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Breaking News taal volcano  hazardous eruption feared  what is the future  | Breaking News

Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future?

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by: Scot Neuman
taal volcano  hazardous eruption feared  what is the future  | Breaking News

Taal volcano in the Philippines has begun spewing lava. A 'hazardous eruption' is possible 'within days'.

In just a span of three days, three volcanic eruptions had occurred in volcanoes found in the Japan, Mexico and the Philippines. In Japan, Mt. Shintake Erupted on Jan. 11, and Mexico’s Popocatepetl on January 9.

On Sunday, January 12, Taal Volcano became active and is feared to have a hazardous explosive eruption. Meanwhile, Rocks were spewed about 300 meters from the crater of Mount Shintake on the Kuhinoerabu Island in the Kagoshima Prefecture.

Japan’s Mount Shintake’s
Japan’s Mount Shintake’s alert level was raised to 3.

In Mexico, the active Popocatepetl Volcano sent 3 kilometers of smoke with moderate ash in the air.

In the Philippines, Taal Volcano’s activity had already been raised to alert level 4. The volcano showed hazardous and explosive eruption(s).

Popocatepetl Volcano

Mexico’s Popocatepetl Volcano, on the other hand, had authorities issue a yellow alert. The volcano showed signs of elevated unrest.

But, are the eruptions of these volcanoes connected? According to USGS, most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions do not happen randomly.

Instead, it occurs in specific areas, such as along plate boundaries. One such area is the circum-Pacific “Ring Of Fire” where the Pacific Plate meets several surrounding plates.

There are no reports yet that the eruptions are connected. But, all three of the recently erupted volcanoes lie within the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared

In the early hours of Monday, a weak flow of lava began seeping out of Taal volcano - located some 70km (45 miles) south of the capital Manila. It comes after it emitted a huge plume of ash, triggering the mass evacuation of 8,000 people from the area.

Taal Volcano

Taal is the Philippines' second most active volcano. Situated on an island in the middle of a lake, it is one of the world's smallest volcanoes and has recorded at least 34 eruptions in the past 450 years. Authorities in the surrounding province, Batangas, have declared a ‘state of calamity’, signifying major disruption.

Taal volcano outburst

"Taal volcano entered a period of intense unrest... that progressed into magmatic eruption at 02:49 to 04:28... this is characterised by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning," the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said in a statement.

Recommended: Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us?

But Phivolcs director Renato Solidum said that signs of a hazardous eruption, including ‘flows of ashes, rocks, gas at speeds of more than 60 kph horizontally’ had not yet occurred, according to CNN Philippines. Phivolcs has now raised the alert level from 3 to 4, out of a maximum of 5.


                                          Mass evacuation as Philippines’ Taal volcano spews lava and ash
                                           Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future?

Authorities have also warned of a possible ‘volcanic tsunami’, which can be trigged by falling debris after an eruption, pushing the water and generating waves.

Volcanic alert levels

  • 0 - Quiet
  • 1 - Some disturbance but no eruption soon
  • 2 - Low to moderate seismicity - could eventually lead to eruption
  • 3 - Relative high unrest - eruption possible within days or weeks, or it could die down
  • 4 - Intense unrest - hazardous eruption possible within days
  • 5 - Hazardous eruption - lava flowing or fountaining, ashfall, dangers to nearby communities

Source: Phivolcs

Taal vulcanoe, eruption cloud

Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Covered in ash'

On Sunday, 12-01-2020, the volcano emitted a giant plume of ash, with rumbling sounds and tremors also reported. A total of 75 earthquakes have occurred in the Taal region, with 32 of these earthquakes ranking 2 and higher on the earthquake intensity scale, said Phivolcs.

The Official United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said more than 450,000 people are estimated to live within the 14km danger zone of the Taal volcano. Ash fell on several areas nearby with residents advised to wear masks. One resident in metro Manila said shops had begun to run out of masks.

people, helmet, Taal volcano

"When I went to my car, I saw it was covered in ash. I hurriedly went to buy a mask from a drugstore but they had run out," Angel Bautista said. The government has warned retailers not to hike mask prices amid the surging demand.

Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Grey And Lifeless'

As we approached the Taal volcano area this morning we saw local residents shovelling thick wet ash from the roads. Pineapple groves, normally verdant and luscious, now looked grey and lifeless. In the distance Taal continued to billow ash and smoke miles into the sky. As the morning went on the ash clouds became darker.

The area around the Taal volcano has been cloaked in volcanic ash, which also forced the closure of Manila's international airport to shut down
The area around the Taal volcano has been cloaked in volcanic ash, which also forced the closure of Manila's international airport to shut down 

Police manning a 14km exclusion zone stopped people from travelling into the area close to the volcano, but there was a steady flow of cars and trucks moving out. On the back of one pick-up truck, I saw a large family with their treasured household possessions. They were moving in the direction of the Philippine capital Manila, where many people are choosing to stay with relatives.

The volcanic ash also forced Manila's international airport to suspend all flights on Sunday. Phivolcs had warned that the 'airborne ash and ballistic fragments from the eruption... posed hazards to aircrafts'.

Earthquakes and volcanic activity are not uncommon in the Philippines, which lies along the Ring of Fire - a zone of major seismic activity, which has one of the world's most active fault lines.

What is the ring of fire and where is it located?
The Ring of Fire is a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that result from subduction of oceanic plates beneath lighter continental plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located around the Pacific Ring of Fire because that the location of most of the Earth's subduction zones

Ring of fire graph

Taal Volcano: 'A Very Dangerous Volcano'

The active volcano is at the centre of the 230 sq km Lake Taal, formed by prehistoric eruptions. Taal is a 'complex volcano', which means it doesn't have one vent or cone but several eruption points that have changed over time. The head of Phivolcs calls Taal 'a volcano within a volcano' and says as such it is "very dangerous"

Taal has erupted in different ways more than 30 times in the past 500 years - most recently in 1977. A 1911 eruption killed about 1,500 people. A 1974 eruption lasted several months

Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future From Other Vulcanoes?

Get Ready for More Volcanic Eruptions as the Planet Warms

A new study shows that even relatively small-scale climatic changes affect volcanic activity. Scientists have found that climate change affects the frequency of eruptions. Now a new study shows even relatively minor climate variations may have such an influence. If they are right, today’s global warming could mean more and bigger volcanic eruptions in the future.

volcanic eruption

Throughout its history Earth has gone through periods of massive natural climate change such as entering and leaving ice ages. Scientists have noted volcanic eruptions tended to increase as glaciers melted. In a recent study published in Geology researchers looked at smaller-scale changes in glacial coverage to see if these incremental differences had any effect.

Volcanic eruption
These incredible, apocalyptic-looking photos, taken by Axel Sigurðarson, show the scenes that occurred during the eruptions in Iceland between August 29, 2014 and February 27, 2015.

The scientists focused on eruptions in Iceland about 5,500 to 4,500 years ago. During that period Earth’s climate cooled and glaciers grew, but there was no full-blown ice age. To reconstruct a timeline of volcanic activity, the researchers examined the Icelandic eruption record as well as a record of the ash that fell in Europe during those Icelandic eruptions, which ultimately settled into microscopic layers in the continent’s peat bogs and lakes, study author Graeme Swindles says. He and his colleagues matched these layers to specific Icelandic volcanoes then developed a detailed timeline of increases and decreases in eruptions.

When the scientists compared the volcanic record with glacial coverage, they found the number of eruptions indeed dropped significantly as the climate cooled and ice expanded. “There’s a big change in the record in the mid-Holocene (epoch), where we see no volcanic ash in Europe and very little in Iceland,” says Swindles, an associate professor of Earth system dynamics at the University of Leeds. “This seems to overlap with a time where there’s cold climate conditions, which would have favored glacial advance in Iceland.” He says his team observed an approximately 600-year lag between when glaciers advanced and volcanic activity diminished. “That’s because it takes a long time to grow ice masses,” he explains.

graph ice, volcano, artic

Recommended: Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA

The new study is “looking at maybe the smallest-magnitude climate change yet to show it has influence on volcanic activity,” says Ben Edwards, an associate professor of geology at Dickinson College. “To see this change in an interglacial period indicates that there’s an even more subtle relationship between climate change and volcanism” than scientists previously thought. Julie Schindlbeck, a volcanologist at Heidelberg University in Germany, says the work shows “maybe even small changes in ice volume can really affect volcanism.”

Although scientists do not fully understand why glaciers appear to weaken volcanic eruptions, they believe the mechanics may be fairly straightforward. When glaciers expand, all that ice puts immense pressure on Earth’s surface. “It can affect magma flow and the voids and gaps in the Earth where magma flows to the surface as well as how much magma the crust can actually hold,” Swindles says. When glaciers retreat, the pressure lifts and volcanic activity surges. “After glaciers are removed the surface pressure decreases, and the magmas more easily propagate to the surface and thus erupt,” Swindles wrote in an e-mail to Scientific American.

Recommended: CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters

This is exactly what he and his team found when they looked at what happened as Earth warmed up again and glaciers melted—they counted more eruptions. Again they saw a time lag, this time between ice melt and the rise in eruptions. But this gap was shorter. “It takes relatively less time to melt ice if the temperature goes up,” compared with growing ice when it gets colder, Swindles says. “So if you’re looking at a period of [warming and subsequent] volcanic flare-up, the lag might be a lot shorter.” He also notes that when volcanic eruptions occur during cooler, ice-covered times, they appear to be smaller in magnitude. As the climate warms, eruptions seem to get bigger.

Edwards notes Iceland’s unique geology makes it a very volcanically active compared with many other places, however—and also perhaps more vulnerable to the ice effect than other regions. “It’s probably a place that’s extra-sensitive to [glaciers growing and melting],” he says.

Volcanic eruption
Sarychev Volcano: This image of Sarychev Volcano in the early moments of an eruption was captured with a hand-held camera by an astronaut on NASA's International Space Station on June 12, 2009. Sarychev is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Islands of Japan

Whether this phenomenon will occur with modern-day climate change is not yet known. But Swindles says the glacier coverage changes his team studied are similar in magnitude to what Earth will likely experience due to human-influenced warming. “I think we can predict we’re probably going to see a lot more volcanic activity in areas of the world where glaciers and volcanoes interact,” he says, listing the U.S. Pacific Northwest, southern South America and even Antarctica. That, he says, is cause for grave concern—for businesses such as airlines as well as for general human and environmental health. “Volcanic ash and emissions can be deadly,” he says. “If not at least very damaging.”

Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Five Facts About The Mix Of Beauty And Terror: 

Lightning 

Large eruptions sometimes put on a stunning display of lightning strikes that illuminate the massive cloud of ash surrounding them. This has happened repeatedly above the Taal volcano and been captured in videos shared widely across social media. It is a relatively unusual and difficult to study phenomenon, so there is some scientific dispute about how and why it happens. One theory posits that particles bashed together in the chaos of the eruption create static electricity which eventually results in lightning. However, according to volcanologist and geologist, Indriati Retno Palupi, lightning can be created when ashes containing chemical elements react with gasses in the surrounding air.

Taal volcanic outburst lightning

Tsunamis 

A violent eruption could trigger a deadly rush of waves by displacing water with rising magma or an avalanche of debris, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs). In fact, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the US state of Washington produced a 780-foot (235-metre) tsunami, according to the International Tsunami Information Center. The wall of water was unleashed by the partial collapse of the volcano's flank and a fast-moving avalanche of debris.

Mount St. Helens outburst
Thirty years after Mount St. Helens blew its top, the peak is still the second most dangerous volcano in the United States

Million volcanoes? 

Around 1,500 potentially active volcanoes are present around the world, many of which are found on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire', where tectonic plates collide deep below the earth's surface. However, around 75 percent of volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater. Undersea eruptions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration say, are "a constant process that shapes the features of the ocean". Oregon State University geologists estimate there could be as many as a million of these "submarine volcanoes". 

Global cooling

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, about 100 kilometres (60 miles) northwest of Manila, was the Philippines' most powerful in recent years and killed more than 800 people. However, the eruption had worldwide impact. Nearly 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide were shot skyward by Pinatubo, which then drifted globally. "This gas cloud... caused global temperatures to drop temporarily (1991 through 1993) by about 1°F (0.5°C)," according to a US Geological Survey (USGS) account of the eruption. On top of the cooler temperatures, the gases and ash sent high in the sky by Pinatubo also caused "brilliant sunsets and sunrises", USGS said.  

Recommended: Global Warming By CO2 Or Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum

Indonesia's killer volcanoes

Indonesia is the world's most volcanic area. The Southeast Asian archipelago of more than 17,000 islands and islets - and nearly 130 active volcanoes - is situated on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. In 1816, Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa exploded in one of the most violent eruptions in recorded history.

Volcanic eruption
Mount Tambora changed the probability of the cold and wet European ‘year without a summer’ of 1816.

An estimated 12,000 people died, while a resulting famine killed another 80,000. The island of Krakatoa was practically wiped off the map in 1883 by a volcanic explosion so powerful that it was heard some 4,500 kilometres (2,800 miles) away. Around 36,000 people were killed in the eruption and the resulting tsunami. A new volcano emerged in 1928 on the same site. 

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Recommended: Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia

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Breaking News, as the world changes…

In our world, WhatsOrb refuses to turn away from the changes in our society and environment which succeeds each other at a rapid pace.

For WhatsOrb, publishing on the environment is a priority. We give reporting on climate, nature, waste, lifestyle and sustainable solutions the prominence it deserves.

At this turbulent time for ‘all’ species and our planet, we are determined to inform readers about threats, consequences and solutions based on facts, not on political prejudice or business interests.

WhatsOrb Breaking News will be published as soon as urgent events from around the world and startling sustainable innovations reach us.

If there is anything we should know and publish about, please send a note to: [email protected] or write your own story on: www.whatsorb.comthe only news site which gives you a ‘sustainable voice!’

Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future?

Taal volcano in the Philippines has begun spewing lava. A 'hazardous eruption' is possible 'within days'. In just a span of three days, three volcanic eruptions had occurred in volcanoes found in the Japan, Mexico and the Philippines. In Japan, Mt. Shintake Erupted on Jan. 11, and Mexico’s Popocatepetl on January 9. On Sunday, January 12, Taal Volcano became active and is feared to have a hazardous explosive eruption. Meanwhile, Rocks were spewed about 300 meters from the crater of Mount Shintake on the Kuhinoerabu Island in the Kagoshima Prefecture. Japan’s Mount Shintake’s alert level was raised to 3. In Mexico, the active Popocatepetl Volcano sent 3 kilometers of smoke with moderate ash in the air. In the Philippines, Taal Volcano’s activity had already been raised to alert level 4. The volcano showed hazardous and explosive eruption(s). Mexico’s Popocatepetl Volcano, on the other hand, had authorities issue a yellow alert. The volcano showed signs of elevated unrest. But, are the eruptions of these volcanoes connected? According to USGS, most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions do not happen randomly. Instead, it occurs in specific areas, such as along plate boundaries. One such area is the circum-Pacific “Ring Of Fire” where the Pacific Plate meets several surrounding plates. There are no reports yet that the eruptions are connected. But, all three of the recently erupted volcanoes lie within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared In the early hours of Monday, a weak flow of lava began seeping out of Taal volcano - located some 70km (45 miles) south of the capital Manila. It comes after it emitted a huge plume of ash, triggering the mass evacuation of 8,000 people from the area. Taal Volcano Taal is the Philippines' second most active volcano. Situated on an island in the middle of a lake, it is one of the world's smallest volcanoes and has recorded at least 34 eruptions in the past 450 years. Authorities in the surrounding province, Batangas, have declared a ‘state of calamity’, signifying major disruption. "Taal volcano entered a period of intense unrest... that progressed into magmatic eruption at 02:49 to 04:28... this is characterised by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning," the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said in a statement. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? But Phivolcs director Renato Solidum said that signs of a hazardous eruption, including ‘flows of ashes, rocks, gas at speeds of more than 60 kph horizontally’ had not yet occurred, according to CNN Philippines. Phivolcs has now raised the alert level from 3 to 4, out of a maximum of 5. {youtube}                                           Mass evacuation as Philippines’ Taal volcano spews lava and ash                                            Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Authorities have also warned of a possible ‘volcanic tsunami’, which can be trigged by falling debris after an eruption, pushing the water and generating waves. Volcanic alert levels 0 - Quiet 1 - Some disturbance but no eruption soon 2 - Low to moderate seismicity - could eventually lead to eruption 3 - Relative high unrest - eruption possible within days or weeks, or it could die down 4 - Intense unrest - hazardous eruption possible within days 5 - Hazardous eruption - lava flowing or fountaining, ashfall, dangers to nearby communities Source: Phivolcs Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Covered in ash' On Sunday, 12-01-2020, the volcano emitted a giant plume of ash, with rumbling sounds and tremors also reported. A total of 75 earthquakes have occurred in the Taal region, with 32 of these earthquakes ranking 2 and higher on the earthquake intensity scale, said Phivolcs. The Official United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said more than 450,000 people are estimated to live within the 14km danger zone of the Taal volcano. Ash fell on several areas nearby with residents advised to wear masks. One resident in metro Manila said shops had begun to run out of masks. "When I went to my car, I saw it was covered in ash. I hurriedly went to buy a mask from a drugstore but they had run out," Angel Bautista said. The government has warned retailers not to hike mask prices amid the surging demand. Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Grey And Lifeless' As we approached the Taal volcano area this morning we saw local residents shovelling thick wet ash from the roads. Pineapple groves, normally verdant and luscious, now looked grey and lifeless. In the distance Taal continued to billow ash and smoke miles into the sky. As the morning went on the ash clouds became darker. The area around the Taal volcano has been cloaked in volcanic ash, which also forced the closure of Manila's international airport to shut down  Police manning a 14km exclusion zone stopped people from travelling into the area close to the volcano, but there was a steady flow of cars and trucks moving out. On the back of one pick-up truck, I saw a large family with their treasured household possessions. They were moving in the direction of the Philippine capital Manila, where many people are choosing to stay with relatives. The volcanic ash also forced Manila's international airport to suspend all flights on Sunday. Phivolcs had warned that the 'airborne ash and ballistic fragments from the eruption... posed hazards to aircrafts'. Earthquakes and volcanic activity are not uncommon in the Philippines, which lies along the Ring of Fire - a zone of major seismic activity, which has one of the world's most active fault lines. What is the ring of fire and where is it located? The Ring of Fire is a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that result from subduction of oceanic plates beneath lighter continental plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located around the Pacific Ring of Fire because that the location of most of the Earth's subduction zones Taal Volcano: 'A Very Dangerous Volcano' The active volcano is at the centre of the 230 sq km Lake Taal, formed by prehistoric eruptions. Taal is a 'complex volcano', which means it doesn't have one vent or cone but several eruption points that have changed over time. The head of Phivolcs calls Taal 'a volcano within a volcano' and says as such it is "very dangerous" Taal has erupted in different ways more than 30 times in the past 500 years - most recently in 1977. A 1911 eruption killed about 1,500 people. A 1974 eruption lasted several months Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future From Other Vulcanoes? Get Ready for More Volcanic Eruptions as the Planet Warms A new study shows that even relatively small-scale climatic changes affect volcanic activity. Scientists have found that climate change affects the frequency of eruptions. Now a new study shows even relatively minor climate variations may have such an influence. If they are right, today’s global warming could mean more and bigger volcanic eruptions in the future. Throughout its history Earth has gone through periods of massive natural climate change such as entering and leaving ice ages. Scientists have noted volcanic eruptions tended to increase as glaciers melted. In a recent study published in Geology researchers looked at smaller-scale changes in glacial coverage to see if these incremental differences had any effect. These incredible, apocalyptic-looking photos, taken by Axel Sigurðarson, show the scenes that occurred during the eruptions in Iceland between August 29, 2014 and February 27, 2015. The scientists focused on eruptions in Iceland about 5,500 to 4,500 years ago. During that period Earth’s climate cooled and glaciers grew, but there was no full-blown ice age. To reconstruct a timeline of volcanic activity, the researchers examined the Icelandic eruption record as well as a record of the ash that fell in Europe during those Icelandic eruptions, which ultimately settled into microscopic layers in the continent’s peat bogs and lakes, study author Graeme Swindles says. He and his colleagues matched these layers to specific Icelandic volcanoes then developed a detailed timeline of increases and decreases in eruptions. When the scientists compared the volcanic record with glacial coverage, they found the number of eruptions indeed dropped significantly as the climate cooled and ice expanded. “There’s a big change in the record in the mid-Holocene (epoch), where we see no volcanic ash in Europe and very little in Iceland,” says Swindles, an associate professor of Earth system dynamics at the University of Leeds. “This seems to overlap with a time where there’s cold climate conditions, which would have favored glacial advance in Iceland.” He says his team observed an approximately 600-year lag between when glaciers advanced and volcanic activity diminished. “That’s because it takes a long time to grow ice masses,” he explains. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA The new study is “looking at maybe the smallest-magnitude climate change yet to show it has influence on volcanic activity,” says Ben Edwards, an associate professor of geology at Dickinson College. “To see this change in an interglacial period indicates that there’s an even more subtle relationship between climate change and volcanism” than scientists previously thought. Julie Schindlbeck, a volcanologist at Heidelberg University in Germany, says the work shows “maybe even small changes in ice volume can really affect volcanism.” Although scientists do not fully understand why glaciers appear to weaken volcanic eruptions, they believe the mechanics may be fairly straightforward. When glaciers expand, all that ice puts immense pressure on Earth’s surface. “It can affect magma flow and the voids and gaps in the Earth where magma flows to the surface as well as how much magma the crust can actually hold,” Swindles says. When glaciers retreat, the pressure lifts and volcanic activity surges. “After glaciers are removed the surface pressure decreases, and the magmas more easily propagate to the surface and thus erupt,” Swindles wrote in an e-mail to Scientific American. Recommended:  CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters This is exactly what he and his team found when they looked at what happened as Earth warmed up again and glaciers melted—they counted more eruptions. Again they saw a time lag, this time between ice melt and the rise in eruptions. But this gap was shorter. “It takes relatively less time to melt ice if the temperature goes up,” compared with growing ice when it gets colder, Swindles says. “So if you’re looking at a period of [warming and subsequent] volcanic flare-up, the lag might be a lot shorter.” He also notes that when volcanic eruptions occur during cooler, ice-covered times, they appear to be smaller in magnitude. As the climate warms, eruptions seem to get bigger. Edwards notes Iceland’s unique geology makes it a very volcanically active compared with many other places, however—and also perhaps more vulnerable to the ice effect than other regions. “It’s probably a place that’s extra-sensitive to [glaciers growing and melting],” he says. Sarychev Volcano: This image of Sarychev Volcano in the early moments of an eruption was captured with a hand-held camera by an astronaut on NASA's International Space Station on June 12, 2009. Sarychev is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Islands of Japan Whether this phenomenon will occur with modern-day climate change is not yet known. But Swindles says the glacier coverage changes his team studied are similar in magnitude to what Earth will likely experience due to human-influenced warming. “I think we can predict we’re probably going to see a lot more volcanic activity in areas of the world where glaciers and volcanoes interact,” he says, listing the U.S. Pacific Northwest, southern South America and even Antarctica. That, he says, is cause for grave concern—for businesses such as airlines as well as for general human and environmental health. “Volcanic ash and emissions can be deadly,” he says. “If not at least very damaging.” Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Five Facts About The Mix Of Beauty And Terror:  Lightning  Large eruptions sometimes put on a stunning display of lightning strikes that illuminate the massive cloud of ash surrounding them. This has happened repeatedly above the Taal volcano and been captured in videos shared widely across social media. It is a relatively unusual and difficult to study phenomenon, so there is some scientific dispute about how and why it happens. One theory posits that particles bashed together in the chaos of the eruption create static electricity which eventually results in lightning. However, according to volcanologist and geologist, Indriati Retno Palupi, lightning can be created when ashes containing chemical elements react with gasses in the surrounding air. Tsunamis  A violent eruption could trigger a deadly rush of waves by displacing water with rising magma or an avalanche of debris, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs). In fact, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the US state of Washington produced a 780-foot (235-metre) tsunami, according to the International Tsunami Information Center. The wall of water was unleashed by the partial collapse of the volcano's flank and a fast-moving avalanche of debris. Thirty years after Mount St. Helens blew its top, the peak is still the second most dangerous volcano in the United States Million volcanoes?  Around 1,500 potentially active volcanoes are present around the world, many of which are found on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire', where tectonic plates collide deep below the earth's surface. However, around 75 percent of volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater. Undersea eruptions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration say, are "a constant process that shapes the features of the ocean". Oregon State University geologists estimate there could be as many as a million of these "submarine volcanoes".  Global cooling The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, about 100 kilometres (60 miles) northwest of Manila, was the Philippines' most powerful in recent years and killed more than 800 people. However, the eruption had worldwide impact. Nearly 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide were shot skyward by Pinatubo, which then drifted globally. "This gas cloud... caused global temperatures to drop temporarily (1991 through 1993) by about 1°F (0.5°C)," according to a US Geological Survey (USGS) account of the eruption. On top of the cooler temperatures, the gases and ash sent high in the sky by Pinatubo also caused "brilliant sunsets and sunrises", USGS said.   Recommended:  Global Warming By CO2 Or Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Indonesia's killer volcanoes Indonesia is the world's most volcanic area. The Southeast Asian archipelago of more than 17,000 islands and islets - and nearly 130 active volcanoes - is situated on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. In 1816, Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa exploded in one of the most violent eruptions in recorded history. Mount Tambora changed the probability of the cold and wet European ‘year without a summer’ of 1816. An estimated 12,000 people died, while a resulting famine killed another 80,000. The island of Krakatoa was practically wiped off the map in 1883 by a volcanic explosion so powerful that it was heard some 4,500 kilometres (2,800 miles) away. Around 36,000 people were killed in the eruption and the resulting tsunami. A new volcano emerged in 1928 on the same site.  Before you go! Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your vulcanoss?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
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