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Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Nowadays, we are making the world worse. True or not? A study of the downfall of historical civilisations has shown that we face many risks currently. Historian Arnold Toynbee explains in his 12-volume 'A study of History’ that great civilisations take their own lives and not of others. But in fact, that is not the whole truth: other elements help with their self-destruction. The Roman Empire The Roman Empire, for example, did not only destruct itself, but due to poor leadership, damage to the environment and climate change, Rome was a victim. In 410 Rome was plundered by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. The Roman Empire contained 4.4 million square kilometres in 390. Five years later it had collapsed to 2 million square kilometres. By 476, the empire's range was practically nil. A repeating failure characterises our deep past. What can the rise and fall of historical civilisations tell us about ours? What are the forces that bring down or slow down a collapse? And do we see comparable patterns today? Recommended:  Siberia, Africa, Australia, Are Burning: What Caused It? Lifespan Of Civilisations At first, we need to look at past civilisations and compare their lifespan. This can be difficult. In this study, we look at agriculture, multiple cities, military dominance in its geographical region and a continuous political structure. You can say that all empires are civilisations, but not all cultures are empires. What is civilization? A civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. London, Great Brittain. The end of an empire.... Almost all past civilisations have dealt with a collapse. This meant a fast and prolonged loss of population, identity and socio-economic complexity. Public services fall apart, and disorder is created when the government loses its monopoly on violence. Some civilisations have recovered (the Chinese and Egyptians, for example), and other collapses were permanent (Easter Island, for example). In Rome, the destruction was revived. What can this tell us concerning the future of modern global civilisation? Is collapse a normal phenomenon for civilisations? {youtube}                                                 Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?                                                                          Will America Fall Like Rome? Maybe societies of the past and the present are simply complex systems made up of people and technology. Failing is part of life, so collapse can also be a regular phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage. We are more technologically advanced now, but that does not mean we can concur every unpredicted challenge. We are not immune to new technology. What is technology? It includes machines (like computers) but also techniques and processes (like the way we produce computer chips). It might seem like all technology is only electronic, but that's just most modern technology. In fact, a hammer and the wheel are two examples of early human technology. Society Collapse: What Can The Past Tell Us? While there is no one acceptable theory for the why of collapses, historians, anthropologists, and others have suggested various explanations, including: Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Society Collapse: Climate Change , when the climate's stability changes, the results can be catastrophic, resulting in crop failures, famine and desertification Environmental degradation . Collapse can occur when societies exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. This ecological collapse theory points to over-deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the loss of biodiversity as causes of precipitation. Oil pollution, China Society Collapse: Inequality and Oligarchy. Wealth and political disparity can be central drivers of social disruption, as well as aristocracy and centralisation of power among leaders. This not only causes social suffering but hampers a society's ability to respond to ecological, social and economic problems. For example, the population grows; this exceeds the demand for labour. Workers become cheaper; society becomes top-heavy. This inequality undermines collective solidarity, and political unrest follows. What is government oligarchy? Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. Protests in Paris Society Collapse: Complexity.  Joseph Tainter, a collapse expert and historian, says that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy. Another indicator of increasing complexity is called Energy Return on Investment (EROI). This refers to the proportion between the amount of energy produced by raw material and the energy needed to obtain it. Like complexity, EROI seems to have a point at which efficiency decreases. Society Collapse: External Shocks.  In other words, the 'four horsemen': war, natural disasters, starvation and plagues. The Aztec Empire, for example, was destroyed by Spanish invaders. Most of the early agricultural states were volatile due to deadly epidemics. The concentration of people and livestock in walled colonies with poor hygiene made disease outbreaks inevitable and disastrous. Disasters sometimes went hand in hand, as was the case with the Spanish introduction of salmonella into America. Society Collapse: Randomness & Bad Luck.  A statistical analysis of the empires suggests that the collapse is arbitrary and independent of age. Evolutionary biologist and data scientist Indre Zliobaite and her colleagues have observed a parallel pattern in the evolution of species. A simplified explanation for this apparent arbitrariness is the 'Red Queen Effect': if species are continually struggling to survive in a changing environment with numerous competitors, extinction is a consistent possibility. What is the Red Queen effect in evolution? The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. Society Collapse: Indicators Recommended:  Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Despite the overload of books and articles, we have no definitive explanation for the collapse of civilisations. What we do know is this: the factors mentioned above can all contribute. Stressors can overrun societal coping capacity, which can cause collapse. To examine a different kind of indicators of danger to see whether collapsing is rising or falling, we show you four possible metrics. These are measured over the past few decades: Temperature is a clear indicator of climate change Inequality is more complicated to calculate. The specific measurement of the Gini index suggests that inequality has reduced slightly worldwide (although it is increasing within countries). But the Gini index can be deceptive because it only measures relative changes in income The rich are becoming richer, which in the past has led to extra pressure on society. Studies show that the EROI for fossil fuels has declined steadily over time as the easiest to reach and most precious reserves are exhausted. Unfortunately, most of the renewable substitutes, such as solar energy, have a significantly lower EROI, mainly because of their energy density and the rare earth metals and production needed to produce them. Society Collapse: Measures Of Resilience The only positive thing is that collapses are not the entire picture. Social elasticity can slow down or prevent the collapse. The economic diversity is more significant than ever. We can cope more than ever, and we have more knowledge than ever. Especially, population groups with more experience may be better able to respond to crises when they occur. Also, the innovation of civilisation is rising. If we look at the collapse and elasticity indicators, we cannot be complacent. If we keep on innovate and diversify like this, we can be optimistic. Nevertheless, the world is deteriorating in areas that have contributed to the collapse of earlier societies. The climate is changing, the difference between rich and poor is growing, the world is becoming more and more complex, and our environmental demands exceed the carrying capacity of the planet. What does elasticity mean? Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. In business and economics, elasticity refers the degree to which individuals, consumers or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. Society Collapse: We May Fall Down Our weapons are more massive than it used to be (now: nuclear weapons and biological agents instead of arrows and swords). New tools of violence, such as deadly autonomous weapons, may be available in the near future. People are becoming exceptionally specialised and less involved in the manufacture of food and essential goods. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse And a changing climate can destroy our ability to return to simple farming practices. With the expansion of nuclear weapons, we may already have reached the point of civilized 'terminal speed'. Any collapse threatens to be permanent. A nuclear war can lead to an actual risk: either the disappearance of our species or a permanent slingshot, back to the Stone Age.  Climate change is a different kind of threat than what the Maya's dealt with. Now, they are global, quicker, more dangerous and human-driven. A collapse of our civilisation is not unavoidable. History indicates that it is possible, we have the rare advantage of being able to learn from the pieces of the wreckage of societies' past. We know what we have to do, what needs to be done. We need to reduce the emissions, inequalities must become equal, and we have to care more about the environment. Innovation should be stimulated, and we need more diversity in economics. The policy suggestions are there; only the political will is missing. We can invest in recovering better. There are already well-developed ideas to improve the capacity of food and knowledge systems to recover after a disaster. We have to listen to the past, to improve ourselves. Do not walk blindly into the future that will destroy us. Before you go! Recommended:  Economic Growth Is Dead: Welcome To The Circular Economy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your society?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Nowadays, we are making the world worse. True or not? A study of the downfall of historical civilisations has shown that we face many risks currently. Historian Arnold Toynbee explains in his 12-volume 'A study of History’ that great civilisations take their own lives and not of others. But in fact, that is not the whole truth: other elements help with their self-destruction. The Roman Empire The Roman Empire, for example, did not only destruct itself, but due to poor leadership, damage to the environment and climate change, Rome was a victim. In 410 Rome was plundered by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. The Roman Empire contained 4.4 million square kilometres in 390. Five years later it had collapsed to 2 million square kilometres. By 476, the empire's range was practically nil. A repeating failure characterises our deep past. What can the rise and fall of historical civilisations tell us about ours? What are the forces that bring down or slow down a collapse? And do we see comparable patterns today? Recommended:  Siberia, Africa, Australia, Are Burning: What Caused It? Lifespan Of Civilisations At first, we need to look at past civilisations and compare their lifespan. This can be difficult. In this study, we look at agriculture, multiple cities, military dominance in its geographical region and a continuous political structure. You can say that all empires are civilisations, but not all cultures are empires. What is civilization? A civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. London, Great Brittain. The end of an empire.... Almost all past civilisations have dealt with a collapse. This meant a fast and prolonged loss of population, identity and socio-economic complexity. Public services fall apart, and disorder is created when the government loses its monopoly on violence. Some civilisations have recovered (the Chinese and Egyptians, for example), and other collapses were permanent (Easter Island, for example). In Rome, the destruction was revived. What can this tell us concerning the future of modern global civilisation? Is collapse a normal phenomenon for civilisations? {youtube}                                                 Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?                                                                          Will America Fall Like Rome? Maybe societies of the past and the present are simply complex systems made up of people and technology. Failing is part of life, so collapse can also be a regular phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage. We are more technologically advanced now, but that does not mean we can concur every unpredicted challenge. We are not immune to new technology. What is technology? It includes machines (like computers) but also techniques and processes (like the way we produce computer chips). It might seem like all technology is only electronic, but that's just most modern technology. In fact, a hammer and the wheel are two examples of early human technology. Society Collapse: What Can The Past Tell Us? While there is no one acceptable theory for the why of collapses, historians, anthropologists, and others have suggested various explanations, including: Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Society Collapse: Climate Change , when the climate's stability changes, the results can be catastrophic, resulting in crop failures, famine and desertification Environmental degradation . Collapse can occur when societies exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. This ecological collapse theory points to over-deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the loss of biodiversity as causes of precipitation. Oil pollution, China Society Collapse: Inequality and Oligarchy. Wealth and political disparity can be central drivers of social disruption, as well as aristocracy and centralisation of power among leaders. This not only causes social suffering but hampers a society's ability to respond to ecological, social and economic problems. For example, the population grows; this exceeds the demand for labour. Workers become cheaper; society becomes top-heavy. This inequality undermines collective solidarity, and political unrest follows. What is government oligarchy? Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. Protests in Paris Society Collapse: Complexity.  Joseph Tainter, a collapse expert and historian, says that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy. Another indicator of increasing complexity is called Energy Return on Investment (EROI). This refers to the proportion between the amount of energy produced by raw material and the energy needed to obtain it. Like complexity, EROI seems to have a point at which efficiency decreases. Society Collapse: External Shocks.  In other words, the 'four horsemen': war, natural disasters, starvation and plagues. The Aztec Empire, for example, was destroyed by Spanish invaders. Most of the early agricultural states were volatile due to deadly epidemics. The concentration of people and livestock in walled colonies with poor hygiene made disease outbreaks inevitable and disastrous. Disasters sometimes went hand in hand, as was the case with the Spanish introduction of salmonella into America. Society Collapse: Randomness & Bad Luck.  A statistical analysis of the empires suggests that the collapse is arbitrary and independent of age. Evolutionary biologist and data scientist Indre Zliobaite and her colleagues have observed a parallel pattern in the evolution of species. A simplified explanation for this apparent arbitrariness is the 'Red Queen Effect': if species are continually struggling to survive in a changing environment with numerous competitors, extinction is a consistent possibility. What is the Red Queen effect in evolution? The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. Society Collapse: Indicators Recommended:  Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Despite the overload of books and articles, we have no definitive explanation for the collapse of civilisations. What we do know is this: the factors mentioned above can all contribute. Stressors can overrun societal coping capacity, which can cause collapse. To examine a different kind of indicators of danger to see whether collapsing is rising or falling, we show you four possible metrics. These are measured over the past few decades: Temperature is a clear indicator of climate change Inequality is more complicated to calculate. The specific measurement of the Gini index suggests that inequality has reduced slightly worldwide (although it is increasing within countries). But the Gini index can be deceptive because it only measures relative changes in income The rich are becoming richer, which in the past has led to extra pressure on society. Studies show that the EROI for fossil fuels has declined steadily over time as the easiest to reach and most precious reserves are exhausted. Unfortunately, most of the renewable substitutes, such as solar energy, have a significantly lower EROI, mainly because of their energy density and the rare earth metals and production needed to produce them. Society Collapse: Measures Of Resilience The only positive thing is that collapses are not the entire picture. Social elasticity can slow down or prevent the collapse. The economic diversity is more significant than ever. We can cope more than ever, and we have more knowledge than ever. Especially, population groups with more experience may be better able to respond to crises when they occur. Also, the innovation of civilisation is rising. If we look at the collapse and elasticity indicators, we cannot be complacent. If we keep on innovate and diversify like this, we can be optimistic. Nevertheless, the world is deteriorating in areas that have contributed to the collapse of earlier societies. The climate is changing, the difference between rich and poor is growing, the world is becoming more and more complex, and our environmental demands exceed the carrying capacity of the planet. What does elasticity mean? Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. In business and economics, elasticity refers the degree to which individuals, consumers or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. Society Collapse: We May Fall Down Our weapons are more massive than it used to be (now: nuclear weapons and biological agents instead of arrows and swords). New tools of violence, such as deadly autonomous weapons, may be available in the near future. People are becoming exceptionally specialised and less involved in the manufacture of food and essential goods. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse And a changing climate can destroy our ability to return to simple farming practices. With the expansion of nuclear weapons, we may already have reached the point of civilized 'terminal speed'. Any collapse threatens to be permanent. A nuclear war can lead to an actual risk: either the disappearance of our species or a permanent slingshot, back to the Stone Age.  Climate change is a different kind of threat than what the Maya's dealt with. Now, they are global, quicker, more dangerous and human-driven. A collapse of our civilisation is not unavoidable. History indicates that it is possible, we have the rare advantage of being able to learn from the pieces of the wreckage of societies' past. We know what we have to do, what needs to be done. We need to reduce the emissions, inequalities must become equal, and we have to care more about the environment. Innovation should be stimulated, and we need more diversity in economics. The policy suggestions are there; only the political will is missing. We can invest in recovering better. There are already well-developed ideas to improve the capacity of food and knowledge systems to recover after a disaster. We have to listen to the past, to improve ourselves. Do not walk blindly into the future that will destroy us. Before you go! Recommended:  Economic Growth Is Dead: Welcome To The Circular Economy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your society?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed
In one of the smallest oceans of the world, methane is found. Researchers have measured high methane in the air and underwater in the Arctic Ocean. The so-called methane bubbles rise out of the mud beneath the surface of the water. Arctic Sea Cooks Methane Methane is a hydrocarbon and the main component of natural gas. This greenhouse gas is produced by bacteria and can be found on, for example, farms (The gas is formed by the bacteria in the cow's fore-stomachs when digesting food), oil fields,marshlands, and so it seems: in the arctic sea. We must add that methane is 20 times more powerful than carbon dioxide to raise the temperature in the air, which may cause a terrible effect on the climate. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Is methane gas harmful to humans? Methane gas is relatively non-toxic; it does not have an OSHA PEL Standard. Its health effects are associated with being a simple asphyxiant displacing oxygen in the lungs. Methane is extremely flammable and can explode at concentrations between 5% (lower explosive limit) and 15% (upper explosive limit). Thawing Permafrost Releases Methane Did you know that tons of methane are frozen in the permafrost mud and stored at the bottom of the ocean? When permafrost is getting warmer and thaws, methane will be released in the air. The Arctic Report Card 2019, a federal study, claims that thawing permafrost across the Arctic could lead to the release of an estimated 300-600 million tons of net carbon per year into the atmosphere. Why is methane gas bad? The main impact of methane is on a global scale, as a greenhouse gas. Although levels of methane in the environment are relatively low, its high ‘global warming potential’ (21 times that of carbon dioxide) ranks it amongst the worst of the greenhouse gases. This phenomenon is known to some people as a "methane bomb". They think that if and when this potent greenhouse gas is released, the atmosphere will warm up quickly. The heat will also release more methane. Carolyn Ruppel of the USGS (United States Geological Survey) thinks it probably will not happen overnight. {youtube}                                              Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed                                     Methane: The Arctic's hidden climate threat : Natalia Shakhova's latest paper Even if there would not be a 'methane bomb', we need to worry about the permafrost methane. There is so much methane available, and it can heat up quickly, it still could be a threat over a while. We need to decarbonize the air now before it is too late. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Ted Schuur wrote in the 2019 Arctic Report Card that at the bottom of the northern permafrost regions have a lot more organic carbon than we can find in the atmosphere right now. But this organic carbon soil is climate-sensitive, and because of global warming, this could turn quickly. What produces the most methane on Earth? Most methane emissions come, directly or indirectly, from humans. Some methane is natural it's released by decaying vegetation and by the bacteria in wetlands and swamps. But most sources of methane are of human origin livestock and farming, decay in landfills, leakage from the oil and gas industry. Anthropogenic Emissions Recent research has shown that greenhouse gases increase. This is partly due to natural sources, but also human activities. In another report, published in Nature, November 2019, you can read that in addition to methane, even large numbers of CO2 are being emitted, because of warming from northernmost polar soils. There will likely be more emissions in the future. And anthropogenic methane emissions do not even include the trillions of metric tons of permafrost methane liberated by global warming. We need to reduce the rate of methane to slow down global warming. The Netherlands is one of the countries that agreed in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The US, on the other hand, has not shown the determination to soften anything. What can you do to help a little? Choose green power Eat less meat Insulate your house  Do not waste food Leave your car at home and take the bike Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Stop, Store CO2, Add Phytoplankton By Whales? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about our oceans?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
In one of the smallest oceans of the world, methane is found. Researchers have measured high methane in the air and underwater in the Arctic Ocean. The so-called methane bubbles rise out of the mud beneath the surface of the water. Arctic Sea Cooks Methane Methane is a hydrocarbon and the main component of natural gas. This greenhouse gas is produced by bacteria and can be found on, for example, farms (The gas is formed by the bacteria in the cow's fore-stomachs when digesting food), oil fields,marshlands, and so it seems: in the arctic sea. We must add that methane is 20 times more powerful than carbon dioxide to raise the temperature in the air, which may cause a terrible effect on the climate. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Is methane gas harmful to humans? Methane gas is relatively non-toxic; it does not have an OSHA PEL Standard. Its health effects are associated with being a simple asphyxiant displacing oxygen in the lungs. Methane is extremely flammable and can explode at concentrations between 5% (lower explosive limit) and 15% (upper explosive limit). Thawing Permafrost Releases Methane Did you know that tons of methane are frozen in the permafrost mud and stored at the bottom of the ocean? When permafrost is getting warmer and thaws, methane will be released in the air. The Arctic Report Card 2019, a federal study, claims that thawing permafrost across the Arctic could lead to the release of an estimated 300-600 million tons of net carbon per year into the atmosphere. Why is methane gas bad? The main impact of methane is on a global scale, as a greenhouse gas. Although levels of methane in the environment are relatively low, its high ‘global warming potential’ (21 times that of carbon dioxide) ranks it amongst the worst of the greenhouse gases. This phenomenon is known to some people as a "methane bomb". They think that if and when this potent greenhouse gas is released, the atmosphere will warm up quickly. The heat will also release more methane. Carolyn Ruppel of the USGS (United States Geological Survey) thinks it probably will not happen overnight. {youtube}                                              Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed                                     Methane: The Arctic's hidden climate threat : Natalia Shakhova's latest paper Even if there would not be a 'methane bomb', we need to worry about the permafrost methane. There is so much methane available, and it can heat up quickly, it still could be a threat over a while. We need to decarbonize the air now before it is too late. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Ted Schuur wrote in the 2019 Arctic Report Card that at the bottom of the northern permafrost regions have a lot more organic carbon than we can find in the atmosphere right now. But this organic carbon soil is climate-sensitive, and because of global warming, this could turn quickly. What produces the most methane on Earth? Most methane emissions come, directly or indirectly, from humans. Some methane is natural it's released by decaying vegetation and by the bacteria in wetlands and swamps. But most sources of methane are of human origin livestock and farming, decay in landfills, leakage from the oil and gas industry. Anthropogenic Emissions Recent research has shown that greenhouse gases increase. This is partly due to natural sources, but also human activities. In another report, published in Nature, November 2019, you can read that in addition to methane, even large numbers of CO2 are being emitted, because of warming from northernmost polar soils. There will likely be more emissions in the future. And anthropogenic methane emissions do not even include the trillions of metric tons of permafrost methane liberated by global warming. We need to reduce the rate of methane to slow down global warming. The Netherlands is one of the countries that agreed in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The US, on the other hand, has not shown the determination to soften anything. What can you do to help a little? Choose green power Eat less meat Insulate your house  Do not waste food Leave your car at home and take the bike Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Stop, Store CO2, Add Phytoplankton By Whales? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about our oceans?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed
Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
Can nature itself be our leading example in solving climate issues? Yes: this artificial leaf might be one of the solutions for global warming. With new and low-cost technology where CO2 is converted into liquid fuel by sunlight, scientists of the University of Waterloo may be able to solve the enormous problem of rising greenhouse levels. A Breakthrough In Converting CO2 Into Liquid Scientists from the University of Waterloo claim that their artificial leaf can be a breakthrough in converting CO2 into liquid. The new technology can turn carbon dioxide into fuel, with Mother Earth as an inspiration. The artificial leaf mimics photosynthesis in nature, hence the invention’s name, ‘leaf’. With the help of a cheap red powder called cuprous oxide, CO2 can be converted into methanol and oxygen – and these substances are again converted into fuel. This cuprous oxide is found in abundance in nature. What is cuprous oxide? Curpous oxide, or red copper oxide or Cu2O, is a red coloured crystal of powder, and oxide of copper - and found in nature as cuprite. Fuel Efficiency Larger Than Natural Photosynthesis Oil buble abstract {youtube}                             Artificial Leaves Designed By Scientists Absorb More CO2 Than Natural Leaves                                                How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! The inexpensive technology can hopefully help in the fight against rising greenhouse gas levels. The research team of the University of Waterloo's motivation to develop this artificial leaf is to ‘reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, and hopefully reduce global warming and to provide sustainable energy.’  It seems to be working: lead researcher Yimin Wu said: "This technology has achieved the solar to fuel efficiency about 10 per cent. This is already larger than the natural photosynthesis (about one per cent)." Recommended: Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! What´s Next For The Artificial Leaf? How does photosynthesis work simple? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. It could take a while for the artificial leaf to be commercialised. Further research is needed to increase the amount of ethanol during the process before the technology is offered to industrial companies. In a partnership with industry companies, more efficient artificial leaves can be developed – but this can take up to a few years. Professor Wu says that oil, steel, and automotive companies will take advantage of the technology to help reduce their carbon emissions. On that note, he tells Independent: “I’m extremely excited about the potential of this discovery to change the game. Climate change is an urgent problem, and we can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also creating an alternative fuel.” Lead researcher Yimin Wu Before you go! Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about CO2 Absorbing Techniques? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Can nature itself be our leading example in solving climate issues? Yes: this artificial leaf might be one of the solutions for global warming. With new and low-cost technology where CO2 is converted into liquid fuel by sunlight, scientists of the University of Waterloo may be able to solve the enormous problem of rising greenhouse levels. A Breakthrough In Converting CO2 Into Liquid Scientists from the University of Waterloo claim that their artificial leaf can be a breakthrough in converting CO2 into liquid. The new technology can turn carbon dioxide into fuel, with Mother Earth as an inspiration. The artificial leaf mimics photosynthesis in nature, hence the invention’s name, ‘leaf’. With the help of a cheap red powder called cuprous oxide, CO2 can be converted into methanol and oxygen – and these substances are again converted into fuel. This cuprous oxide is found in abundance in nature. What is cuprous oxide? Curpous oxide, or red copper oxide or Cu2O, is a red coloured crystal of powder, and oxide of copper - and found in nature as cuprite. Fuel Efficiency Larger Than Natural Photosynthesis Oil buble abstract {youtube}                             Artificial Leaves Designed By Scientists Absorb More CO2 Than Natural Leaves                                                How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! The inexpensive technology can hopefully help in the fight against rising greenhouse gas levels. The research team of the University of Waterloo's motivation to develop this artificial leaf is to ‘reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, and hopefully reduce global warming and to provide sustainable energy.’  It seems to be working: lead researcher Yimin Wu said: "This technology has achieved the solar to fuel efficiency about 10 per cent. This is already larger than the natural photosynthesis (about one per cent)." Recommended: Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! What´s Next For The Artificial Leaf? How does photosynthesis work simple? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. It could take a while for the artificial leaf to be commercialised. Further research is needed to increase the amount of ethanol during the process before the technology is offered to industrial companies. In a partnership with industry companies, more efficient artificial leaves can be developed – but this can take up to a few years. Professor Wu says that oil, steel, and automotive companies will take advantage of the technology to help reduce their carbon emissions. On that note, he tells Independent: “I’m extremely excited about the potential of this discovery to change the game. Climate change is an urgent problem, and we can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also creating an alternative fuel.” Lead researcher Yimin Wu Before you go! Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about CO2 Absorbing Techniques? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer?
The world is desperately looking for safe and cost-effective solutions to counteract climate change by reducing the CO2 levels of the atmosphere. It looks ‘another’ good solution is found! How it’s named: Olivine. Does This Professor Has The Solution For The Increasing CO2 And The Effects On Climate Change? Olaf Schuiling, professor Geo Engineering at the University Utrecht (Netherlands) proposes Olivine. Olivine isn’t new. It is as old as the world, namely to use olivine or similar rocks not in a technology, but in the way it works in nature. Olivine (Mg2SiO4) is the most common mineral on earth. Since the sixties professor Schuiling investigated the reaction between dissolved CO2 and Olivine. In addition, heat is released, and the CO2 binds to the innocent bicarbonate, which may be later precipitates as lime. Schuiling: "It is one of the easiest ways to capture CO2 from the air. It is a safe, natural and inexpensive process." Olivine And Buildings And schools The absorption of CO2 is optimal when the Olivine is crushed to sand. Scattering of the Olivine is possible in streets, green strips near roads and industrial sites, parks, gardens, beaches, and in the sandpits of schools. Olivine converts CO2 into calcium and so reduces CO2 in the air. "If the Olive grid is spread onto land and shallow water in the wet tropics, in a year about 20 percent of the CO2 will be weathered. When we repeat the process every year with 7 cubic kilometres of rock, we will compensate the whole human CO2 emissions." CO2 Absorption Costs The costs to dig and pulverize Olivine in tropical countries are about $ 6.5 per ton. If you assume that for the transportation and spreading another $ 6.5 per ton are needed, the costs are 13 USD per ton of olivine: about 10 USD per ton CO2. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Sediments And Olivine Weathering of calcium and or magnesium silicate rock has kept the CO2 content of the atmosphere within reasonable bounds throughout geological history. Weathering is the neutralization of an acid (usually carbonic acid) by rocks, turning CO2 into the innocuous bicarbonate ion in solution. These bicarbonate solutions are carried by rivers to the sea, where they are ultimately deposited as limestones and dolomites. These carbonate sediments form the ultimate sink for CO2. They contain 1,500 times more CO2 than the amounts of CO2 in biomass, atmosphere and dissolved CO2 in the oceans combined. Reduce CO2 Emissions Two broad families of geo-engineering solutions have been proposed: First is to alter the Earth’s thermal balance by reflecting more incident solar radiation out to space Second is the direct removal of CO2 from the atmosphere Both approaches have their place but note that the first category does not address the serious issue of ocean acidification (report). Accordingly it would be unwise to rely on enhanced reflectivity alone. Of the second category of geo engineering approaches, the most logical is to increase the rate of weathering since this is a natural process whose enhancement may be considered 'benign in principle'. This can be done by mining abundantly available and easily weatherable rocks, milling them and spreading the grains over the surface of the land or in shallow seas. The olivine option is not so much a ‘technology’ in the classical sense, but more a general concept that can be applied in many sectors of society. Recommended:  Does Rising CO2 Benefit Plants? Projects based on enhanced weathering of olivine and related minerals have been formulated for agriculture, forestry, roads and biking paths, buildings, coastal defense, firefighting, playgrounds, suppression of poisonous dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria blooms, diatom farms for biodiesel production, mining, mineral waters, olivine as a green fuel, olivine in environmental applications, natural emissions of CO2 for carbon capture and miscellaneous. Olivine In Silica The solutions that are produced by the digestion of olivine grains are rich in silica, which is a limiting nutrient for diatoms. When silica becomes available in larger quantities, the diatom population will increase, providing food for fishes and birds further up the food chain. CO2 Absorption Can Vary Greatly Colleagues point out correctly that, as in nature, the rates and speed of the reaction of minerals like olivine can vary greatly in different situations found in the natural world. More work needs to be done to understand these processes. However, don’t mistake that for a reason for inaction, whilst we may be unsure of the absolute potential, we are sure that the potential is there. Recommended:  Renewable Energy Turns CO2 Into Fuel For Hydrogen Batteries And, as in nature, with such a wide range of applications for weathering minerals in our human activities, virtually everybody can participate in their own field and help move these techniques forward in the fight to counteract climate change and ocean acidification. Combating climate change and building a sustainable future, there are a lot of interesting and potentially very helpful actions and developments to be embraced. And Olivine is one of them. Olivine: Where Can It Be Found? Olivine is a very common silicate mineral that occurs mostly in dark-coloured igneous rocks like peridotite and basalt. It is usually easily identifiable because of its bright green colour and glassy lustre.                                                                                 Identifying Olivine                                                 CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? Olivine is a common mineral in dark-coloured igneous rocks because these rocks are rich in iron and magnesium (rocks rich in iron-bearing minerals tend to be either black or at least dark-coloured). These chemical elements (Mg and Fe) are the essential components of olivine which has the following chemical formula: (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Magnesium and iron can replace each other in all proportions. There are specific names for compositional varieties, but most of them are rarely used. Only forsterite (more than 90% of the Mg+Fe is Mg) and fayalite (similarly iron-rich endmember) are used more often. The vast majority of all the samples are forsteritic or compositionally close to it. Olivine is a nesosilicate. It means that silica tetrahedra (which is the central building block of all silicate minerals) are surrounded from all sides by other ions. Silica tetrahedra are not in contact with each other. It implies relatively low content of silicon which is indeed the case. It is a silicate mineral that uses silicon very conservatively. On the other end of the spectrum is mineral quartz which is pure silica (SiO2) without any other constituents. Other well-known nesosilicates are garnet, zircon, topaz, kyanite, etc. What defines a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler. Minerals are naturally occurring. They are not made by humans. Minerals are inorganic. Silicate minerals that crystallize from magma have a higher melting/crystallization temperature if the content of silica is lower and the content of Mg+Fe is higher. Hence, olivine has a high crystallization temperature and is therefore one of the first minerals to start crystallizing from a cooling magma. It takes silica out of magma relatively conservatively, as already mentioned. So the concentration of silica rises as olivine crystals form and next silicate minerals to crystallize (which are pyroxenes) are already somewhat richer in silica. This sequential order of crystallizing silicate minerals from olivine to quartz is known as the Bowen’s reaction series after a Canadian geologist Norman Bowen who first described it. It is one of the most important concepts every geology student is taught during the petrology course. Dunite xenolith in basaltic lava from Hawaii. The sample is 8 cm in width Bowen’s series or order of minerals in this series (olivine -> pyroxene -> amphibole -> biotite -> K-feldspar -> muscovite -> quartz) is a really useful one to memorize and there are several properties of these minerals that generally follow the same order. Olivine and its close neighbours are darker, contain iron and magnesium, and have a high melting temperature. Quartz, muscovite and K-feldspars are generally much lighter in color and weight, they melt at lower temperatures, and they contain no iron and magnesium. Another interesting fact is that the order of susceptibility to weathering and metamorphic alteration is exactly the reverse. It is readily altered or weathered while quartz is extremely resistant to any kind of change. All other minerals in the series are somewhere in the middle. In the correct order, of course. What are the 7 types of minerals? The classes are: native elements, silicates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, halides, carbonates, phosphates, and mineraloids. Important aspect that rises from this series is the explanation why certain minerals typically form assemblages while others are almost never found together. Olivine is typically with pyroxenes (in basalt, for example) and quartz + K-feldspar with micas (biotite and muscovite) is a typical composition of granite. But there are no such rock types that are composed of olivine plus quartz. Granite and similar rocks are said to be felsic (composed of feldspar and silica) and basaltic rocks are referred to as mafic rocks (magnesium + ferric). Olivine sand grains from Hawaii. Olivine is actually very rare in sand because it is highly susceptible to weathering. Most of these minerals will not last long as sand grains, but they still dominate because there simply is no quartz available on these islands. The sample is from Papakolea, Hawaii. Width of view 20 mm. Olivine is a common rock-forming mineral in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, but it also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks (picture below). It is a very common mineral in the mantle. Some xenoliths from the mantle are almost entirely composed of this mineral. Such a rock type is known as dunite. Olivine occurs as a groundmass mineral but also as distinct phenocrysts in many basaltic rocks. These rocks need not to be basalts in the strict sense. They may be picrites, basanites, etc. but all of them may be very similar to each other as boundaries between them are arbitrary. So it is frequently impossible to say for sure before chemical analysis is made. Olivine is very susceptible to weathering. Bright green mineral loses its appeal rapidly in the weathering environment. It becomes dull, earthy, and yellowish brown.  This material is usually a mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxide goethite and it is known as iddingsite. It also demonstrates very little resistance to hydrothermal metamorphism. Hot and chemically aggressive fluids quickly alter olivine-rich igneous rocks into metamorphic rock known as serpentinite. It is also an important constituent of many stony and mixed meteorites. Especially beautiful is pallasite. It is a mixture of iron and olivine and is thought to represent a core-mantle boundary of a disintegrated asteroid. Perhaps the core-mantle transition of our own home planet looks something like that too. Is Diamond a mineral? Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring mineral, topping Mohs' Scale of Hardness with a relative hardness value of 10. Diamond is a polymorph of the element carbon, and graphite is another. However, at surface temperatures and pressures graphite is the stable form of carbon. However, there is one little thing to remember. The mantle is indeed most likely compositionally close to it, but most of it is not composed of this exact mineral. Olivine tolerates well pressures in the crust and in the upper mantle, but at 350 km depth its crystal structure starts to break down. The composition remains, but it takes a new and more compact form. It is not technically olivine anymore because minerals have a definite crystal structure. Olivine is not just an igneous mineral. It also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Here olivine crystals are found in a sample of calcitic marble. Some crystals even possess a typical crystal faces which are usually lacking in igneous rocks because olivine grains are often corroded (they reacted with the melt surrounding them). Width of sample is 9 cm. Phenocrysts in ultramafic picritic rock from La Palma, Canary Islands. Width of sample is 5 cm Weathered olivine is dull, earthy, and usually yellowish brown mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxides. Black grains are pyroxene phenocrysts. Rock sample is basanite (ankaramite) from La Palma. Chrysotile is an asbestos mineral that belongs to the serpentine group of minerals. These minerals are the result of hydrothermal alteration of olivine-rich igneous rocks. Width of sample from the Sayan Mountains in Siberia is 8 cm. Before you go! Recommended:  Recycling Asphalt Generates Massive Amount Of Electricity Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the effect of CO2 in our environment? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
The world is desperately looking for safe and cost-effective solutions to counteract climate change by reducing the CO2 levels of the atmosphere. It looks ‘another’ good solution is found! How it’s named: Olivine. Does This Professor Has The Solution For The Increasing CO2 And The Effects On Climate Change? Olaf Schuiling, professor Geo Engineering at the University Utrecht (Netherlands) proposes Olivine. Olivine isn’t new. It is as old as the world, namely to use olivine or similar rocks not in a technology, but in the way it works in nature. Olivine (Mg2SiO4) is the most common mineral on earth. Since the sixties professor Schuiling investigated the reaction between dissolved CO2 and Olivine. In addition, heat is released, and the CO2 binds to the innocent bicarbonate, which may be later precipitates as lime. Schuiling: "It is one of the easiest ways to capture CO2 from the air. It is a safe, natural and inexpensive process." Olivine And Buildings And schools The absorption of CO2 is optimal when the Olivine is crushed to sand. Scattering of the Olivine is possible in streets, green strips near roads and industrial sites, parks, gardens, beaches, and in the sandpits of schools. Olivine converts CO2 into calcium and so reduces CO2 in the air. "If the Olive grid is spread onto land and shallow water in the wet tropics, in a year about 20 percent of the CO2 will be weathered. When we repeat the process every year with 7 cubic kilometres of rock, we will compensate the whole human CO2 emissions." CO2 Absorption Costs The costs to dig and pulverize Olivine in tropical countries are about $ 6.5 per ton. If you assume that for the transportation and spreading another $ 6.5 per ton are needed, the costs are 13 USD per ton of olivine: about 10 USD per ton CO2. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Sediments And Olivine Weathering of calcium and or magnesium silicate rock has kept the CO2 content of the atmosphere within reasonable bounds throughout geological history. Weathering is the neutralization of an acid (usually carbonic acid) by rocks, turning CO2 into the innocuous bicarbonate ion in solution. These bicarbonate solutions are carried by rivers to the sea, where they are ultimately deposited as limestones and dolomites. These carbonate sediments form the ultimate sink for CO2. They contain 1,500 times more CO2 than the amounts of CO2 in biomass, atmosphere and dissolved CO2 in the oceans combined. Reduce CO2 Emissions Two broad families of geo-engineering solutions have been proposed: First is to alter the Earth’s thermal balance by reflecting more incident solar radiation out to space Second is the direct removal of CO2 from the atmosphere Both approaches have their place but note that the first category does not address the serious issue of ocean acidification (report). Accordingly it would be unwise to rely on enhanced reflectivity alone. Of the second category of geo engineering approaches, the most logical is to increase the rate of weathering since this is a natural process whose enhancement may be considered 'benign in principle'. This can be done by mining abundantly available and easily weatherable rocks, milling them and spreading the grains over the surface of the land or in shallow seas. The olivine option is not so much a ‘technology’ in the classical sense, but more a general concept that can be applied in many sectors of society. Recommended:  Does Rising CO2 Benefit Plants? Projects based on enhanced weathering of olivine and related minerals have been formulated for agriculture, forestry, roads and biking paths, buildings, coastal defense, firefighting, playgrounds, suppression of poisonous dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria blooms, diatom farms for biodiesel production, mining, mineral waters, olivine as a green fuel, olivine in environmental applications, natural emissions of CO2 for carbon capture and miscellaneous. Olivine In Silica The solutions that are produced by the digestion of olivine grains are rich in silica, which is a limiting nutrient for diatoms. When silica becomes available in larger quantities, the diatom population will increase, providing food for fishes and birds further up the food chain. CO2 Absorption Can Vary Greatly Colleagues point out correctly that, as in nature, the rates and speed of the reaction of minerals like olivine can vary greatly in different situations found in the natural world. More work needs to be done to understand these processes. However, don’t mistake that for a reason for inaction, whilst we may be unsure of the absolute potential, we are sure that the potential is there. Recommended:  Renewable Energy Turns CO2 Into Fuel For Hydrogen Batteries And, as in nature, with such a wide range of applications for weathering minerals in our human activities, virtually everybody can participate in their own field and help move these techniques forward in the fight to counteract climate change and ocean acidification. Combating climate change and building a sustainable future, there are a lot of interesting and potentially very helpful actions and developments to be embraced. And Olivine is one of them. Olivine: Where Can It Be Found? Olivine is a very common silicate mineral that occurs mostly in dark-coloured igneous rocks like peridotite and basalt. It is usually easily identifiable because of its bright green colour and glassy lustre.                                                                                 Identifying Olivine                                                 CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? Olivine is a common mineral in dark-coloured igneous rocks because these rocks are rich in iron and magnesium (rocks rich in iron-bearing minerals tend to be either black or at least dark-coloured). These chemical elements (Mg and Fe) are the essential components of olivine which has the following chemical formula: (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Magnesium and iron can replace each other in all proportions. There are specific names for compositional varieties, but most of them are rarely used. Only forsterite (more than 90% of the Mg+Fe is Mg) and fayalite (similarly iron-rich endmember) are used more often. The vast majority of all the samples are forsteritic or compositionally close to it. Olivine is a nesosilicate. It means that silica tetrahedra (which is the central building block of all silicate minerals) are surrounded from all sides by other ions. Silica tetrahedra are not in contact with each other. It implies relatively low content of silicon which is indeed the case. It is a silicate mineral that uses silicon very conservatively. On the other end of the spectrum is mineral quartz which is pure silica (SiO2) without any other constituents. Other well-known nesosilicates are garnet, zircon, topaz, kyanite, etc. What defines a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler. Minerals are naturally occurring. They are not made by humans. Minerals are inorganic. Silicate minerals that crystallize from magma have a higher melting/crystallization temperature if the content of silica is lower and the content of Mg+Fe is higher. Hence, olivine has a high crystallization temperature and is therefore one of the first minerals to start crystallizing from a cooling magma. It takes silica out of magma relatively conservatively, as already mentioned. So the concentration of silica rises as olivine crystals form and next silicate minerals to crystallize (which are pyroxenes) are already somewhat richer in silica. This sequential order of crystallizing silicate minerals from olivine to quartz is known as the Bowen’s reaction series after a Canadian geologist Norman Bowen who first described it. It is one of the most important concepts every geology student is taught during the petrology course. Dunite xenolith in basaltic lava from Hawaii. The sample is 8 cm in width Bowen’s series or order of minerals in this series (olivine -> pyroxene -> amphibole -> biotite -> K-feldspar -> muscovite -> quartz) is a really useful one to memorize and there are several properties of these minerals that generally follow the same order. Olivine and its close neighbours are darker, contain iron and magnesium, and have a high melting temperature. Quartz, muscovite and K-feldspars are generally much lighter in color and weight, they melt at lower temperatures, and they contain no iron and magnesium. Another interesting fact is that the order of susceptibility to weathering and metamorphic alteration is exactly the reverse. It is readily altered or weathered while quartz is extremely resistant to any kind of change. All other minerals in the series are somewhere in the middle. In the correct order, of course. What are the 7 types of minerals? The classes are: native elements, silicates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, halides, carbonates, phosphates, and mineraloids. Important aspect that rises from this series is the explanation why certain minerals typically form assemblages while others are almost never found together. Olivine is typically with pyroxenes (in basalt, for example) and quartz + K-feldspar with micas (biotite and muscovite) is a typical composition of granite. But there are no such rock types that are composed of olivine plus quartz. Granite and similar rocks are said to be felsic (composed of feldspar and silica) and basaltic rocks are referred to as mafic rocks (magnesium + ferric). Olivine sand grains from Hawaii. Olivine is actually very rare in sand because it is highly susceptible to weathering. Most of these minerals will not last long as sand grains, but they still dominate because there simply is no quartz available on these islands. The sample is from Papakolea, Hawaii. Width of view 20 mm. Olivine is a common rock-forming mineral in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, but it also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks (picture below). It is a very common mineral in the mantle. Some xenoliths from the mantle are almost entirely composed of this mineral. Such a rock type is known as dunite. Olivine occurs as a groundmass mineral but also as distinct phenocrysts in many basaltic rocks. These rocks need not to be basalts in the strict sense. They may be picrites, basanites, etc. but all of them may be very similar to each other as boundaries between them are arbitrary. So it is frequently impossible to say for sure before chemical analysis is made. Olivine is very susceptible to weathering. Bright green mineral loses its appeal rapidly in the weathering environment. It becomes dull, earthy, and yellowish brown.  This material is usually a mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxide goethite and it is known as iddingsite. It also demonstrates very little resistance to hydrothermal metamorphism. Hot and chemically aggressive fluids quickly alter olivine-rich igneous rocks into metamorphic rock known as serpentinite. It is also an important constituent of many stony and mixed meteorites. Especially beautiful is pallasite. It is a mixture of iron and olivine and is thought to represent a core-mantle boundary of a disintegrated asteroid. Perhaps the core-mantle transition of our own home planet looks something like that too. Is Diamond a mineral? Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring mineral, topping Mohs' Scale of Hardness with a relative hardness value of 10. Diamond is a polymorph of the element carbon, and graphite is another. However, at surface temperatures and pressures graphite is the stable form of carbon. However, there is one little thing to remember. The mantle is indeed most likely compositionally close to it, but most of it is not composed of this exact mineral. Olivine tolerates well pressures in the crust and in the upper mantle, but at 350 km depth its crystal structure starts to break down. The composition remains, but it takes a new and more compact form. It is not technically olivine anymore because minerals have a definite crystal structure. Olivine is not just an igneous mineral. It also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Here olivine crystals are found in a sample of calcitic marble. Some crystals even possess a typical crystal faces which are usually lacking in igneous rocks because olivine grains are often corroded (they reacted with the melt surrounding them). Width of sample is 9 cm. Phenocrysts in ultramafic picritic rock from La Palma, Canary Islands. Width of sample is 5 cm Weathered olivine is dull, earthy, and usually yellowish brown mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxides. Black grains are pyroxene phenocrysts. Rock sample is basanite (ankaramite) from La Palma. Chrysotile is an asbestos mineral that belongs to the serpentine group of minerals. These minerals are the result of hydrothermal alteration of olivine-rich igneous rocks. Width of sample from the Sayan Mountains in Siberia is 8 cm. Before you go! Recommended:  Recycling Asphalt Generates Massive Amount Of Electricity Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the effect of CO2 in our environment? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer?
CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer?
Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How?
An urban canopy created with algae has got people talking about the link between technology and environment. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen amounting to the equivalent of four hectares of woodland. Algae Canopy Miracle When it comes to photosynthesis, microalgae organisms are ten times more efficient than large trees and grass. Buildings and architectural surfaces are efficient spaces to utilize this technology. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of the Future The Future Food District project is a 7,000 square metre thematic pavilion that explores the relationship between digital technology and our interactions with food. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of The Future Food District project. Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 The project, which is a culmination of six years’ worth of research, consists of three layers. A custom designed cladding system uses ETFC, fluorine-based plastic that has high corrosion resistance and consistent strength over a wide temperature range. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen.  What exactly is algae? Algae are a group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. Algae have a nucleus, exist as microscopic cells, and generate oxygen through photosynthesis. At any given time the transparency, colour and shading potential of the canopy will be the direct result of the interrelationships between climate, the algae and visitors. For example, when the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular.   For ecoLogicStudio the prototype is a step towards something much larger. There is hope for the use of these in current and future buildings, and a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. “Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. For now, the canopy will remain a prototype and proof of a working concept that allows for experimentation. {youtube}                             EcoLogicStudio transforms cladding system into a bioreactor with Urban Algae Canopy                                                 Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? When the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. It seems algae are already being used in other environmentally-friendly projects as well. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. Is Algae good or bad for humans? No, not all algal blooms are harmful Less than one percent of algal blooms actually produce toxins. Harmful algal blooms are blooms of species of algae that can have negative impacts on humans, marine and freshwater environments, and coastal economies. According to Gajitz, the algae eats the CO2 from the environment, which gets sucked into the chamber by a pump. Once the algae becomes saturated with CO2, it becomes biomass, which is then pushed underground to a filler station. So the lamp not only reduces urban smog, but could in turn use the biomass to power eco-friendly, biomass-fuelled cars. These new designs showcase the need to end the segregation between technology and nature, and instead explore the positive relationships between the two. Do algal blooms produce oxygen? Algae blooms in natural water bodies or fish ponds normally produce much more oxygen in the daylight than they consume during the night, but some situations reduce the amount of oxygen a bloom produces without reducing its nighttime oxygen consumption. There is hope for the use of algae canopies in current and future buildings. It’s part of a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Makes Protein From Manure: Nitrogen Problem Solved Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about Energy Production With The Use Of Algae? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
An urban canopy created with algae has got people talking about the link between technology and environment. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen amounting to the equivalent of four hectares of woodland. Algae Canopy Miracle When it comes to photosynthesis, microalgae organisms are ten times more efficient than large trees and grass. Buildings and architectural surfaces are efficient spaces to utilize this technology. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of the Future The Future Food District project is a 7,000 square metre thematic pavilion that explores the relationship between digital technology and our interactions with food. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of The Future Food District project. Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 The project, which is a culmination of six years’ worth of research, consists of three layers. A custom designed cladding system uses ETFC, fluorine-based plastic that has high corrosion resistance and consistent strength over a wide temperature range. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen.  What exactly is algae? Algae are a group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. Algae have a nucleus, exist as microscopic cells, and generate oxygen through photosynthesis. At any given time the transparency, colour and shading potential of the canopy will be the direct result of the interrelationships between climate, the algae and visitors. For example, when the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular.   For ecoLogicStudio the prototype is a step towards something much larger. There is hope for the use of these in current and future buildings, and a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. “Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. For now, the canopy will remain a prototype and proof of a working concept that allows for experimentation. {youtube}                             EcoLogicStudio transforms cladding system into a bioreactor with Urban Algae Canopy                                                 Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? When the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. It seems algae are already being used in other environmentally-friendly projects as well. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. Is Algae good or bad for humans? No, not all algal blooms are harmful Less than one percent of algal blooms actually produce toxins. Harmful algal blooms are blooms of species of algae that can have negative impacts on humans, marine and freshwater environments, and coastal economies. According to Gajitz, the algae eats the CO2 from the environment, which gets sucked into the chamber by a pump. Once the algae becomes saturated with CO2, it becomes biomass, which is then pushed underground to a filler station. So the lamp not only reduces urban smog, but could in turn use the biomass to power eco-friendly, biomass-fuelled cars. These new designs showcase the need to end the segregation between technology and nature, and instead explore the positive relationships between the two. Do algal blooms produce oxygen? Algae blooms in natural water bodies or fish ponds normally produce much more oxygen in the daylight than they consume during the night, but some situations reduce the amount of oxygen a bloom produces without reducing its nighttime oxygen consumption. There is hope for the use of algae canopies in current and future buildings. It’s part of a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Makes Protein From Manure: Nitrogen Problem Solved Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about Energy Production With The Use Of Algae? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How?
Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How?
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