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Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement
Greta Thunberg. We have all seen the images. A young girl sitting in front of the Swedish parliament, boasting a sign ‘Skolstrejk’, or ‘school strike’. Or the images of this very same girl crossing the Atlantic on a climate-neutral yacht. Or her speech at the United Nations, calling out world leaders for not taking action and destroying the world that she will have to grow up in. Meet Greta Thunberg. Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement Then, there’s the ‘anti-Greta’, German climate sceptic (or, as she calls it, ‘realist’) Naomi Seibt. This 18-year-old high school student has quickly grabbed fame with her outspoken criticism of both Greta and everything she stands for. Claiming that Greta never talks about the science, Naomi explains her views with a wisdom beyond her age: views that seem to confirm her world view, a view in which man-made climate change isn’t real. Some are calling the German teen a nationalist, while others see her as a source of inspiration. Naomi Seibt, intervieuwed by FOX NEWS Recommended:  Naomi Seibt And Her Many Opponents On Climate Change Greta And Naomi: Pulling The Strings Of Pliable Spokespersons {youtube}                                                           Greta or Naomi: Climate Alarmism vs Realism   While the climate activists are hailing Saint Greta as their patron, the climate deniers seem to have embraced Naomi as their darling. Both well-spoken, blonde, clever girls who seem non-threatening representatives of a generation most likely to suffer the consequences - or lack thereof - of climate change. Well-educated schoolgirls who appear to have raised their voices out of innocence and genuine concern for where the world is headed. Or this is what they want you to think. Because these girls have one other thing in common: the fact that they are ultimately being controlled by one or several puppet masters. Greta Thunberg on climate strike And no, I am not saying that Greta and Naomi are pliable puppets. They are probably truly invested in the matter and really do speak from the heart. Yet there is no denying that there are some people hiding behind these innocent shields in order to push their own, far less cuddly agenda. Recommended:  Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Greta And Naomi: Young Girl As The Poster Child For Change Let’s look at Greta first. A 17-year-old from Stockholm, Sweden, who grew up in an upper-class family. Her mother is a well-known opera singer, while her father is an actor and descendant of Svante Arrhenius, the scientist who actually ‘discovered’ the greenhouse effect.   Greta Thunberg and her parents Greta claims to have learned about climate change when she was eight years old, instantly feeling drawn to the issue in a somewhat compulsive manner - Greta has Asperger’s syndrome, accounting for some of her quirks and her confrontational nature. Then, she convinced her parents to reduce their carbon footprint - telling them to eat vegan, recycle and give up air travel. Or this is how the story goes. There’s more to it, though. It is not as if Greta woke up one day, thinking that she had to start her ‘school strike’. No. She won a climate change essay contest of Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet, which led to her getting in touch with Bo Thorén from Fossil Free Dalsland, an environmental group fighting climate change. Greta attended some of their meetings, in which Bo suggested that school children could strike for the climate - an idea that she took to heart and stuck by. Yet this definitely does not make the school strike her idea, but an adult’s. Recommended:  Five Minutes To Midnight: Climate Change Action Fighting The Clock Then there’s the Swedish start-up ‘We Don’t Have Time,’ led by a PR-specialist, Ingmar Rentzhog, that has a vested interest in Greta: he claims to accidentally have met her in front of the Swedish parliament, yet this does not appear to be a coincidence - nor was the article in the Aftonbladet newspaper that first mentioned her, a mere hour or so after Rentzhog wrote about her on his Facebook. It is not surprising that rumours go around that he, powered by his finance and banker investors, actually created the fairytale hype surrounding the girl. Ingmar Rentzhog: 'We don't have time'! Naomi Seibt: Climate Change Deniers Darling Then, let’s zoom in on Naomi. She too carries the air of an innocent girl merely fighting for her future. This teenage student from Münster, Germany has sprouted some rather radical ideas and views - including some that could be labelled as anti-Semitic. Yet her girly looks and innocent big eyes seem to somehow soften the impact of her climate change denying message.   Naomi Seibt talking during a CPAC meeting Recommended:  Who’s Greta Thunberg’s Rival On Climate Facts, Naomi Seibt? She has risen to a status that even allowed her to speak at the CPAC, or Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington D.C., alongside President Trump and other notoriously right-wing activists and politicians. She is also employed by the Heartland Institute, a conservative think-tank organisation from the United States known for its hardline and libertarian views. Through her - paid and coached - association with this institute, she gets to speak at events and is decidedly getting her platform. A platform that seemingly thrives on the association with Greta. Naomi Seibt sponserd by The Heartland Institute The Heartland Institute has chosen a smart advocate for her platform. Grown men bullying and talking down a girl like Greta does not go over so well in the media - just look at the outrage Trump caused when he stated Greta had some kind of anger issues and picked on the teen via Twitter. Yet a contemporary that is strikingly alike in background, looks and motivation is a much better pawn - excuse the word - to play this game with. There's Always An Ulterior Motive This is what it comes down to. As genuine and real as girls like Greta and Naomi sound, they are ultimately always backed by someone who has some kind of vested interest in the situation at hand - be it political, financial, or otherwise. These are the people who kickstarted the platform that those girls now happily use, and are the ones footing the bills for their sometimes rather extravagant travel needs - like Greta’s journey across the Atlantic and Naomi’s current parade around conservative conferences.   Sad, but true: there’s always an ulterior motive. This time it just comes packaged like innocent looking girls. Before you go! Recommended:  Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Greta Thunberg. We have all seen the images. A young girl sitting in front of the Swedish parliament, boasting a sign ‘Skolstrejk’, or ‘school strike’. Or the images of this very same girl crossing the Atlantic on a climate-neutral yacht. Or her speech at the United Nations, calling out world leaders for not taking action and destroying the world that she will have to grow up in. Meet Greta Thunberg. Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement Then, there’s the ‘anti-Greta’, German climate sceptic (or, as she calls it, ‘realist’) Naomi Seibt. This 18-year-old high school student has quickly grabbed fame with her outspoken criticism of both Greta and everything she stands for. Claiming that Greta never talks about the science, Naomi explains her views with a wisdom beyond her age: views that seem to confirm her world view, a view in which man-made climate change isn’t real. Some are calling the German teen a nationalist, while others see her as a source of inspiration. Naomi Seibt, intervieuwed by FOX NEWS Recommended:  Naomi Seibt And Her Many Opponents On Climate Change Greta And Naomi: Pulling The Strings Of Pliable Spokespersons {youtube}                                                           Greta or Naomi: Climate Alarmism vs Realism   While the climate activists are hailing Saint Greta as their patron, the climate deniers seem to have embraced Naomi as their darling. Both well-spoken, blonde, clever girls who seem non-threatening representatives of a generation most likely to suffer the consequences - or lack thereof - of climate change. Well-educated schoolgirls who appear to have raised their voices out of innocence and genuine concern for where the world is headed. Or this is what they want you to think. Because these girls have one other thing in common: the fact that they are ultimately being controlled by one or several puppet masters. Greta Thunberg on climate strike And no, I am not saying that Greta and Naomi are pliable puppets. They are probably truly invested in the matter and really do speak from the heart. Yet there is no denying that there are some people hiding behind these innocent shields in order to push their own, far less cuddly agenda. Recommended:  Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Greta And Naomi: Young Girl As The Poster Child For Change Let’s look at Greta first. A 17-year-old from Stockholm, Sweden, who grew up in an upper-class family. Her mother is a well-known opera singer, while her father is an actor and descendant of Svante Arrhenius, the scientist who actually ‘discovered’ the greenhouse effect.   Greta Thunberg and her parents Greta claims to have learned about climate change when she was eight years old, instantly feeling drawn to the issue in a somewhat compulsive manner - Greta has Asperger’s syndrome, accounting for some of her quirks and her confrontational nature. Then, she convinced her parents to reduce their carbon footprint - telling them to eat vegan, recycle and give up air travel. Or this is how the story goes. There’s more to it, though. It is not as if Greta woke up one day, thinking that she had to start her ‘school strike’. No. She won a climate change essay contest of Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet, which led to her getting in touch with Bo Thorén from Fossil Free Dalsland, an environmental group fighting climate change. Greta attended some of their meetings, in which Bo suggested that school children could strike for the climate - an idea that she took to heart and stuck by. Yet this definitely does not make the school strike her idea, but an adult’s. Recommended:  Five Minutes To Midnight: Climate Change Action Fighting The Clock Then there’s the Swedish start-up ‘We Don’t Have Time,’ led by a PR-specialist, Ingmar Rentzhog, that has a vested interest in Greta: he claims to accidentally have met her in front of the Swedish parliament, yet this does not appear to be a coincidence - nor was the article in the Aftonbladet newspaper that first mentioned her, a mere hour or so after Rentzhog wrote about her on his Facebook. It is not surprising that rumours go around that he, powered by his finance and banker investors, actually created the fairytale hype surrounding the girl. Ingmar Rentzhog: 'We don't have time'! Naomi Seibt: Climate Change Deniers Darling Then, let’s zoom in on Naomi. She too carries the air of an innocent girl merely fighting for her future. This teenage student from Münster, Germany has sprouted some rather radical ideas and views - including some that could be labelled as anti-Semitic. Yet her girly looks and innocent big eyes seem to somehow soften the impact of her climate change denying message.   Naomi Seibt talking during a CPAC meeting Recommended:  Who’s Greta Thunberg’s Rival On Climate Facts, Naomi Seibt? She has risen to a status that even allowed her to speak at the CPAC, or Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington D.C., alongside President Trump and other notoriously right-wing activists and politicians. She is also employed by the Heartland Institute, a conservative think-tank organisation from the United States known for its hardline and libertarian views. Through her - paid and coached - association with this institute, she gets to speak at events and is decidedly getting her platform. A platform that seemingly thrives on the association with Greta. Naomi Seibt sponserd by The Heartland Institute The Heartland Institute has chosen a smart advocate for her platform. Grown men bullying and talking down a girl like Greta does not go over so well in the media - just look at the outrage Trump caused when he stated Greta had some kind of anger issues and picked on the teen via Twitter. Yet a contemporary that is strikingly alike in background, looks and motivation is a much better pawn - excuse the word - to play this game with. There's Always An Ulterior Motive This is what it comes down to. As genuine and real as girls like Greta and Naomi sound, they are ultimately always backed by someone who has some kind of vested interest in the situation at hand - be it political, financial, or otherwise. These are the people who kickstarted the platform that those girls now happily use, and are the ones footing the bills for their sometimes rather extravagant travel needs - like Greta’s journey across the Atlantic and Naomi’s current parade around conservative conferences.   Sad, but true: there’s always an ulterior motive. This time it just comes packaged like innocent looking girls. Before you go! Recommended:  Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement
Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement
Permafrost And Ice Melting: The Danger Of Melting Ice walls
Rise in sea levels: the inherent danger of ice walls breaking. Another article discussing the dangers of our rising sea levels is probably the last thing on your to-read list. After all, the literature on the dangers of each additional millimetre that our oceans and seas rise is abundant. Rising sea levels will irreparably damage coastal ecosystems, alter climate for good and wipe out entire communities that are unlucky enough to find themselves in the deltas that are subject to excessive flooding. Permafrost And Ice Melting: A Danger To Coastal Communities Recent studies have shown that the number of people impacted will be a least thrice the earlier estimates. Provided that no one moves away, there would be some 150 million people living under the water line by 2050 (during high tide). On top of that, 300 million people will live in areas that will see floods on a yearly basis. And this is still under the low-emissions scenario, where we will have taken successful action before then. Photo by: Marjorie Teo, Greenland In a high-emissions scenario, these numbers will be even more dramatic - with 540 million people living under the water line and another 640 million people living in regions subject to flooding. This puts well over 1 billion of us at risk within the next few decades - pretty alarming in and of itself. {youtube}                                           A mysterious 'hole' has reappeared in the middle of Antarctica Antartica Is Melting: Land Ice And Permafrost On The Decline Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Back in 2012, researchers provided a much needed wake-up call in Nature Geoscience magazine. They found that between 1958 and 2010, the average temperature at Antartica’s Byrd Station increased by just shy of 2.5 degrees Celsius. This makes this spot, located in the heart of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, one of the fastest-warming places on the planet. What is permafrost and why is it important? Permafrost is permanently frozen soil, and occurs mostly in high latitudes. In addition, permafrost is structurally important, and its melting has been known to cause erosion, disappearance of lakes, landslides, and ground subsidence. It will also cause changes in plant species composition at high latitudes. Photo by Anna Spratt That is shocking. One of the places where you would definitely not want temperatures to increase too much. Just like we do not like accidentally leaving our fridge open on a hot summer day, we should be careful to leave nature’s fridge open for too long - as it might not just be milk going bad, but rather entire ecosystems. What happens if permafrost melts? It is thought that permafrost thawing could exacerbate global warming by releasing methane and other hydrocarbons, which are powerful greenhouse gases. It also could encourage erosion because permafrost lends stability to barren Arctic slopes. Ice Sheets Melting At An Alarming Rate The Antarctic is particularly important because of its ice sheets covering most of the land. These are key to our ocean’s currents and determinant of much of the earth’s climate. If there’s one thing not going well together, it has to be ice and heat. As such, researchers found that Antarctica lost some 3000 gigaton of ice in the last three decades alone, the melting of which will cause sea levels to rise by about 7.6 millimetres. Recommended:  Antarctic: Our Growing Footprint On This Pristine Continent Photo by: James Eades The rate at which this is happening is very alarming: back in 1992, we “only” lost some 43 gigaton per year, a number that has gone up to 220 gigaton per year over the last five years. This means that the amount of ice that is melting is increasing at a similar pace. This could lead to a equally alarming rise in sea levels, setting in motion all the bad effects as outlined earlier in this article. What is Antarctica known for? Often described as a continent of superlatives, Antarctica is the world's southernmost continent. It is also the world's highest, driest, windiest, coldest, and iciest continent. Antartica Melting From The Inside Out There is, however, another possibility - albeit strictly theoretical at this point. And its consequences could possibility be even worse. Let’s entertain the thought of Antartica melting from the inside out for a second. What if all the ice sheets on the continent are slowly but surely melting, but still being ‘held back’ by a barrier of ice surrounding it? The ice will basically start acting like a barrage for the melted ice behind it. Just like we artificially constructed sand dunes to hold back the sea, mimicking the already existing natural phenomenon, ice walls could do the same for the melting permafrost and ice caps - keeping the melted water ‘inside’, so to speak. Recommended:  Manmade Antarctic Snowstorm: Save Cities From Rising Seas Photo by: This gigantic hole was recently been discovered by an Arctic expedition Antartica As Lava Cake: 'Biblical' Flood Threat One huge caveat? All this pent up water will have to go somewhere, eventually. And science taught us that the increasingly warmer water surrounding the ice wall will cause said wall to melt as well. What this means? Well, basically what happens when a dam bursts. Only then the dam is about the size of Antartica’s perimeter, holding the world’s largest ice reservoir. Even more worryingly, large parts of Antartica do not lie on actual land but float on water. What would happen if the Antarctica melted? If all the ice covering Antarctica , Greenland, and in mountain glaciers around the world were to melt, sea level would rise about 70 meters (230 feet). The ocean would cover all the coastal cities. And land area would shrink significantly. But many cities, such as Denver, would survive Photo by: Mikael Strandberg So if Antartica is melting from the inside out, we could be about to witness the real-life equivalent of a lava cake when prodded from the outside. And instead of the melting ice caps gradually raising sea levels, allowing for us to adjust to the best of our possibilities, we could be facing a potentially life-threatening tsunami of biblical proportions. Antartica Melting: Is The Threat Real? The idea is equally fascinating as it is frightening. A gigantic wave could be building up, fed by the thousands and thousands of square kilometres of ice melting. This theory only leads to more questions. Although Antartica is definitely a key player in anything related to climate change, it remains to be seen to what extent - and how - sea levels will be affected by this icy continent. Is Antarctica only ice? Almost all of Antarctica is covered with ice; less than half a percent of the vast wilderness is ice-free. The continent is divided into two regions, known as East and West Antarctica. East Antarctica makes up two-thirds of the continent, and is about the size of Australia. For one, there is still much debate as to the actual impact that rising temperatures will have on the sea level. On top of that, we have found ourselves on the breaking point - will we or will we not - when it comes to taking real action on global warming. If we manage to cut back our emissions significantly in decades to come, the effect of melting ice will be very different from what it would be if we stay ignorant and celebrate the status quo. Photo by: USGS From a purely logical standpoint, the threat might not seem as excessive as described. After all, there is much debate whether such an ice wall could even exist for any length of time, or whether it is more likely that large chunks of ice are breaking off and floating the oceans freely, melting gradually. The latter seems to be happening today, with no indications that the heart of Antartica is melting while her outer parts are holding strong. Regardless, as with so many things related to climate change, it is a - currently hypothetical - threat that should always be kept in the back of our minds. After all, if our goal is to survive and adapt to changing conditions, the first thing that we ought to do is not to make sure that we keep our feet dry - but rather to ensure that we are not swept away in the surf. Before you go! Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the climate? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Rise in sea levels: the inherent danger of ice walls breaking. Another article discussing the dangers of our rising sea levels is probably the last thing on your to-read list. After all, the literature on the dangers of each additional millimetre that our oceans and seas rise is abundant. Rising sea levels will irreparably damage coastal ecosystems, alter climate for good and wipe out entire communities that are unlucky enough to find themselves in the deltas that are subject to excessive flooding. Permafrost And Ice Melting: A Danger To Coastal Communities Recent studies have shown that the number of people impacted will be a least thrice the earlier estimates. Provided that no one moves away, there would be some 150 million people living under the water line by 2050 (during high tide). On top of that, 300 million people will live in areas that will see floods on a yearly basis. And this is still under the low-emissions scenario, where we will have taken successful action before then. Photo by: Marjorie Teo, Greenland In a high-emissions scenario, these numbers will be even more dramatic - with 540 million people living under the water line and another 640 million people living in regions subject to flooding. This puts well over 1 billion of us at risk within the next few decades - pretty alarming in and of itself. {youtube}                                           A mysterious 'hole' has reappeared in the middle of Antarctica Antartica Is Melting: Land Ice And Permafrost On The Decline Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Back in 2012, researchers provided a much needed wake-up call in Nature Geoscience magazine. They found that between 1958 and 2010, the average temperature at Antartica’s Byrd Station increased by just shy of 2.5 degrees Celsius. This makes this spot, located in the heart of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, one of the fastest-warming places on the planet. What is permafrost and why is it important? Permafrost is permanently frozen soil, and occurs mostly in high latitudes. In addition, permafrost is structurally important, and its melting has been known to cause erosion, disappearance of lakes, landslides, and ground subsidence. It will also cause changes in plant species composition at high latitudes. Photo by Anna Spratt That is shocking. One of the places where you would definitely not want temperatures to increase too much. Just like we do not like accidentally leaving our fridge open on a hot summer day, we should be careful to leave nature’s fridge open for too long - as it might not just be milk going bad, but rather entire ecosystems. What happens if permafrost melts? It is thought that permafrost thawing could exacerbate global warming by releasing methane and other hydrocarbons, which are powerful greenhouse gases. It also could encourage erosion because permafrost lends stability to barren Arctic slopes. Ice Sheets Melting At An Alarming Rate The Antarctic is particularly important because of its ice sheets covering most of the land. These are key to our ocean’s currents and determinant of much of the earth’s climate. If there’s one thing not going well together, it has to be ice and heat. As such, researchers found that Antarctica lost some 3000 gigaton of ice in the last three decades alone, the melting of which will cause sea levels to rise by about 7.6 millimetres. Recommended:  Antarctic: Our Growing Footprint On This Pristine Continent Photo by: James Eades The rate at which this is happening is very alarming: back in 1992, we “only” lost some 43 gigaton per year, a number that has gone up to 220 gigaton per year over the last five years. This means that the amount of ice that is melting is increasing at a similar pace. This could lead to a equally alarming rise in sea levels, setting in motion all the bad effects as outlined earlier in this article. What is Antarctica known for? Often described as a continent of superlatives, Antarctica is the world's southernmost continent. It is also the world's highest, driest, windiest, coldest, and iciest continent. Antartica Melting From The Inside Out There is, however, another possibility - albeit strictly theoretical at this point. And its consequences could possibility be even worse. Let’s entertain the thought of Antartica melting from the inside out for a second. What if all the ice sheets on the continent are slowly but surely melting, but still being ‘held back’ by a barrier of ice surrounding it? The ice will basically start acting like a barrage for the melted ice behind it. Just like we artificially constructed sand dunes to hold back the sea, mimicking the already existing natural phenomenon, ice walls could do the same for the melting permafrost and ice caps - keeping the melted water ‘inside’, so to speak. Recommended:  Manmade Antarctic Snowstorm: Save Cities From Rising Seas Photo by: This gigantic hole was recently been discovered by an Arctic expedition Antartica As Lava Cake: 'Biblical' Flood Threat One huge caveat? All this pent up water will have to go somewhere, eventually. And science taught us that the increasingly warmer water surrounding the ice wall will cause said wall to melt as well. What this means? Well, basically what happens when a dam bursts. Only then the dam is about the size of Antartica’s perimeter, holding the world’s largest ice reservoir. Even more worryingly, large parts of Antartica do not lie on actual land but float on water. What would happen if the Antarctica melted? If all the ice covering Antarctica , Greenland, and in mountain glaciers around the world were to melt, sea level would rise about 70 meters (230 feet). The ocean would cover all the coastal cities. And land area would shrink significantly. But many cities, such as Denver, would survive Photo by: Mikael Strandberg So if Antartica is melting from the inside out, we could be about to witness the real-life equivalent of a lava cake when prodded from the outside. And instead of the melting ice caps gradually raising sea levels, allowing for us to adjust to the best of our possibilities, we could be facing a potentially life-threatening tsunami of biblical proportions. Antartica Melting: Is The Threat Real? The idea is equally fascinating as it is frightening. A gigantic wave could be building up, fed by the thousands and thousands of square kilometres of ice melting. This theory only leads to more questions. Although Antartica is definitely a key player in anything related to climate change, it remains to be seen to what extent - and how - sea levels will be affected by this icy continent. Is Antarctica only ice? Almost all of Antarctica is covered with ice; less than half a percent of the vast wilderness is ice-free. The continent is divided into two regions, known as East and West Antarctica. East Antarctica makes up two-thirds of the continent, and is about the size of Australia. For one, there is still much debate as to the actual impact that rising temperatures will have on the sea level. On top of that, we have found ourselves on the breaking point - will we or will we not - when it comes to taking real action on global warming. If we manage to cut back our emissions significantly in decades to come, the effect of melting ice will be very different from what it would be if we stay ignorant and celebrate the status quo. Photo by: USGS From a purely logical standpoint, the threat might not seem as excessive as described. After all, there is much debate whether such an ice wall could even exist for any length of time, or whether it is more likely that large chunks of ice are breaking off and floating the oceans freely, melting gradually. The latter seems to be happening today, with no indications that the heart of Antartica is melting while her outer parts are holding strong. Regardless, as with so many things related to climate change, it is a - currently hypothetical - threat that should always be kept in the back of our minds. After all, if our goal is to survive and adapt to changing conditions, the first thing that we ought to do is not to make sure that we keep our feet dry - but rather to ensure that we are not swept away in the surf. Before you go! Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the climate? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Permafrost And Ice Melting: The Danger Of Melting Ice walls
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable The WHO has declared the Covid-19 outbreak to be a pandemic. Recommended:  Coronavirus Images From Around The Globe 04-4-2020: 59.203+ People died in China, 1.117.860+ people are proven infected worldwide. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission.                                       Click on: What happens to your body when you get coronavirus . Video Strongly Recommended : Coronavirus: Your Daily Update To Stay Informed {youtube}                                           Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                                  Coronavirus: 'Get prepared as soon as you can', says Italian doctor , 15-03-2020                                                            What happens to your body when you get coronavirus WHO Declared Public Health Emergency The WHO have declared a public health emergency because of the spread of the COVID-19, Coronavirus outside of China, describing it as an 'unprecedented outbreak'.  Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Coronavirus Symptons Flu And Climate Change Tips & Tricks To Avoid Colds And Flu A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing Recommended:  Pandemic and Ecological Reset: The World Green Again NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. A 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Replicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. Recommended:   Insane: Temporary Global Temperature Rise By The Coronavirus The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China Coronavirus: Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind the outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate."   Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: While a person with the virus can show no outward symptoms, early signs can include a fever, diarrhea, a dry cough, shortness of breath and general body aches Some patients also report feeling tired and confused More serious cases of the virus can lead to a high fever, kidney failure and pneumonia While the disease is being treated as an 'imminent threat', some of the symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those seem in other respiratory conditions - such as the flu or the common cold Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: Advice If you have recently travelled to a high-risk area - or if you've been in contact with somebody who has - and you develop symptoms, you should contact your doctor by telephone for advice You should not go to the doctor or to hospital, as if you have the virus, you may risk spreading it to others If you have recently travelled to Wuhan you should go in self-quarantine for 14 days and call  your doctor and/ or local authorities to report your recent stay Wash your hands often What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province          Coronavirus? How do you catch it? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. Coronavirus. How long does the virus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS Coronavirus: How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus COVID-19 Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan.   Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain.    Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable The WHO has declared the Covid-19 outbreak to be a pandemic. Recommended:  Coronavirus Images From Around The Globe 04-4-2020: 59.203+ People died in China, 1.117.860+ people are proven infected worldwide. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission.                                       Click on: What happens to your body when you get coronavirus . Video Strongly Recommended : Coronavirus: Your Daily Update To Stay Informed {youtube}                                           Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                                  Coronavirus: 'Get prepared as soon as you can', says Italian doctor , 15-03-2020                                                            What happens to your body when you get coronavirus WHO Declared Public Health Emergency The WHO have declared a public health emergency because of the spread of the COVID-19, Coronavirus outside of China, describing it as an 'unprecedented outbreak'.  Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Coronavirus Symptons Flu And Climate Change Tips & Tricks To Avoid Colds And Flu A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing Recommended:  Pandemic and Ecological Reset: The World Green Again NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. A 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Replicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. Recommended:   Insane: Temporary Global Temperature Rise By The Coronavirus The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China Coronavirus: Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind the outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate."   Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: While a person with the virus can show no outward symptoms, early signs can include a fever, diarrhea, a dry cough, shortness of breath and general body aches Some patients also report feeling tired and confused More serious cases of the virus can lead to a high fever, kidney failure and pneumonia While the disease is being treated as an 'imminent threat', some of the symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those seem in other respiratory conditions - such as the flu or the common cold Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: Advice If you have recently travelled to a high-risk area - or if you've been in contact with somebody who has - and you develop symptoms, you should contact your doctor by telephone for advice You should not go to the doctor or to hospital, as if you have the virus, you may risk spreading it to others If you have recently travelled to Wuhan you should go in self-quarantine for 14 days and call  your doctor and/ or local authorities to report your recent stay Wash your hands often What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province          Coronavirus? How do you catch it? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. Coronavirus. How long does the virus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS Coronavirus: How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus COVID-19 Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan.   Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain.    Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2
Geoengineering, better known as climate intervention, is a topic that is subject to much debate and, unfortunately, controversy. Many feel that executing such initiatives would constitute ‘playing God’, something that we somehow tend to look at as something to be frowned upon.  Cooling Earth By Sun Dimming Yet would any deity, if given the choice, not opt for saving the planet so aptly created – if needed through drastic changes to the climate? I would think so. One of the most promising initiatives is looking to hit the dim button on our sun, by reflecting her rays back into space when they reach our atmosphere. What is geoengineering and how does it work? Geoengineering (literally "Earth-engineering") is the currently fashionable term for making large-scale interventions in how the planet works to slow down or reverse the effects of climate change. The first is to try to cool the planet by reducing the amount of incoming solar energy. The biggest problem with the sun is that it sends a whole lot of 'heat' (sunrays) in our direction. We can try to counter this by inserting some particles in our stratosphere that act like a sunscreen of sorts. These reflect the sun’s rays back into space, so that they do not reach the earth. The process through which sun dimming takes place is now being investigated, although it has already – accidentally – been tested in the real world.   {youtube}                                                      Geoengineering May Be the Answer to Climate Change   For instance, the eruption of volcano Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) caused some 20 million tones of sulfur dioxide to be spewed into the stratosphere. These finer particles somehow threw up a shield against the sun – a sun screen, if you wish – that resulted in global cooling. The world became about half a degree Celsius colder, which effectively brought us back to pre-Industrial Age times. Recommended:  Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t Recommended:  Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Sun Dimming Effect: Turn Down The Thermostat So the idea of switching our earth’s thermostat from ‘automatic’ to ‘manual’ is nothing new. The whole concept of geoengineering has been floating around for several decades, having generated a massive amount of literature and laboratory studies. But also a massive amount of fear.   What are some examples of geoengineering? Examples of this approach include: spraying seawater thousands of metres into the air to seed the formation of stratocumulus clouds that will deflect sunlight; installing sun-shields or mirrors in space to reflect the sun; or injecting sun-blocking particulates into space. This particularly applies to sun dimming. Even Hollywood has taken notice and dedicated several blockbuster movies to the concept of messing with our climate, oftentimes with disastrous consequences. All of this has led to the inherent notion that manually adjusting our climate will disrupt that fragile balance of our ecosystems. Some fear that decreasing sunlight will disadvantage certain regions, that will be faced with sun-deprived crops or disadvantageous shifts in rain patterns. Others fear that it will become a political toy that will increase inequality. Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Recommended:  Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Or Global Warming By CO2? The time has now arrived to move past this stage of ‘what-iffing’ and start taking action. The reality is that the drastic consequences of global warming can no longer be avoided. We ought to do something equally drastic. This means either sucking enormous amounts of CO2 out of the air – or artificially adjusting our climate thermostat. Even better would be to start doing both. Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect: A Modest Test   Thankfully, scientists are now fast moving towards implementing sun dimming. Harvard scientists are looking to inject calcium carbonate in the stratosphere through balloons. Calcium carbonate is the basic ingredient found in products like cement, paper and cake – and could potentially be the ideal particle for reflecting sunlight. Cheap, clean, and highly effective. Harvard scientists will attempt to replicate the climate-cooling effect of volcanic eruptions  This project, that has been dubbed the Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment, will be the first real climate engineering project to be tested. Even though its scale is relatively small, its results could prove to be huge. Even though the scientists claim they are merely observing a chemical reaction, there are a lot of environmentalists closely following their every move. What are the benefits of geoengineering? Solar geoengineering could also reduce poleward shifts in species ranges, which has been posing serious risks to tropical fisheries. And it could lessen the amount of sea-ice loss, which could reduce the impacts on high-latitude ecosystems and climate, and help to limit changes in ocean circulation and glacier melt. After all, or so they say, focusing on climate engineering efforts could distract us from the actual problem – our CO2 emissions, that should be cut. Their argument seems valid. After all, it is always better to treat the disease rather than the symptoms. Yet at the same time, sometimes you can only start to administer medicines after ensuring that the patient is stable – achieving this by relieving dangerous symptoms. Nevertheless, the Harvard team is committed to keeping their experiment small to avoid most of this scrutiny, while it has installed an external advisory committee – and generally paying a lot of attention to decent oversight and accountability. Recommended:  Artificial Intelligence For Climate Change And Environment Sun Dimming: Joining Forces In order to make the experiment work, several parties have joined forces and are working on creating an ideal testing environment. The stratosphere in itself is a perfect working environment, as it is relatively easy for particles inserted here to spread all around the earth, providing a full cover. The key is to have them released in a strategic location and at strategic time intervals, to keep this cover up. Once again, this requires the expertise of many different scientists and experts. While some frown upon this lack of one clear expert on the topic, others celebrate the fact that it will truly result in a ‘melting of the minds’, making the experiment more reliable. Cooling Earth: An Eye On The Sky There have been several initiatives before that sought to somehow alter our climate. However, most of these have failed in the early stages of development, more often than not over bureaucratic and political hurdles. This makes Harvard’s SCoPEx project so remarkable, as it has managed to raise funding through philanthropists and angel investors, including Bill Gates. All systems are go, at this stage. This does not mean that everything is set up for success. There are still a lot of uncertainties, such as the size of the particles, the navigation of the balloon dispersing them, and finding a way of measuring the amount of calcium carbonate in the stratosphere so that its effect can be properly measured.   Sun Dimming: Up To The Stratosphere   The scientists running this project are finding solutions for these queries – often relying on external support and initiatives. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Colorado, USA has provided the Harvard team with an instrument that is able to measure the size and number of particles released. An important step forward, as this will allow the team on the ground to measure the effectiveness. Separate teams are working on the balloon and the spraying-system, projects that still involve a lot of uncertainties. The first launches will determine how far they are in combatting climate change through geoengineering.   Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect We should not be naive and assume that geoengineering is going to solve all of our problems. In fact, the drawbacks have been equally well-documented as the benefits. They might even cancel each other out. The dimming of sunlight could, for instance, result in lower agricultural yields. Additionally, it could cause droughts in other areas, which are equally bad for our agricultural industry. What is most likely to cause dimming? Aerosols have been found to be the major cause of global dimming. The burning of fossil fuels by industry and internal combustion engines emits by-products such as sulfur dioxide, soot, and ash. These together form particulate pollution—primarily called aerosols. Another pressing concern is that of the intellectual, physical and financial requirements for creating a balanced geoengineering system that will protect that earth as a whole. Who will pay for it all, who will be responsible? Who will secure it and how do we ensure that it does not benefit one nation over another? Will it be government-led or will it be an independent organization or enterprise running it? One thing is certain, geoengineering is a route that we should go down if we are to make a fist and fight climate change. While the benefits seem clear, the downsides are still purely theoretical and might not even apply. If we can only get the technology and the politics of it right, we would be stupid to ignore it. And yes, it may only be a short-term symptom reliever. But who would deny additional oxygen if we are suffering from lung failure? While it may not cure the actual disease, it may give us enough literal air to properly fight it. Before you go! Recommended:  Solar Farms In Space: Next Step In Renewable Energy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Geoengineering, better known as climate intervention, is a topic that is subject to much debate and, unfortunately, controversy. Many feel that executing such initiatives would constitute ‘playing God’, something that we somehow tend to look at as something to be frowned upon.  Cooling Earth By Sun Dimming Yet would any deity, if given the choice, not opt for saving the planet so aptly created – if needed through drastic changes to the climate? I would think so. One of the most promising initiatives is looking to hit the dim button on our sun, by reflecting her rays back into space when they reach our atmosphere. What is geoengineering and how does it work? Geoengineering (literally "Earth-engineering") is the currently fashionable term for making large-scale interventions in how the planet works to slow down or reverse the effects of climate change. The first is to try to cool the planet by reducing the amount of incoming solar energy. The biggest problem with the sun is that it sends a whole lot of 'heat' (sunrays) in our direction. We can try to counter this by inserting some particles in our stratosphere that act like a sunscreen of sorts. These reflect the sun’s rays back into space, so that they do not reach the earth. The process through which sun dimming takes place is now being investigated, although it has already – accidentally – been tested in the real world.   {youtube}                                                      Geoengineering May Be the Answer to Climate Change   For instance, the eruption of volcano Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) caused some 20 million tones of sulfur dioxide to be spewed into the stratosphere. These finer particles somehow threw up a shield against the sun – a sun screen, if you wish – that resulted in global cooling. The world became about half a degree Celsius colder, which effectively brought us back to pre-Industrial Age times. Recommended:  Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t Recommended:  Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Sun Dimming Effect: Turn Down The Thermostat So the idea of switching our earth’s thermostat from ‘automatic’ to ‘manual’ is nothing new. The whole concept of geoengineering has been floating around for several decades, having generated a massive amount of literature and laboratory studies. But also a massive amount of fear.   What are some examples of geoengineering? Examples of this approach include: spraying seawater thousands of metres into the air to seed the formation of stratocumulus clouds that will deflect sunlight; installing sun-shields or mirrors in space to reflect the sun; or injecting sun-blocking particulates into space. This particularly applies to sun dimming. Even Hollywood has taken notice and dedicated several blockbuster movies to the concept of messing with our climate, oftentimes with disastrous consequences. All of this has led to the inherent notion that manually adjusting our climate will disrupt that fragile balance of our ecosystems. Some fear that decreasing sunlight will disadvantage certain regions, that will be faced with sun-deprived crops or disadvantageous shifts in rain patterns. Others fear that it will become a political toy that will increase inequality. Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Recommended:  Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Or Global Warming By CO2? The time has now arrived to move past this stage of ‘what-iffing’ and start taking action. The reality is that the drastic consequences of global warming can no longer be avoided. We ought to do something equally drastic. This means either sucking enormous amounts of CO2 out of the air – or artificially adjusting our climate thermostat. Even better would be to start doing both. Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect: A Modest Test   Thankfully, scientists are now fast moving towards implementing sun dimming. Harvard scientists are looking to inject calcium carbonate in the stratosphere through balloons. Calcium carbonate is the basic ingredient found in products like cement, paper and cake – and could potentially be the ideal particle for reflecting sunlight. Cheap, clean, and highly effective. Harvard scientists will attempt to replicate the climate-cooling effect of volcanic eruptions  This project, that has been dubbed the Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment, will be the first real climate engineering project to be tested. Even though its scale is relatively small, its results could prove to be huge. Even though the scientists claim they are merely observing a chemical reaction, there are a lot of environmentalists closely following their every move. What are the benefits of geoengineering? Solar geoengineering could also reduce poleward shifts in species ranges, which has been posing serious risks to tropical fisheries. And it could lessen the amount of sea-ice loss, which could reduce the impacts on high-latitude ecosystems and climate, and help to limit changes in ocean circulation and glacier melt. After all, or so they say, focusing on climate engineering efforts could distract us from the actual problem – our CO2 emissions, that should be cut. Their argument seems valid. After all, it is always better to treat the disease rather than the symptoms. Yet at the same time, sometimes you can only start to administer medicines after ensuring that the patient is stable – achieving this by relieving dangerous symptoms. Nevertheless, the Harvard team is committed to keeping their experiment small to avoid most of this scrutiny, while it has installed an external advisory committee – and generally paying a lot of attention to decent oversight and accountability. Recommended:  Artificial Intelligence For Climate Change And Environment Sun Dimming: Joining Forces In order to make the experiment work, several parties have joined forces and are working on creating an ideal testing environment. The stratosphere in itself is a perfect working environment, as it is relatively easy for particles inserted here to spread all around the earth, providing a full cover. The key is to have them released in a strategic location and at strategic time intervals, to keep this cover up. Once again, this requires the expertise of many different scientists and experts. While some frown upon this lack of one clear expert on the topic, others celebrate the fact that it will truly result in a ‘melting of the minds’, making the experiment more reliable. Cooling Earth: An Eye On The Sky There have been several initiatives before that sought to somehow alter our climate. However, most of these have failed in the early stages of development, more often than not over bureaucratic and political hurdles. This makes Harvard’s SCoPEx project so remarkable, as it has managed to raise funding through philanthropists and angel investors, including Bill Gates. All systems are go, at this stage. This does not mean that everything is set up for success. There are still a lot of uncertainties, such as the size of the particles, the navigation of the balloon dispersing them, and finding a way of measuring the amount of calcium carbonate in the stratosphere so that its effect can be properly measured.   Sun Dimming: Up To The Stratosphere   The scientists running this project are finding solutions for these queries – often relying on external support and initiatives. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Colorado, USA has provided the Harvard team with an instrument that is able to measure the size and number of particles released. An important step forward, as this will allow the team on the ground to measure the effectiveness. Separate teams are working on the balloon and the spraying-system, projects that still involve a lot of uncertainties. The first launches will determine how far they are in combatting climate change through geoengineering.   Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect We should not be naive and assume that geoengineering is going to solve all of our problems. In fact, the drawbacks have been equally well-documented as the benefits. They might even cancel each other out. The dimming of sunlight could, for instance, result in lower agricultural yields. Additionally, it could cause droughts in other areas, which are equally bad for our agricultural industry. What is most likely to cause dimming? Aerosols have been found to be the major cause of global dimming. The burning of fossil fuels by industry and internal combustion engines emits by-products such as sulfur dioxide, soot, and ash. These together form particulate pollution—primarily called aerosols. Another pressing concern is that of the intellectual, physical and financial requirements for creating a balanced geoengineering system that will protect that earth as a whole. Who will pay for it all, who will be responsible? Who will secure it and how do we ensure that it does not benefit one nation over another? Will it be government-led or will it be an independent organization or enterprise running it? One thing is certain, geoengineering is a route that we should go down if we are to make a fist and fight climate change. While the benefits seem clear, the downsides are still purely theoretical and might not even apply. If we can only get the technology and the politics of it right, we would be stupid to ignore it. And yes, it may only be a short-term symptom reliever. But who would deny additional oxygen if we are suffering from lung failure? While it may not cure the actual disease, it may give us enough literal air to properly fight it. Before you go! Recommended:  Solar Farms In Space: Next Step In Renewable Energy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2
Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Nowadays, we are making the world worse. True or not? A study of the downfall of historical civilisations has shown that we face many risks currently. Historian Arnold Toynbee explains in his 12-volume 'A study of History’ that great civilisations take their own lives and not of others. But in fact, that is not the whole truth: other elements help with their self-destruction. The Roman Empire The Roman Empire, for example, did not only destruct itself, but due to poor leadership, damage to the environment and climate change, Rome was a victim. In 410 Rome was plundered by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. The Roman Empire contained 4.4 million square kilometres in 390. Five years later it had collapsed to 2 million square kilometres. By 476, the empire's range was practically nil. A repeating failure characterises our deep past. What can the rise and fall of historical civilisations tell us about ours? What are the forces that bring down or slow down a collapse? And do we see comparable patterns today? Recommended:  Siberia, Africa, Australia, Are Burning: What Caused It? Lifespan Of Civilisations At first, we need to look at past civilisations and compare their lifespan. This can be difficult. In this study, we look at agriculture, multiple cities, military dominance in its geographical region and a continuous political structure. You can say that all empires are civilisations, but not all cultures are empires. What is civilization? A civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. London, Great Brittain. The end of an empire.... Almost all past civilisations have dealt with a collapse. This meant a fast and prolonged loss of population, identity and socio-economic complexity. Public services fall apart, and disorder is created when the government loses its monopoly on violence. Some civilisations have recovered (the Chinese and Egyptians, for example), and other collapses were permanent (Easter Island, for example). In Rome, the destruction was revived. What can this tell us concerning the future of modern global civilisation? Is collapse a normal phenomenon for civilisations? {youtube}                                                 Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?                                                                          Will America Fall Like Rome? Maybe societies of the past and the present are simply complex systems made up of people and technology. Failing is part of life, so collapse can also be a regular phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage. We are more technologically advanced now, but that does not mean we can concur every unpredicted challenge. We are not immune to new technology. What is technology? It includes machines (like computers) but also techniques and processes (like the way we produce computer chips). It might seem like all technology is only electronic, but that's just most modern technology. In fact, a hammer and the wheel are two examples of early human technology. Society Collapse: What Can The Past Tell Us? While there is no one acceptable theory for the why of collapses, historians, anthropologists, and others have suggested various explanations, including: Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Society Collapse: Climate Change , when the climate's stability changes, the results can be catastrophic, resulting in crop failures, famine and desertification Environmental degradation . Collapse can occur when societies exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. This ecological collapse theory points to over-deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the loss of biodiversity as causes of precipitation. Oil pollution, China Society Collapse: Inequality and Oligarchy. Wealth and political disparity can be central drivers of social disruption, as well as aristocracy and centralisation of power among leaders. This not only causes social suffering but hampers a society's ability to respond to ecological, social and economic problems. For example, the population grows; this exceeds the demand for labour. Workers become cheaper; society becomes top-heavy. This inequality undermines collective solidarity, and political unrest follows. What is government oligarchy? Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. Protests in Paris Society Collapse: Complexity.  Joseph Tainter, a collapse expert and historian, says that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy. Another indicator of increasing complexity is called Energy Return on Investment (EROI). This refers to the proportion between the amount of energy produced by raw material and the energy needed to obtain it. Like complexity, EROI seems to have a point at which efficiency decreases. Society Collapse: External Shocks.  In other words, the 'four horsemen': war, natural disasters, starvation and plagues. The Aztec Empire, for example, was destroyed by Spanish invaders. Most of the early agricultural states were volatile due to deadly epidemics. The concentration of people and livestock in walled colonies with poor hygiene made disease outbreaks inevitable and disastrous. Disasters sometimes went hand in hand, as was the case with the Spanish introduction of salmonella into America. Society Collapse: Randomness & Bad Luck.  A statistical analysis of the empires suggests that the collapse is arbitrary and independent of age. Evolutionary biologist and data scientist Indre Zliobaite and her colleagues have observed a parallel pattern in the evolution of species. A simplified explanation for this apparent arbitrariness is the 'Red Queen Effect': if species are continually struggling to survive in a changing environment with numerous competitors, extinction is a consistent possibility. What is the Red Queen effect in evolution? The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. Society Collapse: Indicators Recommended:  Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Despite the overload of books and articles, we have no definitive explanation for the collapse of civilisations. What we do know is this: the factors mentioned above can all contribute. Stressors can overrun societal coping capacity, which can cause collapse. To examine a different kind of indicators of danger to see whether collapsing is rising or falling, we show you four possible metrics. These are measured over the past few decades: Temperature is a clear indicator of climate change Inequality is more complicated to calculate. The specific measurement of the Gini index suggests that inequality has reduced slightly worldwide (although it is increasing within countries). But the Gini index can be deceptive because it only measures relative changes in income The rich are becoming richer, which in the past has led to extra pressure on society. Studies show that the EROI for fossil fuels has declined steadily over time as the easiest to reach and most precious reserves are exhausted. Unfortunately, most of the renewable substitutes, such as solar energy, have a significantly lower EROI, mainly because of their energy density and the rare earth metals and production needed to produce them. Society Collapse: Measures Of Resilience The only positive thing is that collapses are not the entire picture. Social elasticity can slow down or prevent the collapse. The economic diversity is more significant than ever. We can cope more than ever, and we have more knowledge than ever. Especially, population groups with more experience may be better able to respond to crises when they occur. Also, the innovation of civilisation is rising. If we look at the collapse and elasticity indicators, we cannot be complacent. If we keep on innovate and diversify like this, we can be optimistic. Nevertheless, the world is deteriorating in areas that have contributed to the collapse of earlier societies. The climate is changing, the difference between rich and poor is growing, the world is becoming more and more complex, and our environmental demands exceed the carrying capacity of the planet. What does elasticity mean? Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. In business and economics, elasticity refers the degree to which individuals, consumers or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. Society Collapse: We May Fall Down Our weapons are more massive than it used to be (now: nuclear weapons and biological agents instead of arrows and swords). New tools of violence, such as deadly autonomous weapons, may be available in the near future. People are becoming exceptionally specialised and less involved in the manufacture of food and essential goods. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse And a changing climate can destroy our ability to return to simple farming practices. With the expansion of nuclear weapons, we may already have reached the point of civilized 'terminal speed'. Any collapse threatens to be permanent. A nuclear war can lead to an actual risk: either the disappearance of our species or a permanent slingshot, back to the Stone Age.  Climate change is a different kind of threat than what the Maya's dealt with. Now, they are global, quicker, more dangerous and human-driven. A collapse of our civilisation is not unavoidable. History indicates that it is possible, we have the rare advantage of being able to learn from the pieces of the wreckage of societies' past. We know what we have to do, what needs to be done. We need to reduce the emissions, inequalities must become equal, and we have to care more about the environment. Innovation should be stimulated, and we need more diversity in economics. The policy suggestions are there; only the political will is missing. We can invest in recovering better. There are already well-developed ideas to improve the capacity of food and knowledge systems to recover after a disaster. We have to listen to the past, to improve ourselves. Do not walk blindly into the future that will destroy us. Before you go! Recommended:  Economic Growth Is Dead: Welcome To The Circular Economy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your society?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Nowadays, we are making the world worse. True or not? A study of the downfall of historical civilisations has shown that we face many risks currently. Historian Arnold Toynbee explains in his 12-volume 'A study of History’ that great civilisations take their own lives and not of others. But in fact, that is not the whole truth: other elements help with their self-destruction. The Roman Empire The Roman Empire, for example, did not only destruct itself, but due to poor leadership, damage to the environment and climate change, Rome was a victim. In 410 Rome was plundered by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. The Roman Empire contained 4.4 million square kilometres in 390. Five years later it had collapsed to 2 million square kilometres. By 476, the empire's range was practically nil. A repeating failure characterises our deep past. What can the rise and fall of historical civilisations tell us about ours? What are the forces that bring down or slow down a collapse? And do we see comparable patterns today? Recommended:  Siberia, Africa, Australia, Are Burning: What Caused It? Lifespan Of Civilisations At first, we need to look at past civilisations and compare their lifespan. This can be difficult. In this study, we look at agriculture, multiple cities, military dominance in its geographical region and a continuous political structure. You can say that all empires are civilisations, but not all cultures are empires. What is civilization? A civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. London, Great Brittain. The end of an empire.... Almost all past civilisations have dealt with a collapse. This meant a fast and prolonged loss of population, identity and socio-economic complexity. Public services fall apart, and disorder is created when the government loses its monopoly on violence. Some civilisations have recovered (the Chinese and Egyptians, for example), and other collapses were permanent (Easter Island, for example). In Rome, the destruction was revived. What can this tell us concerning the future of modern global civilisation? Is collapse a normal phenomenon for civilisations? {youtube}                                                 Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?                                                                          Will America Fall Like Rome? Maybe societies of the past and the present are simply complex systems made up of people and technology. Failing is part of life, so collapse can also be a regular phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage. We are more technologically advanced now, but that does not mean we can concur every unpredicted challenge. We are not immune to new technology. What is technology? It includes machines (like computers) but also techniques and processes (like the way we produce computer chips). It might seem like all technology is only electronic, but that's just most modern technology. In fact, a hammer and the wheel are two examples of early human technology. Society Collapse: What Can The Past Tell Us? While there is no one acceptable theory for the why of collapses, historians, anthropologists, and others have suggested various explanations, including: Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Society Collapse: Climate Change , when the climate's stability changes, the results can be catastrophic, resulting in crop failures, famine and desertification Environmental degradation . Collapse can occur when societies exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. This ecological collapse theory points to over-deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the loss of biodiversity as causes of precipitation. Oil pollution, China Society Collapse: Inequality and Oligarchy. Wealth and political disparity can be central drivers of social disruption, as well as aristocracy and centralisation of power among leaders. This not only causes social suffering but hampers a society's ability to respond to ecological, social and economic problems. For example, the population grows; this exceeds the demand for labour. Workers become cheaper; society becomes top-heavy. This inequality undermines collective solidarity, and political unrest follows. What is government oligarchy? Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. Protests in Paris Society Collapse: Complexity.  Joseph Tainter, a collapse expert and historian, says that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy. Another indicator of increasing complexity is called Energy Return on Investment (EROI). This refers to the proportion between the amount of energy produced by raw material and the energy needed to obtain it. Like complexity, EROI seems to have a point at which efficiency decreases. Society Collapse: External Shocks.  In other words, the 'four horsemen': war, natural disasters, starvation and plagues. The Aztec Empire, for example, was destroyed by Spanish invaders. Most of the early agricultural states were volatile due to deadly epidemics. The concentration of people and livestock in walled colonies with poor hygiene made disease outbreaks inevitable and disastrous. Disasters sometimes went hand in hand, as was the case with the Spanish introduction of salmonella into America. Society Collapse: Randomness & Bad Luck.  A statistical analysis of the empires suggests that the collapse is arbitrary and independent of age. Evolutionary biologist and data scientist Indre Zliobaite and her colleagues have observed a parallel pattern in the evolution of species. A simplified explanation for this apparent arbitrariness is the 'Red Queen Effect': if species are continually struggling to survive in a changing environment with numerous competitors, extinction is a consistent possibility. What is the Red Queen effect in evolution? The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. Society Collapse: Indicators Recommended:  Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Despite the overload of books and articles, we have no definitive explanation for the collapse of civilisations. What we do know is this: the factors mentioned above can all contribute. Stressors can overrun societal coping capacity, which can cause collapse. To examine a different kind of indicators of danger to see whether collapsing is rising or falling, we show you four possible metrics. These are measured over the past few decades: Temperature is a clear indicator of climate change Inequality is more complicated to calculate. The specific measurement of the Gini index suggests that inequality has reduced slightly worldwide (although it is increasing within countries). But the Gini index can be deceptive because it only measures relative changes in income The rich are becoming richer, which in the past has led to extra pressure on society. Studies show that the EROI for fossil fuels has declined steadily over time as the easiest to reach and most precious reserves are exhausted. Unfortunately, most of the renewable substitutes, such as solar energy, have a significantly lower EROI, mainly because of their energy density and the rare earth metals and production needed to produce them. Society Collapse: Measures Of Resilience The only positive thing is that collapses are not the entire picture. Social elasticity can slow down or prevent the collapse. The economic diversity is more significant than ever. We can cope more than ever, and we have more knowledge than ever. Especially, population groups with more experience may be better able to respond to crises when they occur. Also, the innovation of civilisation is rising. If we look at the collapse and elasticity indicators, we cannot be complacent. If we keep on innovate and diversify like this, we can be optimistic. Nevertheless, the world is deteriorating in areas that have contributed to the collapse of earlier societies. The climate is changing, the difference between rich and poor is growing, the world is becoming more and more complex, and our environmental demands exceed the carrying capacity of the planet. What does elasticity mean? Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. In business and economics, elasticity refers the degree to which individuals, consumers or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. Society Collapse: We May Fall Down Our weapons are more massive than it used to be (now: nuclear weapons and biological agents instead of arrows and swords). New tools of violence, such as deadly autonomous weapons, may be available in the near future. People are becoming exceptionally specialised and less involved in the manufacture of food and essential goods. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse And a changing climate can destroy our ability to return to simple farming practices. With the expansion of nuclear weapons, we may already have reached the point of civilized 'terminal speed'. Any collapse threatens to be permanent. A nuclear war can lead to an actual risk: either the disappearance of our species or a permanent slingshot, back to the Stone Age.  Climate change is a different kind of threat than what the Maya's dealt with. Now, they are global, quicker, more dangerous and human-driven. A collapse of our civilisation is not unavoidable. History indicates that it is possible, we have the rare advantage of being able to learn from the pieces of the wreckage of societies' past. We know what we have to do, what needs to be done. We need to reduce the emissions, inequalities must become equal, and we have to care more about the environment. Innovation should be stimulated, and we need more diversity in economics. The policy suggestions are there; only the political will is missing. We can invest in recovering better. There are already well-developed ideas to improve the capacity of food and knowledge systems to recover after a disaster. We have to listen to the past, to improve ourselves. Do not walk blindly into the future that will destroy us. Before you go! Recommended:  Economic Growth Is Dead: Welcome To The Circular Economy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your society?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Climate

Climate change! Currently, the most discussed topic in the world. Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. Climate change can also result from ‘external forcing’ and include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Human activities can also influence our climate. Debates, posts and answers on (social) platforms about the role of humanity in the climate change process regularly lead to heated discussions

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