. The artificial leaf mimics photosynthesis in nature, hence the invention’s name, ‘leaf’. With the help of a cheap red powder called cuprous oxide, CO2 can be converted into methanol and oxygen – and these substances are again converted into fuel. This cuprous oxide is found in abundance in nature. What is cuprous oxide? Curpous oxide, or red copper oxide or Cu2O, is a red coloured crystal of powder, and oxide of copper - and found in nature as cuprite. Fuel Efficiency Larger Than Natural Photosynthesis Oil buble abstract {youtube}                             Artificial Leaves Designed By Scientists Absorb More CO2 Than Natural Leaves                                                How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! The inexpensive technology can hopefully help in the fight against rising greenhouse gas levels. The research team of the University of Waterloo's motivation to develop this artificial leaf is to ‘reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, and hopefully reduce global warming and to provide sustainable energy.’  It seems to be working: lead researcher Yimin Wu said: "This technology has achieved the solar to fuel efficiency about 10 per cent. This is already larger than the natural photosynthesis (about one per cent)." Recommended: Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! What´s Next For The Artificial Leaf? How does photosynthesis work simple? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. It could take a while for the artificial leaf to be commercialised. Further research is needed to increase the amount of ethanol during the process before the technology is offered to industrial companies. In a partnership with industry companies, more efficient artificial leaves can be developed – but this can take up to a few years. Professor Wu says that oil, steel, and automotive companies will take advantage of the technology to help reduce their carbon emissions. On that note, he tells Independent: “I’m extremely excited about the potential of this discovery to change the game. Climate change is an urgent problem, and we can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also creating an alternative fuel.” Lead researcher Yimin Wu Before you go! Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about CO2 Absorbing Techniques? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord?
Greta Thunberg was recently named Time’s Person of the Year, beating famed nominees like Donald Trump, Keanu Reeves, Meghan Markle and Mark Zuckerberg in the process. It is hardly surprising, considering the past year. Climate activism has become a new buzzword, with Greta as the shiny poster girl. With her Scandinavian appeal and her no-nonsense attitude, she has managed to give a voice to a large group of youngsters.   Our Climate And The UN Climate Change Conference Neoliberalism is protested against by a group that is angry as the world that they still have to grow up in is destroyed by older generations. And they are not alone. Protests against neoliberalism serve to increasingly question the validity of governmental measures that have had such a dire impact on all kinds of social programs, including action on climate change. Recommended:  Who’s Greta Thunberg’s Rival On Climate Facts, Naomi Seibt? Hong Kong, La Paz, Paris, Port-Au-Prince, Quito, Barcelona, Beirut and Santiago. Just a number of cities that have experienced uproar and growing unrest amongst new governmental policies. People are taking to the streets to express their dissatisfaction and anger, calling out to those in charge.   Whether they are protesting rising fuel prices, extradition of criminals, corrupt politicians or tax increases - it all comes down to the same thing: the system of neoliberalism crumbling and falling apart at the seams.   Neoliberalism, what is the concept? Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism is the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism and free market capitalism. As such, neoliberalism shares many attributes with other concepts that have contested meanings, including democracy. Only last week, 25,000 people attended the 2019 UN Climate Change Conference, or COP25, in Madrid. Originally, this conference was to be held in Santiago, Chile. Yet in an unprecedented move, the city was overtaken by huge numbers of angry citizens, protesting a simple increase in their transport rates.   Recommended:  COP25: Can Paris Accord Signatories Beat The Fossil Industry If one million angry Chileans protesting a price increase of their train ticket does not alarm you, very few things might. Fact is, these mass demonstrations are just another illustration of how fed up the world is with neoliberalism’s failings. This includes the proactive avoidance of real action meant to cut down CO2 emissions. Politicians are more concerned with their own agenda than with saving the world. Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate: Permafrost ‘Tells’ The Story {youtube}                                              Neoliberalism: The story of a big economic bust up | BBC Ideas                                                 Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Neoliberalism has been hurting our planet for quite some time. Just look at the Arctic, one of the most important elements of the earth’s climate system. Before, the Arctic served as a carbon sink, taking out more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than it put in. It basically acted like the lungs of the world, taking out the pollution and ‘clearing’ the air. Which country is the biggest polluter? The top 8 nations with the highest CO2 emissions are: China United States European Union India Russia Japan Germany South Korea Just recently, under the pressure of neoliberal measures and failures to act, it appears that the Arctic has become a chainsmoker. Instead of serving as a carbon sink, it is now rapidly becoming a carbon source. The net emissions are greater than the net absorptions, meaning that the Arctic will start to add to climate change instead of possibly relieving it. This shift represents a drastic turn for the worse in our earth’s climate system. Looking at our paleo climate history, this seems to ring in the end of a climate era. Permafrost research has confirmed that the region as a whole appears to move away from being a carbon sink to being a carbon source - a prelude to drastic climate changes and, indeed, a move away from life as we know it. Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate: Inequality Neoliberalism is causing inequality One possible explanation for the rise in income inequality is the emergence of neoliberalism: the implementation of policies meant to privatize the economy. However, neoliberalism increases income inequality by rewarding those who are already wealthy, while providing fewer nets for poorer populations to fall back on. While climate change is rapidly moving to the point of no return, inequality is growing. Not just income inequality, or wealth inequality - although this has certainly spurred many people to take to the streets to express their dissatisfaction. Those who ‘have’ are hesitant to change the status quo, afraid of losing their ‘haves’, while those who ‘don’t have’ are becoming more and more upset. Recommended:  Consumerism In ‘The West’: A Society Built On Exploitation Neoliberalism has deregulating economies. In an effort to grow economies, the economic world stage has spent the past few decades deregulating industries. This has only served to increase inequality, with employers reaping the benefits from workers fighting for a place to work and, hence, forfeiting any illusion of a seat at the negotiation table. The working class is barely protected and left largely to their own devices. Neoliberalism's Failure And The Climate Crisis It is not just the worker’s position in the workplace that is being threatened. Their home environment is threatened in a similar fashion, with climate change standing on the doorstep. It is ironic that those who had the least to do with it will be hit the hardest, unable to afford the literal higher ground or protective measures.   Inequality in a global warming stricken world: it appears to be the imminent future. The climate crisis will hit all of us, unless drastic action is taken today. Unfortunately, it has been proven time and time again that drastic action is not one of the strong suits of neoliberal politicians. Their doubt and indecisiveness have already led to all of those protesters going out to express their anger. Will we let it lead to the destruction of our planet as well? The answer should be no. This means that, if we are to combat climate change, we might have to look at the larger picture. Find a way of kicking neoliberalism to the curb and find a way of governing countries that is more in tune with today’s needs. In a way that will, eventually, protect workers’ rights and solve this climate change crisis.   All of these protests that the world has seen in the past year are nothing if not indicative of one thing: the masses seem to realise that ‘politics as it was’ does not work anymore. Now it is up to us to find an alternative. Before you go! Recommended:  Earth Matters. Nature And Us: What Was, What’s Left: Hope? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the effect of climate change in your neighborhood? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Greta Thunberg was recently named Time’s Person of the Year, beating famed nominees like Donald Trump, Keanu Reeves, Meghan Markle and Mark Zuckerberg in the process. It is hardly surprising, considering the past year. Climate activism has become a new buzzword, with Greta as the shiny poster girl. With her Scandinavian appeal and her no-nonsense attitude, she has managed to give a voice to a large group of youngsters.   Our Climate And The UN Climate Change Conference Neoliberalism is protested against by a group that is angry as the world that they still have to grow up in is destroyed by older generations. And they are not alone. Protests against neoliberalism serve to increasingly question the validity of governmental measures that have had such a dire impact on all kinds of social programs, including action on climate change. Recommended:  Who’s Greta Thunberg’s Rival On Climate Facts, Naomi Seibt? Hong Kong, La Paz, Paris, Port-Au-Prince, Quito, Barcelona, Beirut and Santiago. Just a number of cities that have experienced uproar and growing unrest amongst new governmental policies. People are taking to the streets to express their dissatisfaction and anger, calling out to those in charge.   Whether they are protesting rising fuel prices, extradition of criminals, corrupt politicians or tax increases - it all comes down to the same thing: the system of neoliberalism crumbling and falling apart at the seams.   Neoliberalism, what is the concept? Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism is the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism and free market capitalism. As such, neoliberalism shares many attributes with other concepts that have contested meanings, including democracy. Only last week, 25,000 people attended the 2019 UN Climate Change Conference, or COP25, in Madrid. Originally, this conference was to be held in Santiago, Chile. Yet in an unprecedented move, the city was overtaken by huge numbers of angry citizens, protesting a simple increase in their transport rates.   Recommended:  COP25: Can Paris Accord Signatories Beat The Fossil Industry If one million angry Chileans protesting a price increase of their train ticket does not alarm you, very few things might. Fact is, these mass demonstrations are just another illustration of how fed up the world is with neoliberalism’s failings. This includes the proactive avoidance of real action meant to cut down CO2 emissions. Politicians are more concerned with their own agenda than with saving the world. Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate: Permafrost ‘Tells’ The Story {youtube}                                              Neoliberalism: The story of a big economic bust up | BBC Ideas                                                 Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Neoliberalism has been hurting our planet for quite some time. Just look at the Arctic, one of the most important elements of the earth’s climate system. Before, the Arctic served as a carbon sink, taking out more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than it put in. It basically acted like the lungs of the world, taking out the pollution and ‘clearing’ the air. Which country is the biggest polluter? The top 8 nations with the highest CO2 emissions are: China United States European Union India Russia Japan Germany South Korea Just recently, under the pressure of neoliberal measures and failures to act, it appears that the Arctic has become a chainsmoker. Instead of serving as a carbon sink, it is now rapidly becoming a carbon source. The net emissions are greater than the net absorptions, meaning that the Arctic will start to add to climate change instead of possibly relieving it. This shift represents a drastic turn for the worse in our earth’s climate system. Looking at our paleo climate history, this seems to ring in the end of a climate era. Permafrost research has confirmed that the region as a whole appears to move away from being a carbon sink to being a carbon source - a prelude to drastic climate changes and, indeed, a move away from life as we know it. Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate: Inequality Neoliberalism is causing inequality One possible explanation for the rise in income inequality is the emergence of neoliberalism: the implementation of policies meant to privatize the economy. However, neoliberalism increases income inequality by rewarding those who are already wealthy, while providing fewer nets for poorer populations to fall back on. While climate change is rapidly moving to the point of no return, inequality is growing. Not just income inequality, or wealth inequality - although this has certainly spurred many people to take to the streets to express their dissatisfaction. Those who ‘have’ are hesitant to change the status quo, afraid of losing their ‘haves’, while those who ‘don’t have’ are becoming more and more upset. Recommended:  Consumerism In ‘The West’: A Society Built On Exploitation Neoliberalism has deregulating economies. In an effort to grow economies, the economic world stage has spent the past few decades deregulating industries. This has only served to increase inequality, with employers reaping the benefits from workers fighting for a place to work and, hence, forfeiting any illusion of a seat at the negotiation table. The working class is barely protected and left largely to their own devices. Neoliberalism's Failure And The Climate Crisis It is not just the worker’s position in the workplace that is being threatened. Their home environment is threatened in a similar fashion, with climate change standing on the doorstep. It is ironic that those who had the least to do with it will be hit the hardest, unable to afford the literal higher ground or protective measures.   Inequality in a global warming stricken world: it appears to be the imminent future. The climate crisis will hit all of us, unless drastic action is taken today. Unfortunately, it has been proven time and time again that drastic action is not one of the strong suits of neoliberal politicians. Their doubt and indecisiveness have already led to all of those protesters going out to express their anger. Will we let it lead to the destruction of our planet as well? The answer should be no. This means that, if we are to combat climate change, we might have to look at the larger picture. Find a way of kicking neoliberalism to the curb and find a way of governing countries that is more in tune with today’s needs. In a way that will, eventually, protect workers’ rights and solve this climate change crisis.   All of these protests that the world has seen in the past year are nothing if not indicative of one thing: the masses seem to realise that ‘politics as it was’ does not work anymore. Now it is up to us to find an alternative. Before you go! Recommended:  Earth Matters. Nature And Us: What Was, What’s Left: Hope? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the effect of climate change in your neighborhood? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord?
Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord?
Climate

Climate change! Currently, the most discussed topic in the world. Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. Climate change can also result from ‘external forcing’ and include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Human activities can also influence our climate. Debates, posts and answers on (social) platforms about the role of humanity in the climate change process regularly lead to heated discussions

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