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Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable 27-2-2020: 2.804+ People died in China, 82.186+ people are proven infected worldwide. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission. Strongly Recommended : Coronavirus COVID-19: Worse Then Thought: A Must Read Update {youtube}                                           Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                         Scientist Speaks Out About Coronavirus Origin: Exclusive | NBC Nightly News, 27-02-2020                                          WHO Declares Public Health Emergency The WHO have declared a public health emergency because of the spread of the COVID-19, Coronavirus outside of China, describing it as an 'unprecedented outbreak'.  Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Coronavirus Symptons Flu And Climate Change Tips & Tricks To Avoid Colds And Flu A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing Recommended:  Coronavirus Symptoms Clarified: Males 50+ Are Most At Risk NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. A 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Replicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China Coronavirus: Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind the outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate."   Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: While a person with the virus can show no outward symptoms, early signs can include a fever, diarrhea, a dry cough, shortness of breath and general body aches Some patients also report feeling tired and confused More serious cases of the virus can lead to a high fever, kidney failure and pneumonia While the disease is being treated as an 'imminent threat', some of the symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those seem in other respiratory conditions - such as the flu or the common cold Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: Advice If you have recently travelled to a high-risk area - or if you've been in contact with somebody who has - and you develop symptoms, you should contact your doctor by telephone for advice You should not go to the doctor or to hospital, as if you have the virus, you may risk spreading it to others If you have recently travelled to Wuhan you should go in self-quarantine for 14 days and call  your doctor and/ or local authorities to report your recent stay Wag your hands often What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province          Coronavirus? How do you catch it? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. Coronavirus. How long does the virus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS Coronavirus: How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus COVID-19 Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan.   Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain.   Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable 27-2-2020: 2.804+ People died in China, 82.186+ people are proven infected worldwide. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission. Strongly Recommended : Coronavirus COVID-19: Worse Then Thought: A Must Read Update {youtube}                                           Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                         Scientist Speaks Out About Coronavirus Origin: Exclusive | NBC Nightly News, 27-02-2020                                          WHO Declares Public Health Emergency The WHO have declared a public health emergency because of the spread of the COVID-19, Coronavirus outside of China, describing it as an 'unprecedented outbreak'.  Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Coronavirus Symptons Flu And Climate Change Tips & Tricks To Avoid Colds And Flu A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing Recommended:  Coronavirus Symptoms Clarified: Males 50+ Are Most At Risk NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. A 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Replicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China Coronavirus: Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind the outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate."   Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: While a person with the virus can show no outward symptoms, early signs can include a fever, diarrhea, a dry cough, shortness of breath and general body aches Some patients also report feeling tired and confused More serious cases of the virus can lead to a high fever, kidney failure and pneumonia While the disease is being treated as an 'imminent threat', some of the symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those seem in other respiratory conditions - such as the flu or the common cold Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: Advice If you have recently travelled to a high-risk area - or if you've been in contact with somebody who has - and you develop symptoms, you should contact your doctor by telephone for advice You should not go to the doctor or to hospital, as if you have the virus, you may risk spreading it to others If you have recently travelled to Wuhan you should go in self-quarantine for 14 days and call  your doctor and/ or local authorities to report your recent stay Wag your hands often What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province          Coronavirus? How do you catch it? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. Coronavirus. How long does the virus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS Coronavirus: How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus COVID-19 Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan.   Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain.   Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2
Geoengineering, better known as climate intervention, is a topic that is subject to much debate and, unfortunately, controversy. Many feel that executing such initiatives would constitute ‘playing God’, something that we somehow tend to look at as something to be frowned upon.  Cooling Earth By Sun Dimming Yet would any deity, if given the choice, not opt for saving the planet so aptly created – if needed through drastic changes to the climate? I would think so. One of the most promising initiatives is looking to hit the dim button on our sun, by reflecting her rays back into space when they reach our atmosphere. What is geoengineering and how does it work? Geoengineering (literally "Earth-engineering") is the currently fashionable term for making large-scale interventions in how the planet works to slow down or reverse the effects of climate change. The first is to try to cool the planet by reducing the amount of incoming solar energy. The biggest problem with the sun is that it sends a whole lot of 'heat' (sunrays) in our direction. We can try to counter this by inserting some particles in our stratosphere that act like a sunscreen of sorts. These reflect the sun’s rays back into space, so that they do not reach the earth. The process through which sun dimming takes place is now being investigated, although it has already – accidentally – been tested in the real world.   {youtube}                                                      Geoengineering May Be the Answer to Climate Change   For instance, the eruption of volcano Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) caused some 20 million tones of sulfur dioxide to be spewed into the stratosphere. These finer particles somehow threw up a shield against the sun – a sun screen, if you wish – that resulted in global cooling. The world became about half a degree Celsius colder, which effectively brought us back to pre-Industrial Age times. Recommended:  Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Sun Dimming Effect: Turn Down The Thermostat So the idea of switching our earth’s thermostat from ‘automatic’ to ‘manual’ is nothing new. The whole concept of geoengineering has been floating around for several decades, having generated a massive amount of literature and laboratory studies. But also a massive amount of fear.   What are some examples of geoengineering? Examples of this approach include: spraying seawater thousands of metres into the air to seed the formation of stratocumulus clouds that will deflect sunlight; installing sun-shields or mirrors in space to reflect the sun; or injecting sun-blocking particulates into space. This particularly applies to sun dimming. Even Hollywood has taken notice and dedicated several blockbuster movies to the concept of messing with our climate, oftentimes with disastrous consequences. All of this has led to the inherent notion that manually adjusting our climate will disrupt that fragile balance of our ecosystems. Some fear that decreasing sunlight will disadvantage certain regions, that will be faced with sun-deprived crops or disadvantageous shifts in rain patterns. Others fear that it will become a political toy that will increase inequality. Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Recommended:  Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Or Global Warming By CO2? The time has now arrived to move past this stage of ‘what-iffing’ and start taking action. The reality is that the drastic consequences of global warming can no longer be avoided. We ought to do something equally drastic. This means either sucking enormous amounts of CO2 out of the air – or artificially adjusting our climate thermostat. Even better would be to start doing both. Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect: A Modest Test   Thankfully, scientists are now fast moving towards implementing sun dimming. Harvard scientists are looking to inject calcium carbonate in the stratosphere through balloons. Calcium carbonate is the basic ingredient found in products like cement, paper and cake – and could potentially be the ideal particle for reflecting sunlight. Cheap, clean, and highly effective. Harvard scientists will attempt to replicate the climate-cooling effect of volcanic eruptions  This project, that has been dubbed the Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment, will be the first real climate engineering project to be tested. Even though its scale is relatively small, its results could prove to be huge. Even though the scientists claim they are merely observing a chemical reaction, there are a lot of environmentalists closely following their every move. What are the benefits of geoengineering? Solar geoengineering could also reduce poleward shifts in species ranges, which has been posing serious risks to tropical fisheries. And it could lessen the amount of sea-ice loss, which could reduce the impacts on high-latitude ecosystems and climate, and help to limit changes in ocean circulation and glacier melt. After all, or so they say, focusing on climate engineering efforts could distract us from the actual problem – our CO2 emissions, that should be cut. Their argument seems valid. After all, it is always better to treat the disease rather than the symptoms. Yet at the same time, sometimes you can only start to administer medicines after ensuring that the patient is stable – achieving this by relieving dangerous symptoms. Nevertheless, the Harvard team is committed to keeping their experiment small to avoid most of this scrutiny, while it has installed an external advisory committee – and generally paying a lot of attention to decent oversight and accountability. Recommended:  Artificial Intelligence For Climate Change And Environment Sun Dimming: Joining Forces In order to make the experiment work, several parties have joined forces and are working on creating an ideal testing environment. The stratosphere in itself is a perfect working environment, as it is relatively easy for particles inserted here to spread all around the earth, providing a full cover. The key is to have them released in a strategic location and at strategic time intervals, to keep this cover up. Once again, this requires the expertise of many different scientists and experts. While some frown upon this lack of one clear expert on the topic, others celebrate the fact that it will truly result in a ‘melting of the minds’, making the experiment more reliable. Cooling Earth: An Eye On The Sky There have been several initiatives before that sought to somehow alter our climate. However, most of these have failed in the early stages of development, more often than not over bureaucratic and political hurdles. This makes Harvard’s SCoPEx project so remarkable, as it has managed to raise funding through philanthropists and angel investors, including Bill Gates. All systems are go, at this stage. This does not mean that everything is set up for success. There are still a lot of uncertainties, such as the size of the particles, the navigation of the balloon dispersing them, and finding a way of measuring the amount of calcium carbonate in the stratosphere so that its effect can be properly measured.   Sun Dimming: Up To The Stratosphere   The scientists running this project are finding solutions for these queries – often relying on external support and initiatives. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Colorado, USA has provided the Harvard team with an instrument that is able to measure the size and number of particles released. An important step forward, as this will allow the team on the ground to measure the effectiveness. Separate teams are working on the balloon and the spraying-system, projects that still involve a lot of uncertainties. The first launches will determine how far they are in combatting climate change through geoengineering.   Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect We should not be naive and assume that geoengineering is going to solve all of our problems. In fact, the drawbacks have been equally well-documented as the benefits. They might even cancel each other out. The dimming of sunlight could, for instance, result in lower agricultural yields. Additionally, it could cause droughts in other areas, which are equally bad for our agricultural industry. What is most likely to cause dimming? Aerosols have been found to be the major cause of global dimming. The burning of fossil fuels by industry and internal combustion engines emits by-products such as sulfur dioxide, soot, and ash. These together form particulate pollution—primarily called aerosols. Another pressing concern is that of the intellectual, physical and financial requirements for creating a balanced geoengineering system that will protect that earth as a whole. Who will pay for it all, who will be responsible? Who will secure it and how do we ensure that it does not benefit one nation over another? Will it be government-led or will it be an independent organization or enterprise running it? One thing is certain, geoengineering is a route that we should go down if we are to make a fist and fight climate change. While the benefits seem clear, the downsides are still purely theoretical and might not even apply. If we can only get the technology and the politics of it right, we would be stupid to ignore it. And yes, it may only be a short-term symptom reliever. But who would deny additional oxygen if we are suffering from lung failure? While it may not cure the actual disease, it may give us enough literal air to properly fight it. Before you go! Recommended:  Solar Farms In Space: Next Step In Renewable Energy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Geoengineering, better known as climate intervention, is a topic that is subject to much debate and, unfortunately, controversy. Many feel that executing such initiatives would constitute ‘playing God’, something that we somehow tend to look at as something to be frowned upon.  Cooling Earth By Sun Dimming Yet would any deity, if given the choice, not opt for saving the planet so aptly created – if needed through drastic changes to the climate? I would think so. One of the most promising initiatives is looking to hit the dim button on our sun, by reflecting her rays back into space when they reach our atmosphere. What is geoengineering and how does it work? Geoengineering (literally "Earth-engineering") is the currently fashionable term for making large-scale interventions in how the planet works to slow down or reverse the effects of climate change. The first is to try to cool the planet by reducing the amount of incoming solar energy. The biggest problem with the sun is that it sends a whole lot of 'heat' (sunrays) in our direction. We can try to counter this by inserting some particles in our stratosphere that act like a sunscreen of sorts. These reflect the sun’s rays back into space, so that they do not reach the earth. The process through which sun dimming takes place is now being investigated, although it has already – accidentally – been tested in the real world.   {youtube}                                                      Geoengineering May Be the Answer to Climate Change   For instance, the eruption of volcano Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) caused some 20 million tones of sulfur dioxide to be spewed into the stratosphere. These finer particles somehow threw up a shield against the sun – a sun screen, if you wish – that resulted in global cooling. The world became about half a degree Celsius colder, which effectively brought us back to pre-Industrial Age times. Recommended:  Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Sun Dimming Effect: Turn Down The Thermostat So the idea of switching our earth’s thermostat from ‘automatic’ to ‘manual’ is nothing new. The whole concept of geoengineering has been floating around for several decades, having generated a massive amount of literature and laboratory studies. But also a massive amount of fear.   What are some examples of geoengineering? Examples of this approach include: spraying seawater thousands of metres into the air to seed the formation of stratocumulus clouds that will deflect sunlight; installing sun-shields or mirrors in space to reflect the sun; or injecting sun-blocking particulates into space. This particularly applies to sun dimming. Even Hollywood has taken notice and dedicated several blockbuster movies to the concept of messing with our climate, oftentimes with disastrous consequences. All of this has led to the inherent notion that manually adjusting our climate will disrupt that fragile balance of our ecosystems. Some fear that decreasing sunlight will disadvantage certain regions, that will be faced with sun-deprived crops or disadvantageous shifts in rain patterns. Others fear that it will become a political toy that will increase inequality. Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Recommended:  Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Or Global Warming By CO2? The time has now arrived to move past this stage of ‘what-iffing’ and start taking action. The reality is that the drastic consequences of global warming can no longer be avoided. We ought to do something equally drastic. This means either sucking enormous amounts of CO2 out of the air – or artificially adjusting our climate thermostat. Even better would be to start doing both. Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect: A Modest Test   Thankfully, scientists are now fast moving towards implementing sun dimming. Harvard scientists are looking to inject calcium carbonate in the stratosphere through balloons. Calcium carbonate is the basic ingredient found in products like cement, paper and cake – and could potentially be the ideal particle for reflecting sunlight. Cheap, clean, and highly effective. Harvard scientists will attempt to replicate the climate-cooling effect of volcanic eruptions  This project, that has been dubbed the Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment, will be the first real climate engineering project to be tested. Even though its scale is relatively small, its results could prove to be huge. Even though the scientists claim they are merely observing a chemical reaction, there are a lot of environmentalists closely following their every move. What are the benefits of geoengineering? Solar geoengineering could also reduce poleward shifts in species ranges, which has been posing serious risks to tropical fisheries. And it could lessen the amount of sea-ice loss, which could reduce the impacts on high-latitude ecosystems and climate, and help to limit changes in ocean circulation and glacier melt. After all, or so they say, focusing on climate engineering efforts could distract us from the actual problem – our CO2 emissions, that should be cut. Their argument seems valid. After all, it is always better to treat the disease rather than the symptoms. Yet at the same time, sometimes you can only start to administer medicines after ensuring that the patient is stable – achieving this by relieving dangerous symptoms. Nevertheless, the Harvard team is committed to keeping their experiment small to avoid most of this scrutiny, while it has installed an external advisory committee – and generally paying a lot of attention to decent oversight and accountability. Recommended:  Artificial Intelligence For Climate Change And Environment Sun Dimming: Joining Forces In order to make the experiment work, several parties have joined forces and are working on creating an ideal testing environment. The stratosphere in itself is a perfect working environment, as it is relatively easy for particles inserted here to spread all around the earth, providing a full cover. The key is to have them released in a strategic location and at strategic time intervals, to keep this cover up. Once again, this requires the expertise of many different scientists and experts. While some frown upon this lack of one clear expert on the topic, others celebrate the fact that it will truly result in a ‘melting of the minds’, making the experiment more reliable. Cooling Earth: An Eye On The Sky There have been several initiatives before that sought to somehow alter our climate. However, most of these have failed in the early stages of development, more often than not over bureaucratic and political hurdles. This makes Harvard’s SCoPEx project so remarkable, as it has managed to raise funding through philanthropists and angel investors, including Bill Gates. All systems are go, at this stage. This does not mean that everything is set up for success. There are still a lot of uncertainties, such as the size of the particles, the navigation of the balloon dispersing them, and finding a way of measuring the amount of calcium carbonate in the stratosphere so that its effect can be properly measured.   Sun Dimming: Up To The Stratosphere   The scientists running this project are finding solutions for these queries – often relying on external support and initiatives. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Colorado, USA has provided the Harvard team with an instrument that is able to measure the size and number of particles released. An important step forward, as this will allow the team on the ground to measure the effectiveness. Separate teams are working on the balloon and the spraying-system, projects that still involve a lot of uncertainties. The first launches will determine how far they are in combatting climate change through geoengineering.   Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect We should not be naive and assume that geoengineering is going to solve all of our problems. In fact, the drawbacks have been equally well-documented as the benefits. They might even cancel each other out. The dimming of sunlight could, for instance, result in lower agricultural yields. Additionally, it could cause droughts in other areas, which are equally bad for our agricultural industry. What is most likely to cause dimming? Aerosols have been found to be the major cause of global dimming. The burning of fossil fuels by industry and internal combustion engines emits by-products such as sulfur dioxide, soot, and ash. These together form particulate pollution—primarily called aerosols. Another pressing concern is that of the intellectual, physical and financial requirements for creating a balanced geoengineering system that will protect that earth as a whole. Who will pay for it all, who will be responsible? Who will secure it and how do we ensure that it does not benefit one nation over another? Will it be government-led or will it be an independent organization or enterprise running it? One thing is certain, geoengineering is a route that we should go down if we are to make a fist and fight climate change. While the benefits seem clear, the downsides are still purely theoretical and might not even apply. If we can only get the technology and the politics of it right, we would be stupid to ignore it. And yes, it may only be a short-term symptom reliever. But who would deny additional oxygen if we are suffering from lung failure? While it may not cure the actual disease, it may give us enough literal air to properly fight it. Before you go! Recommended:  Solar Farms In Space: Next Step In Renewable Energy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2
Cooling Earth By A Sun Dimming Effect Or Warming By More CO2
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Nowadays, we are making the world worse. True or not? A study of the downfall of historical civilisations has shown that we face many risks currently. Historian Arnold Toynbee explains in his 12-volume 'A study of History’ that great civilisations take their own lives and not of others. But in fact, that is not the whole truth: other elements help with their self-destruction. The Roman Empire The Roman Empire, for example, did not only destruct itself, but due to poor leadership, damage to the environment and climate change, Rome was a victim. In 410 Rome was plundered by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. The Roman Empire contained 4.4 million square kilometres in 390. Five years later it had collapsed to 2 million square kilometres. By 476, the empire's range was practically nil. A repeating failure characterises our deep past. What can the rise and fall of historical civilisations tell us about ours? What are the forces that bring down or slow down a collapse? And do we see comparable patterns today? Recommended:  Siberia, Africa, Australia, Are Burning: What Caused It? Lifespan Of Civilisations At first, we need to look at past civilisations and compare their lifespan. This can be difficult. In this study, we look at agriculture, multiple cities, military dominance in its geographical region and a continuous political structure. You can say that all empires are civilisations, but not all cultures are empires. What is civilization? A civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. London, Great Brittain. The end of an empire.... Almost all past civilisations have dealt with a collapse. This meant a fast and prolonged loss of population, identity and socio-economic complexity. Public services fall apart, and disorder is created when the government loses its monopoly on violence. Some civilisations have recovered (the Chinese and Egyptians, for example), and other collapses were permanent (Easter Island, for example). In Rome, the destruction was revived. What can this tell us concerning the future of modern global civilisation? Is collapse a normal phenomenon for civilisations? {youtube}                                                 Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?                                                                          Will America Fall Like Rome? Maybe societies of the past and the present are simply complex systems made up of people and technology. Failing is part of life, so collapse can also be a regular phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage. We are more technologically advanced now, but that does not mean we can concur every unpredicted challenge. We are not immune to new technology. What is technology? It includes machines (like computers) but also techniques and processes (like the way we produce computer chips). It might seem like all technology is only electronic, but that's just most modern technology. In fact, a hammer and the wheel are two examples of early human technology. Society Collapse: What Can The Past Tell Us? While there is no one acceptable theory for the why of collapses, historians, anthropologists, and others have suggested various explanations, including: Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Society Collapse: Climate Change , when the climate's stability changes, the results can be catastrophic, resulting in crop failures, famine and desertification Environmental degradation . Collapse can occur when societies exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. This ecological collapse theory points to over-deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the loss of biodiversity as causes of precipitation. Oil pollution, China Society Collapse: Inequality and Oligarchy. Wealth and political disparity can be central drivers of social disruption, as well as aristocracy and centralisation of power among leaders. This not only causes social suffering but hampers a society's ability to respond to ecological, social and economic problems. For example, the population grows; this exceeds the demand for labour. Workers become cheaper; society becomes top-heavy. This inequality undermines collective solidarity, and political unrest follows. What is government oligarchy? Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. Protests in Paris Society Collapse: Complexity.  Joseph Tainter, a collapse expert and historian, says that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy. Another indicator of increasing complexity is called Energy Return on Investment (EROI). This refers to the proportion between the amount of energy produced by raw material and the energy needed to obtain it. Like complexity, EROI seems to have a point at which efficiency decreases. Society Collapse: External Shocks.  In other words, the 'four horsemen': war, natural disasters, starvation and plagues. The Aztec Empire, for example, was destroyed by Spanish invaders. Most of the early agricultural states were volatile due to deadly epidemics. The concentration of people and livestock in walled colonies with poor hygiene made disease outbreaks inevitable and disastrous. Disasters sometimes went hand in hand, as was the case with the Spanish introduction of salmonella into America. Society Collapse: Randomness & Bad Luck.  A statistical analysis of the empires suggests that the collapse is arbitrary and independent of age. Evolutionary biologist and data scientist Indre Zliobaite and her colleagues have observed a parallel pattern in the evolution of species. A simplified explanation for this apparent arbitrariness is the 'Red Queen Effect': if species are continually struggling to survive in a changing environment with numerous competitors, extinction is a consistent possibility. What is the Red Queen effect in evolution? The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. Society Collapse: Indicators Recommended:  Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Despite the overload of books and articles, we have no definitive explanation for the collapse of civilisations. What we do know is this: the factors mentioned above can all contribute. Stressors can overrun societal coping capacity, which can cause collapse. To examine a different kind of indicators of danger to see whether collapsing is rising or falling, we show you four possible metrics. These are measured over the past few decades: Temperature is a clear indicator of climate change Inequality is more complicated to calculate. The specific measurement of the Gini index suggests that inequality has reduced slightly worldwide (although it is increasing within countries). But the Gini index can be deceptive because it only measures relative changes in income The rich are becoming richer, which in the past has led to extra pressure on society. Studies show that the EROI for fossil fuels has declined steadily over time as the easiest to reach and most precious reserves are exhausted. Unfortunately, most of the renewable substitutes, such as solar energy, have a significantly lower EROI, mainly because of their energy density and the rare earth metals and production needed to produce them. Society Collapse: Measures Of Resilience The only positive thing is that collapses are not the entire picture. Social elasticity can slow down or prevent the collapse. The economic diversity is more significant than ever. We can cope more than ever, and we have more knowledge than ever. Especially, population groups with more experience may be better able to respond to crises when they occur. Also, the innovation of civilisation is rising. If we look at the collapse and elasticity indicators, we cannot be complacent. If we keep on innovate and diversify like this, we can be optimistic. Nevertheless, the world is deteriorating in areas that have contributed to the collapse of earlier societies. The climate is changing, the difference between rich and poor is growing, the world is becoming more and more complex, and our environmental demands exceed the carrying capacity of the planet. What does elasticity mean? Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. In business and economics, elasticity refers the degree to which individuals, consumers or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. Society Collapse: We May Fall Down Our weapons are more massive than it used to be (now: nuclear weapons and biological agents instead of arrows and swords). New tools of violence, such as deadly autonomous weapons, may be available in the near future. People are becoming exceptionally specialised and less involved in the manufacture of food and essential goods. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse And a changing climate can destroy our ability to return to simple farming practices. With the expansion of nuclear weapons, we may already have reached the point of civilized 'terminal speed'. Any collapse threatens to be permanent. A nuclear war can lead to an actual risk: either the disappearance of our species or a permanent slingshot, back to the Stone Age.  Climate change is a different kind of threat than what the Maya's dealt with. Now, they are global, quicker, more dangerous and human-driven. A collapse of our civilisation is not unavoidable. History indicates that it is possible, we have the rare advantage of being able to learn from the pieces of the wreckage of societies' past. We know what we have to do, what needs to be done. We need to reduce the emissions, inequalities must become equal, and we have to care more about the environment. Innovation should be stimulated, and we need more diversity in economics. The policy suggestions are there; only the political will is missing. We can invest in recovering better. There are already well-developed ideas to improve the capacity of food and knowledge systems to recover after a disaster. We have to listen to the past, to improve ourselves. Do not walk blindly into the future that will destroy us. Before you go! Recommended:  Economic Growth Is Dead: Welcome To The Circular Economy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your society?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Nowadays, we are making the world worse. True or not? A study of the downfall of historical civilisations has shown that we face many risks currently. Historian Arnold Toynbee explains in his 12-volume 'A study of History’ that great civilisations take their own lives and not of others. But in fact, that is not the whole truth: other elements help with their self-destruction. The Roman Empire The Roman Empire, for example, did not only destruct itself, but due to poor leadership, damage to the environment and climate change, Rome was a victim. In 410 Rome was plundered by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. The Roman Empire contained 4.4 million square kilometres in 390. Five years later it had collapsed to 2 million square kilometres. By 476, the empire's range was practically nil. A repeating failure characterises our deep past. What can the rise and fall of historical civilisations tell us about ours? What are the forces that bring down or slow down a collapse? And do we see comparable patterns today? Recommended:  Siberia, Africa, Australia, Are Burning: What Caused It? Lifespan Of Civilisations At first, we need to look at past civilisations and compare their lifespan. This can be difficult. In this study, we look at agriculture, multiple cities, military dominance in its geographical region and a continuous political structure. You can say that all empires are civilisations, but not all cultures are empires. What is civilization? A civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. London, Great Brittain. The end of an empire.... Almost all past civilisations have dealt with a collapse. This meant a fast and prolonged loss of population, identity and socio-economic complexity. Public services fall apart, and disorder is created when the government loses its monopoly on violence. Some civilisations have recovered (the Chinese and Egyptians, for example), and other collapses were permanent (Easter Island, for example). In Rome, the destruction was revived. What can this tell us concerning the future of modern global civilisation? Is collapse a normal phenomenon for civilisations? {youtube}                                                 Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?                                                                          Will America Fall Like Rome? Maybe societies of the past and the present are simply complex systems made up of people and technology. Failing is part of life, so collapse can also be a regular phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage. We are more technologically advanced now, but that does not mean we can concur every unpredicted challenge. We are not immune to new technology. What is technology? It includes machines (like computers) but also techniques and processes (like the way we produce computer chips). It might seem like all technology is only electronic, but that's just most modern technology. In fact, a hammer and the wheel are two examples of early human technology. Society Collapse: What Can The Past Tell Us? While there is no one acceptable theory for the why of collapses, historians, anthropologists, and others have suggested various explanations, including: Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Society Collapse: Climate Change , when the climate's stability changes, the results can be catastrophic, resulting in crop failures, famine and desertification Environmental degradation . Collapse can occur when societies exceed the carrying capacity of their environment. This ecological collapse theory points to over-deforestation, water pollution, soil degradation and the loss of biodiversity as causes of precipitation. Oil pollution, China Society Collapse: Inequality and Oligarchy. Wealth and political disparity can be central drivers of social disruption, as well as aristocracy and centralisation of power among leaders. This not only causes social suffering but hampers a society's ability to respond to ecological, social and economic problems. For example, the population grows; this exceeds the demand for labour. Workers become cheaper; society becomes top-heavy. This inequality undermines collective solidarity, and political unrest follows. What is government oligarchy? Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command') is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. Protests in Paris Society Collapse: Complexity.  Joseph Tainter, a collapse expert and historian, says that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy. Another indicator of increasing complexity is called Energy Return on Investment (EROI). This refers to the proportion between the amount of energy produced by raw material and the energy needed to obtain it. Like complexity, EROI seems to have a point at which efficiency decreases. Society Collapse: External Shocks.  In other words, the 'four horsemen': war, natural disasters, starvation and plagues. The Aztec Empire, for example, was destroyed by Spanish invaders. Most of the early agricultural states were volatile due to deadly epidemics. The concentration of people and livestock in walled colonies with poor hygiene made disease outbreaks inevitable and disastrous. Disasters sometimes went hand in hand, as was the case with the Spanish introduction of salmonella into America. Society Collapse: Randomness & Bad Luck.  A statistical analysis of the empires suggests that the collapse is arbitrary and independent of age. Evolutionary biologist and data scientist Indre Zliobaite and her colleagues have observed a parallel pattern in the evolution of species. A simplified explanation for this apparent arbitrariness is the 'Red Queen Effect': if species are continually struggling to survive in a changing environment with numerous competitors, extinction is a consistent possibility. What is the Red Queen effect in evolution? The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. Society Collapse: Indicators Recommended:  Is Neoliberalism Hurting Our Climate And The Paris Accord? Despite the overload of books and articles, we have no definitive explanation for the collapse of civilisations. What we do know is this: the factors mentioned above can all contribute. Stressors can overrun societal coping capacity, which can cause collapse. To examine a different kind of indicators of danger to see whether collapsing is rising or falling, we show you four possible metrics. These are measured over the past few decades: Temperature is a clear indicator of climate change Inequality is more complicated to calculate. The specific measurement of the Gini index suggests that inequality has reduced slightly worldwide (although it is increasing within countries). But the Gini index can be deceptive because it only measures relative changes in income The rich are becoming richer, which in the past has led to extra pressure on society. Studies show that the EROI for fossil fuels has declined steadily over time as the easiest to reach and most precious reserves are exhausted. Unfortunately, most of the renewable substitutes, such as solar energy, have a significantly lower EROI, mainly because of their energy density and the rare earth metals and production needed to produce them. Society Collapse: Measures Of Resilience The only positive thing is that collapses are not the entire picture. Social elasticity can slow down or prevent the collapse. The economic diversity is more significant than ever. We can cope more than ever, and we have more knowledge than ever. Especially, population groups with more experience may be better able to respond to crises when they occur. Also, the innovation of civilisation is rising. If we look at the collapse and elasticity indicators, we cannot be complacent. If we keep on innovate and diversify like this, we can be optimistic. Nevertheless, the world is deteriorating in areas that have contributed to the collapse of earlier societies. The climate is changing, the difference between rich and poor is growing, the world is becoming more and more complex, and our environmental demands exceed the carrying capacity of the planet. What does elasticity mean? Elasticity is a measure of a variable's sensitivity to a change in another variable. In business and economics, elasticity refers the degree to which individuals, consumers or producers change their demand or the amount supplied in response to price or income changes. Society Collapse: We May Fall Down Our weapons are more massive than it used to be (now: nuclear weapons and biological agents instead of arrows and swords). New tools of violence, such as deadly autonomous weapons, may be available in the near future. People are becoming exceptionally specialised and less involved in the manufacture of food and essential goods. Recommended:  Climate Change: Cause Of The Next Global Economic Collapse And a changing climate can destroy our ability to return to simple farming practices. With the expansion of nuclear weapons, we may already have reached the point of civilized 'terminal speed'. Any collapse threatens to be permanent. A nuclear war can lead to an actual risk: either the disappearance of our species or a permanent slingshot, back to the Stone Age.  Climate change is a different kind of threat than what the Maya's dealt with. Now, they are global, quicker, more dangerous and human-driven. A collapse of our civilisation is not unavoidable. History indicates that it is possible, we have the rare advantage of being able to learn from the pieces of the wreckage of societies' past. We know what we have to do, what needs to be done. We need to reduce the emissions, inequalities must become equal, and we have to care more about the environment. Innovation should be stimulated, and we need more diversity in economics. The policy suggestions are there; only the political will is missing. We can invest in recovering better. There are already well-developed ideas to improve the capacity of food and knowledge systems to recover after a disaster. We have to listen to the past, to improve ourselves. Do not walk blindly into the future that will destroy us. Before you go! Recommended:  Economic Growth Is Dead: Welcome To The Circular Economy Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your society?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?
Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed
In one of the smallest oceans of the world, methane is found. Researchers have measured high methane in the air and underwater in the Arctic Ocean. The so-called methane bubbles rise out of the mud beneath the surface of the water. Arctic Sea Cooks Methane Methane is a hydrocarbon and the main component of natural gas. This greenhouse gas is produced by bacteria and can be found on, for example, farms (The gas is formed by the bacteria in the cow's fore-stomachs when digesting food), oil fields,marshlands, and so it seems: in the arctic sea. We must add that methane is 20 times more powerful than carbon dioxide to raise the temperature in the air, which may cause a terrible effect on the climate. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Is methane gas harmful to humans? Methane gas is relatively non-toxic; it does not have an OSHA PEL Standard. Its health effects are associated with being a simple asphyxiant displacing oxygen in the lungs. Methane is extremely flammable and can explode at concentrations between 5% (lower explosive limit) and 15% (upper explosive limit). Thawing Permafrost Releases Methane Did you know that tons of methane are frozen in the permafrost mud and stored at the bottom of the ocean? When permafrost is getting warmer and thaws, methane will be released in the air. The Arctic Report Card 2019, a federal study, claims that thawing permafrost across the Arctic could lead to the release of an estimated 300-600 million tons of net carbon per year into the atmosphere. Why is methane gas bad? The main impact of methane is on a global scale, as a greenhouse gas. Although levels of methane in the environment are relatively low, its high ‘global warming potential’ (21 times that of carbon dioxide) ranks it amongst the worst of the greenhouse gases. This phenomenon is known to some people as a "methane bomb". They think that if and when this potent greenhouse gas is released, the atmosphere will warm up quickly. The heat will also release more methane. Carolyn Ruppel of the USGS (United States Geological Survey) thinks it probably will not happen overnight. {youtube}                                              Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed                                     Methane: The Arctic's hidden climate threat : Natalia Shakhova's latest paper Even if there would not be a 'methane bomb', we need to worry about the permafrost methane. There is so much methane available, and it can heat up quickly, it still could be a threat over a while. We need to decarbonize the air now before it is too late. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Ted Schuur wrote in the 2019 Arctic Report Card that at the bottom of the northern permafrost regions have a lot more organic carbon than we can find in the atmosphere right now. But this organic carbon soil is climate-sensitive, and because of global warming, this could turn quickly. What produces the most methane on Earth? Most methane emissions come, directly or indirectly, from humans. Some methane is natural it's released by decaying vegetation and by the bacteria in wetlands and swamps. But most sources of methane are of human origin livestock and farming, decay in landfills, leakage from the oil and gas industry. Anthropogenic Emissions Recent research has shown that greenhouse gases increase. This is partly due to natural sources, but also human activities. In another report, published in Nature, November 2019, you can read that in addition to methane, even large numbers of CO2 are being emitted, because of warming from northernmost polar soils. There will likely be more emissions in the future. And anthropogenic methane emissions do not even include the trillions of metric tons of permafrost methane liberated by global warming. We need to reduce the rate of methane to slow down global warming. The Netherlands is one of the countries that agreed in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The US, on the other hand, has not shown the determination to soften anything. What can you do to help a little? Choose green power Eat less meat Insulate your house  Do not waste food Leave your car at home and take the bike Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Stop, Store CO2, Add Phytoplankton By Whales? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about our oceans?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
In one of the smallest oceans of the world, methane is found. Researchers have measured high methane in the air and underwater in the Arctic Ocean. The so-called methane bubbles rise out of the mud beneath the surface of the water. Arctic Sea Cooks Methane Methane is a hydrocarbon and the main component of natural gas. This greenhouse gas is produced by bacteria and can be found on, for example, farms (The gas is formed by the bacteria in the cow's fore-stomachs when digesting food), oil fields,marshlands, and so it seems: in the arctic sea. We must add that methane is 20 times more powerful than carbon dioxide to raise the temperature in the air, which may cause a terrible effect on the climate. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Is methane gas harmful to humans? Methane gas is relatively non-toxic; it does not have an OSHA PEL Standard. Its health effects are associated with being a simple asphyxiant displacing oxygen in the lungs. Methane is extremely flammable and can explode at concentrations between 5% (lower explosive limit) and 15% (upper explosive limit). Thawing Permafrost Releases Methane Did you know that tons of methane are frozen in the permafrost mud and stored at the bottom of the ocean? When permafrost is getting warmer and thaws, methane will be released in the air. The Arctic Report Card 2019, a federal study, claims that thawing permafrost across the Arctic could lead to the release of an estimated 300-600 million tons of net carbon per year into the atmosphere. Why is methane gas bad? The main impact of methane is on a global scale, as a greenhouse gas. Although levels of methane in the environment are relatively low, its high ‘global warming potential’ (21 times that of carbon dioxide) ranks it amongst the worst of the greenhouse gases. This phenomenon is known to some people as a "methane bomb". They think that if and when this potent greenhouse gas is released, the atmosphere will warm up quickly. The heat will also release more methane. Carolyn Ruppel of the USGS (United States Geological Survey) thinks it probably will not happen overnight. {youtube}                                              Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed                                     Methane: The Arctic's hidden climate threat : Natalia Shakhova's latest paper Even if there would not be a 'methane bomb', we need to worry about the permafrost methane. There is so much methane available, and it can heat up quickly, it still could be a threat over a while. We need to decarbonize the air now before it is too late. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Ted Schuur wrote in the 2019 Arctic Report Card that at the bottom of the northern permafrost regions have a lot more organic carbon than we can find in the atmosphere right now. But this organic carbon soil is climate-sensitive, and because of global warming, this could turn quickly. What produces the most methane on Earth? Most methane emissions come, directly or indirectly, from humans. Some methane is natural it's released by decaying vegetation and by the bacteria in wetlands and swamps. But most sources of methane are of human origin livestock and farming, decay in landfills, leakage from the oil and gas industry. Anthropogenic Emissions Recent research has shown that greenhouse gases increase. This is partly due to natural sources, but also human activities. In another report, published in Nature, November 2019, you can read that in addition to methane, even large numbers of CO2 are being emitted, because of warming from northernmost polar soils. There will likely be more emissions in the future. And anthropogenic methane emissions do not even include the trillions of metric tons of permafrost methane liberated by global warming. We need to reduce the rate of methane to slow down global warming. The Netherlands is one of the countries that agreed in the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The US, on the other hand, has not shown the determination to soften anything. What can you do to help a little? Choose green power Eat less meat Insulate your house  Do not waste food Leave your car at home and take the bike Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Stop, Store CO2, Add Phytoplankton By Whales? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about our oceans?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed
Arctic Sea Cooks Methane. You Should Be Extremely Alarmed
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
Can nature itself be our leading example in solving climate issues? Yes: this artificial leaf might be one of the solutions for global warming. With new and low-cost technology where CO2 is converted into liquid fuel by sunlight, scientists of the University of Waterloo may be able to solve the enormous problem of rising greenhouse levels. A Breakthrough In Converting CO2 Into Liquid Scientists from the University of Waterloo claim that their artificial leaf can be a breakthrough in converting CO2 into liquid. The new technology can turn carbon dioxide into fuel, with Mother Earth as an inspiration. The artificial leaf mimics photosynthesis in nature, hence the invention’s name, ‘leaf’. With the help of a cheap red powder called cuprous oxide, CO2 can be converted into methanol and oxygen – and these substances are again converted into fuel. This cuprous oxide is found in abundance in nature. What is cuprous oxide? Curpous oxide, or red copper oxide or Cu2O, is a red coloured crystal of powder, and oxide of copper - and found in nature as cuprite. Fuel Efficiency Larger Than Natural Photosynthesis Oil buble abstract {youtube}                             Artificial Leaves Designed By Scientists Absorb More CO2 Than Natural Leaves                                                How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! The inexpensive technology can hopefully help in the fight against rising greenhouse gas levels. The research team of the University of Waterloo's motivation to develop this artificial leaf is to ‘reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, and hopefully reduce global warming and to provide sustainable energy.’  It seems to be working: lead researcher Yimin Wu said: "This technology has achieved the solar to fuel efficiency about 10 per cent. This is already larger than the natural photosynthesis (about one per cent)." Recommended: Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! What´s Next For The Artificial Leaf? How does photosynthesis work simple? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. It could take a while for the artificial leaf to be commercialised. Further research is needed to increase the amount of ethanol during the process before the technology is offered to industrial companies. In a partnership with industry companies, more efficient artificial leaves can be developed – but this can take up to a few years. Professor Wu says that oil, steel, and automotive companies will take advantage of the technology to help reduce their carbon emissions. On that note, he tells Independent: “I’m extremely excited about the potential of this discovery to change the game. Climate change is an urgent problem, and we can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also creating an alternative fuel.” Lead researcher Yimin Wu Before you go! Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about CO2 Absorbing Techniques? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Can nature itself be our leading example in solving climate issues? Yes: this artificial leaf might be one of the solutions for global warming. With new and low-cost technology where CO2 is converted into liquid fuel by sunlight, scientists of the University of Waterloo may be able to solve the enormous problem of rising greenhouse levels. A Breakthrough In Converting CO2 Into Liquid Scientists from the University of Waterloo claim that their artificial leaf can be a breakthrough in converting CO2 into liquid. The new technology can turn carbon dioxide into fuel, with Mother Earth as an inspiration. The artificial leaf mimics photosynthesis in nature, hence the invention’s name, ‘leaf’. With the help of a cheap red powder called cuprous oxide, CO2 can be converted into methanol and oxygen – and these substances are again converted into fuel. This cuprous oxide is found in abundance in nature. What is cuprous oxide? Curpous oxide, or red copper oxide or Cu2O, is a red coloured crystal of powder, and oxide of copper - and found in nature as cuprite. Fuel Efficiency Larger Than Natural Photosynthesis Oil buble abstract {youtube}                             Artificial Leaves Designed By Scientists Absorb More CO2 Than Natural Leaves                                                How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! The inexpensive technology can hopefully help in the fight against rising greenhouse gas levels. The research team of the University of Waterloo's motivation to develop this artificial leaf is to ‘reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, and hopefully reduce global warming and to provide sustainable energy.’  It seems to be working: lead researcher Yimin Wu said: "This technology has achieved the solar to fuel efficiency about 10 per cent. This is already larger than the natural photosynthesis (about one per cent)." Recommended: Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! What´s Next For The Artificial Leaf? How does photosynthesis work simple? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. It could take a while for the artificial leaf to be commercialised. Further research is needed to increase the amount of ethanol during the process before the technology is offered to industrial companies. In a partnership with industry companies, more efficient artificial leaves can be developed – but this can take up to a few years. Professor Wu says that oil, steel, and automotive companies will take advantage of the technology to help reduce their carbon emissions. On that note, he tells Independent: “I’m extremely excited about the potential of this discovery to change the game. Climate change is an urgent problem, and we can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also creating an alternative fuel.” Lead researcher Yimin Wu Before you go! Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about CO2 Absorbing Techniques? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing!
Climate

Climate change! Currently, the most discussed topic in the world. Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. Climate change can also result from ‘external forcing’ and include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Human activities can also influence our climate. Debates, posts and answers on (social) platforms about the role of humanity in the climate change process regularly lead to heated discussions

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