Close Welcome writers, influencers and dreamers, make the world a greener place
Register here
Forgot password
Forgot password
or
or

Close
Close Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
Close Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
Close Reset password
your profile is 33% complete:
33%
Update profile Close
Close WhatsOrb Global Sustainability X-Change

For writers, influencers and dreamers who want to make the world a greener place.

WhatsOrb reaches monthly about 28.000 thousand visitors who want - like you - to make the world a greener place. Share your expertise and all can benefit.

Become an influencer and write and share sustainable news and innovations globally
Are you a writer or do you have ideas about sustainability which you want to share? Register and share your green knowledge and news. WhatsOrb offers you global exposure for your article.

If your article meets certain standards, you receive promotional gains like Facebook promotions and Google Ads advertising.

Community inequality and over exploitation  people matter | Upload Society

Inequality And Over-Exploitation: People Matter

by: Joris Zuid
inequality and over exploitation  people matter | Upload

The recent wave of Black Lives Matter protests against police brutality is not only to highlight the gaping economic inequality between white and Black Americans but the way people worldwide get treated. All people matter, nature matters, it's all we have!

Inequality And Over-Exploitation Of Natural Resources

We are currently experiencing the worst environmental crisis in human history, including a 'biological annihilation' of wildlife and dire risks for the future of human civilization. The scale of ecological devastation has increased drastically in recent years. Mostly to blame are anthropogenic, or human-generated factors, including the still rising inequality, plastic pollution of our oceans, the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil, and overexploitation of all that nature has to offer.

boy standing in rubbish
Other industries like gem and mineral mining also destroy the world’s ecological sustainability, leading to deforestation and the destruction of natural habitats. Much of this traumatic exploitation of natural resources traces its origins to early colonialism, the exploitation of humans.

Recommended: Coronavirus: What A Blessing For The Planet. Provocative?

Inequality And Over-Exploitation Of Black Americans

below you can find 12 charts that show how Black Americans face alarming economic inequality and suggest it could worsen due to the coronavirus pandemic or COVID-19. The recent wave of Black Lives Matter protests against police brutality is also serving to highlight gaping economic inequality between white and Black Americans.

These gaps have served to stagnate the financial wellbeing of Black people for generations, experts say. Racism generates exclusion, discrimination, oppression, exploitation in several ways. Twelve charts show racial disparities in unemployment rates, household wealth, earnings, and other economic indicators.

Inequality: The Coronaviris, COVID-19 

In recent weeks, protests against police brutality have swept American cities large and small. They come in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic that killed Black people at disproportionately higher rates. But the wave of Black Lives Matter demonstrations is also shedding renewed light on the persistent inequality between whites and Blacks that has formed a cornerstone of American life for generations.


                                                              How Can We Win? Kimberly Jones

On Saturday, May 30th filmmaker and photographer David Jones of David Jones Media felt compelled to go out and serve the community in some way. He decided to use his art to try and explain the events that were currently impacting our lives. On day two, Sunday the 31st, he activated his dear friend, author Kimberly Jones to tag along and conduct interviews. During a moment of downtime, he captured these powerful words from her and felt the world couldn’t wait for the full-length documentary; they needed to hear them now.

Black Americans have borne the brunt of the economic fallout of the coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic, losing jobs at a faster pace compared to whites. Experts say these gaps have served to stagnate the finances and reduce the financial security of Black people, setting back their chances for upward mobility and, as a result, a fair shot at prosperity.

Valerie Wilson, the director of the left-leaning Economic Policy Institute’s program on race, ethnicity, and the economy says the existence of racism erects systemic barriers within the marketplace that harm the financial wellbeing of Black people. Racism generates exclusion, discrimination, oppression, exploitation in several ways. It’s not just physical violence.

The coronavirus, COVID-19 pandemic, could further accelerate inequality between white and Black Americans.

As a group, Black Americans are significantly less likely to have wealth and savings to fall back on after a job loss. And they often lose work early on when the economy craters, which has prompted economists to characterize the issue as ‘first fired, last hired.’ As an example, we take 12 charts that illustrate the alarming inequality between whites and Black in Americans across the economy.

The unemployment rate for Black Americans spiked at a higher price compared to white Americans.

unemployment rates black Americans graph

The chart above illustrates the percentage of unemployed workers in the labor force for whites and Blacks. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Black unemployment rate stands at 16.8% as of May, ticking upward from the previous month and rivaling its peak during the Great Recession. In comparison, the white unemployment rate is at 12.4%, a drop from 14.2% back in April. The trend suggests Black workers are encountering barriers trying to jump back into the workforce.

“It’s the same story,” said Olugbenga Ajilore, senior economist at the Center for American Progress. “Going into a recession, African Americans are the first ones to lose their jobs, and then when we have a recovery, they’re the last ones to gain.”

The white unemployment rate has usually been around half the Black unemployment rate since the 1970s, the earliest period with available data, Madison Hoff and Andy Kiersz reported.

Just less than half of all Black adults are currently employed in the US.

employment-population ratio by race/ethnicity graph

Inequality Even During The Record Economic Expansion 

Before the onset of the pandemic, nearly 60% of Black adults were working. But the outbreak ravaged the low-paid, close-contact service sector, and now just less than half of Black people are employed. Many, though, already had fragile financial situations even during the record economic expansion, compounding inequality.

Data from the Economic Policy Institute indicates Black households had $8,762 cash on hand on average – starkly lower than the $49,529 that white families had amassed on average. Low-income workers have experienced the worst of the economic fallout. The pandemic is falling on those least able to bear its burdens. It is a great increaser of inequality. It is low-paid workers in the service industries who are bearing the brunt of this; it is also women to an extraordinary degree.

The household wealth of white Americans is 17x higher than that of Black Americans.

Household wealth of white an black Americans

Another stark indicator of the inequality between Black and white Americans is the massive gap in household wealth, as illustrated above. For Black Americans, household wealth has barely budged in three decades and is estimated to be around $6 trillion. Meanwhile, white households have stockpiled over $102 trillion in wealth.

Wealth is traditionally accumulated through homeownership, stocks, high wages, or other means. But Black Americans lack easy access to these levers of prosperity, and it’s a hurdle to building wealth over generations.

The per-capita income of Black Americans is much lower compared to white Americans.

Per-capita income of black and white Americans graph

Per-capita income measures the amount each person earns in a particular city or region. Black Americans earn around $24,700 each year, a significantly lower amount when compared to whites, which around $42,700 annually on average. The trend illustrated above indicates that Black people consistently earn less than whites.

Some experts say that’s the product of their concentration in the service industries. Still, others point out that Blacks are underrepresented in the upper rungs of the nation’s corporate life – as well as many other high-paying jobs in the health and information sectors.
Mary Daly, president of the San Francisco Fed, said in an analysis that traditional economic models couldn’t explain the gap in earnings. This implies that factors that are harder to measure-such as discrimination, differences in school quality, or variations in career opportunities, are likely to be playing a role in the persistence and widening of these gaps over time.

Black women draw around two-thirds the average earnings of a white man.

Black woman's annual earnings vs other races graph

When it comes to wages, Black women make 66% the average earnings of white men, who earn around $55,600 annually on average. That means that Black women make roughly $36,700 each year, on average, earning more than Hispanic women but less than both white and Asian women. Experts say that Black women, whether two different types of bias, along the lines of gender and race.

“Intersectional discrimination perpetuates the racial and gender wealth gaps, limits Black women’s access to educational opportunities, and impedes their career advancement,” the American Association of University Women, a non-profit organization, said in an analysis.

Put another way; a Black woman has to work 226 additional days to earn the average salary of a white man.

number of days woman have to work into the next year to earn as much as white men

That gender pay gap also indicates that Black women have to work an additional 226 days into the next year to earn the same amount as a white man. Only a Hispanic woman has to work more than a Black woman – 307 additional days.

White women must work just over three months to break even. In 25 states with the most significant shares of Black women working full-time in the labor force, their pay ranges from 47 to 67 cents for each dollar paid to white men, according to the National Partnership for Women and Families.

Black workers are more likely to work in high-risk jobs deemed essential during the pandemic, whether that’s in healthcare, a grocery store, or public transit.

Black workers as a share of all workers

Jobs ruled to be essential were held by a significant share of Black Americans. Much of this work can’t be done from home, which increases the health risks for essential workers throughout the coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic. While Black workers make up one in nine workers (11.9%) in the labor force overall, they account for one of every six frontline industry workers, or 17%, according to an Economic Policy Institute analysis. Democrats have called to provide hazard pay to essential workers such as grocery stores and health employees since many earn low wages and risk their health by merely showing up for work.

Black people have been hospitalized at nearly twice their share of the population.

coronavirus, COVID-19 hospitalizations by race

The chart above illustrates that Black Americans were disproportionately hospitalized by the coronavirus at a rate twice their share of the population. Among the factors, experts have highlighted to explain the trend are underlying health conditions that put Blacks at higher risk from COVID-19 – the respiratory illness caused by the coronavirus – such as hypertension, diabetes, and asthma.

Many also lack access to quality medical care, which can lead to fewer visits to the doctor’s office and regular check-ups that could detect coronavirus symptoms in patients.

Black adults are uninsured at the double the rate of white adults.

Lack of health insurance coverage by race graph

Black people are uninsured at nearly twice the rate of whites, as shown above. Roughly 10.7% of Blacks do not have health insurance compared to 5.4% of whites. Lacking health insurance is often connected to the decision to delay seeking healthcare barring one’s turn for the worst.

During the pandemic, experts say this threatened to create another systemic barrier and inequality that put Black Americans at higher risk from the coronavirus or COVID-19.

home ownership rate by race graph

The Black homeownership rate stands at 44%, while white homeownership levels are nearly 74% – a 30-percentage-point gap. The level of Black families owning a home is little changed from the 1960s. Homeownership generally provides families with a means to accumulate wealth over many years – as long as the economy is in a healthy state.

The Great Recession prompted a dip in the number of Black homeowners. But experts say reasons for the disparity vary for other reasons as well, such as a lack of affordable housing and an increasing amount of debt among young buyers. Each Black-owned home, though, is also systematically devalued by the housing market by at least $48,000 on average, per research from the Brookings Institution, another factor that hobbles wealth accumulation.

Black people are the likeliest of any racial group in the US to have their application for a home loan rejected.

Denial for home loan applications by race

Black adults experience the highest rate of denied home loan applications at 18.4%, which contributes to lower homeownership rates. By comparison, it’s 8.8% for whites. The data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau found lenders cited debt-to-income ratio as well as credit histories when rejecting applicants.

However, the analysis also found that Black borrowers were more likely to be charged higher interest rates or ‘higher-priced’ as defined by the government, even when they were able to secure a loan, which is another form of creating inequality.

One in five Black Americans lives below the poverty line — or around $26,000 for a family of four.

Real median household income vs. overall poverty rate by race graph

A significant gap in median household income means that Black Americans fall into poverty at more than double the rate of whites. The Census Bureau reported that roughly 20% of Black Americans live in poverty – or under $26,000 for a family of four.

The significant gaps of income and, therefore, inequality also help to explain why it’s proven extremely difficult for many Black people to build a sizable financial cushion to weather recessions such as the one triggered by the coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic.

Overexploiting Of Natural Resources: Little Consideration For Long-Term Impacts

Colonialists saw 'new' territories as places with unlimited resources to exploit, with little consideration for the long-term impacts. They used what they considered to be an 'unending frontier' at the service of early modern state-making and capitalist development.
To understand our current ecological catastrophe, described as 'a world of worsening food shortages and wildfires, and a mass die-off of coral reefs as soon as 2040', we need to look at the role of colonialism, inequality at its roots. This exploration is not a debate over whether colonialism and the caused inequality was 'good' or 'bad.' Instead, it is about understanding how this global process helped create the world we currently inhabit.

Recommended: World Environment Day: Natural Capital Is Currently Looted

Overexploiting: Clear-Cutting Rainforests For Industrial Rubber

Since the 15th century, the Indian Ocean has been the site of global trade. Colonialism built upon local economic systems but also profoundly built up and shaped many of the massive industries and processes that are currently at play in the region, causing enormous inequality.
For example, British colonialists transformed the Malay peninsula into a plantation economy to meet the needs of industrial Britain and America. This included the expanding demand for cheap rubber during the industrial revolution.
Exploitative colonial policies in Singapore and the peninsula limited the economic options of poor Malays, Indians, and Chinese. These workers were increasingly forced to clear vast cut swathes of rainforest to carve out a living for themselves at the expense of local ecosystems.

Deforestation, palmoil plantation

Deforestation for palm oil plantations

Meanwhile, more than half a century after the end of colonial rule in the Malay peninsula, the over-exploitation of local resources through extensive logging continues apace. Once numerous, Malayan tigers are now classified as a critically endangered species due, in part, to habitat loss from logging and road development.
Deforestation in Malaysian Borneo also continues to accelerate, mainly due to the ongoing global demand for palm oil and lumber.

Overexploiting Of Natural Resources: Exporting For Global Markets

In Myanmar (formerly Burma), trade-in raw commodities go back centuries. Under colonial rule, the export of minerals, timber, and opium expanded enormously, placing unprecedented strain on local resources.

Recommended: Hurting The Environment: The Palm Oil Paradox

The integration of regions north of the Irrawaddy River basin into the Burmese colonial state drastically increased economic integration between upland areas rich in natural resources and more significant flows of European and Chinese capital.
Today, despite generating billions of dollars in revenue, these regions are some of the poorest in the country and are home to widespread human rights abuses and environmental disasters.

Irrawaddy river Myanmanr, Bitrma, water, people swimming, boats
Photo by: Marion Sabrié. Save the Irrawaddy!

Recommended: Climate Change, The Environment, Having Children: Mad Max

Earth Day: Colonialism: Extracting Africa’s Gemstones And Minerals

The human cost of the diamond trade in West and South Africa is relatively well-known. Less known are the devastating effects on Africa’s environment that the stripping of natural resources such as diamonds, ivory, bauxite, oil, timber, and minerals has produced. This mining serves as global demand for these minerals and gems.
The intensive mining operations required to deliver diamonds and other precious stones or minerals to world markets degrade the land, reduces air quality, and pollutes local water sources. The result is an overall loss of biodiversity and significant environmental impacts on human health.
From 1867 to 1871, exploratory digging along the Vaal, Harts, and Orange rivers in South Africa prompted a large-scale diamond rush that saw a massive influx of miners and speculators poured into the region in search of riches. By 1888, the diamond industry in South Africa had transformed into a monopoly, with De Beers Consolidated Mines becoming the sole producer.

Around the same time, miners in nearby Witwatersrand discovered the world’s largest goldfields, fuelling the spread of lucrative new mining industries. As European powers carved up the continent in the so-called “scramble for Africa” during the late 19th century, commercial exports came to replace slavery as the primary economic motivation for direct colonial occupation.
New transportation technologies and economic growth fuelled by the industrial revolution created a global demand for African exports, including gemstones and minerals that required extensive mining operations to extract.
From 1930 to 1961, the diamond industry in Sierra Leone played a crucial role in shaping and defining colonial governmental strategies and scientific expertise throughout the region.
Nearby Liberia was never formally colonized and was established as a homeland for freed African-American slaves. But American slaveholders and politicians saw the republic primarily as a solution to limit the “corrupting influence” of freed slaves on American society.
To “help” Liberia get out of debt to Britain, the U.S.-based Firestone Tire and Rubber Company extended a $5-million loan in 1926 in exchange for a 99-year lease on a million acres of land to be used for rubber plantations. This loan was the beginning of direct economic control over Liberian affairs.

Colonialism: Unequal Power Relations

A report suggests that Africa is on the verge of a recent mining boom driven by demand in North America, India, and China that will only worsen existing ecological crises. Consumer demand for minerals such as tantalum, a key component for the production of electronics, lies at the heart of current mining operations.
Our understanding of colonialism is often limited to simple ideas about what we think colonialism looked like in the past. These ideas impede our ability to identify the complex ways that colonialism shaped and continues to develop the uneven power structures of the 21st century, as anthropologist and historian Ann Laura Stoler argue in her book, Duress.
Unequal power relations between and within developed and developing countries continue to define the causes and consequences of climate change. A clearer understanding of where these problems came from is a necessary first step towards solving them.
People in prosperous countries are often unaware that the garbage they throw out every day usually gets shipped around the world to become somebody else’s problem.
While people debate whether climate change should be taken seriously from the comfort of their air-conditioned homes, hundreds of thousands of people are already suffering the consequences.

Part of this article was originally published on The Conversation, an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis, and commentary from academic experts and the BusinessInsider. All graphs by the BusinessInsider.

By: Joseph McQuade. Cover photo by Daniel Berehulak (Tech companies says it's too hard to investigate whether they benefit from child labor)

Recommended: Electric Cars: Truly Green Or A New Kind Of Liability?

Did you find this an interesting article, or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day.

Like to write your article about inequality?
Click on 'Register' or push the button 'Write An Article' on the 'HomePage.'

Messange
You
Share this post

I'm especially interested in new Hydrogen techniques. I'm convinced that - in the near future - Hydrogen will surpass the development of solar or wind as alternative energy source. Safety concerns will find a solution and Hydrogen will be applied massively in all forms of transportation. 

I'm especially interested in new Hydrogen techniques. I'm convinced that - in the near future - Hydrogen will surpass the development of solar or wind as alternative energy source. Safety concerns will find a solution and Hydrogen will be applied massively in all forms of transportation. 

Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
SIGN UP FOR MONTHLY TIPS & TRICKS
More like this:

Inequality And Over-Exploitation: People Matter

The recent wave of Black Lives Matter protests against police brutality is not only to highlight the gaping economic inequality between white and Black Americans but the way people worldwide get treated. All people matter, nature matters, it's all we have! Inequality And Over-Exploitation Of Natural Resources We are currently experiencing the worst environmental crisis in human history, including a 'biological annihilation' of wildlife and dire risks for the future of human civilization. The scale of ecological devastation has increased drastically in recent years. Mostly to blame are anthropogenic, or human-generated factors, including the still rising inequality, plastic pollution of our oceans, the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil, and overexploitation of all that nature has to offer. Other industries like gem and mineral mining also destroy the world’s ecological sustainability, leading to deforestation and the destruction of natural habitats. Much of this traumatic exploitation of natural resources traces its origins to early colonialism, the exploitation of humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus: What A Blessing For The Planet. Provocative? Inequality And Over-Exploitation Of Black Americans below you can find 12 charts that show how Black Americans face alarming economic inequality and suggest it could worsen due to the coronavirus pandemic or COVID-19. The recent wave of Black Lives Matter protests against police brutality is also serving to highlight gaping economic inequality between white and Black Americans. These gaps have served to stagnate the financial wellbeing of Black people for generations, experts say. Racism generates exclusion, discrimination, oppression, exploitation in several ways. Twelve charts show racial disparities in unemployment rates, household wealth, earnings, and other economic indicators. Inequality: The Coronaviris, COVID-19  In recent weeks, protests against police brutality have swept American cities large and small. They come in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic that killed Black people at disproportionately higher rates. But the wave of Black Lives Matter demonstrations is also shedding renewed light on the persistent inequality between whites and Blacks that has formed a cornerstone of American life for generations. {youtube}                                                               How Can We Win? Kimberly Jones On Saturday, May 30th filmmaker and photographer David Jones of David Jones Media felt compelled to go out and serve the community in some way. He decided to use his art to try and explain the events that were currently impacting our lives. On day two, Sunday the 31st, he activated his dear friend, author Kimberly Jones to tag along and conduct interviews. During a moment of downtime, he captured these powerful words from her and felt the world couldn’t wait for the full-length documentary; they needed to hear them now. Black Americans have borne the brunt of the economic fallout of the coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic, losing jobs at a faster pace compared to whites. Experts say these gaps have served to stagnate the finances and reduce the financial security of Black people, setting back their chances for upward mobility and, as a result, a fair shot at prosperity. Valerie Wilson, the director of the left-leaning Economic Policy Institute’s program on race, ethnicity, and the economy says the existence of racism erects systemic barriers within the marketplace that harm the financial wellbeing of Black people. Racism generates exclusion, discrimination, oppression, exploitation in several ways. It’s not just physical violence. The coronavirus, COVID-19 pandemic, could further accelerate inequality between white and Black Americans. As a group, Black Americans are significantly less likely to have wealth and savings to fall back on after a job loss. And they often lose work early on when the economy craters, which has prompted economists to characterize the issue as ‘first fired, last hired.’ As an example, we take 12 charts that illustrate the alarming inequality between whites and Black in Americans across the economy. The unemployment rate for Black Americans spiked at a higher price compared to white Americans. The chart above illustrates the percentage of unemployed workers in the labor force for whites and Blacks. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Black unemployment rate stands at 16.8% as of May, ticking upward from the previous month and rivaling its peak during the Great Recession. In comparison, the white unemployment rate is at 12.4%, a drop from 14.2% back in April. The trend suggests Black workers are encountering barriers trying to jump back into the workforce. “It’s the same story,” said Olugbenga Ajilore, senior economist at the Center for American Progress. “Going into a recession, African Americans are the first ones to lose their jobs, and then when we have a recovery, they’re the last ones to gain.” The white unemployment rate has usually been around half the Black unemployment rate since the 1970s, the earliest period with available data, Madison Hoff and Andy Kiersz reported. Just less than half of all Black adults are currently employed in the US. Inequality Even During The Record Economic Expansion  Before the onset of the pandemic, nearly 60% of Black adults were working. But the outbreak ravaged the low-paid, close-contact service sector, and now just less than half of Black people are employed. Many, though, already had fragile financial situations even during the record economic expansion, compounding inequality. Data from the Economic Policy Institute indicates Black households had $8,762 cash on hand on average – starkly lower than the $49,529 that white families had amassed on average. Low-income workers have experienced the worst of the economic fallout. The pandemic is falling on those least able to bear its burdens. It is a great increaser of inequality. It is low-paid workers in the service industries who are bearing the brunt of this; it is also women to an extraordinary degree. The household wealth of white Americans is 17x higher than that of Black Americans. Another stark indicator of the inequality between Black and white Americans is the massive gap in household wealth, as illustrated above. For Black Americans, household wealth has barely budged in three decades and is estimated to be around $6 trillion. Meanwhile, white households have stockpiled over $102 trillion in wealth. Wealth is traditionally accumulated through homeownership, stocks, high wages, or other means. But Black Americans lack easy access to these levers of prosperity, and it’s a hurdle to building wealth over generations. The per-capita income of Black Americans is much lower compared to white Americans. Per-capita income measures the amount each person earns in a particular city or region. Black Americans earn around $24,700 each year, a significantly lower amount when compared to whites, which around $42,700 annually on average. The trend illustrated above indicates that Black people consistently earn less than whites. Some experts say that’s the product of their concentration in the service industries. Still, others point out that Blacks are underrepresented in the upper rungs of the nation’s corporate life – as well as many other high-paying jobs in the health and information sectors. Mary Daly, president of the San Francisco Fed, said in an analysis that traditional economic models couldn’t explain the gap in earnings. This implies that factors that are harder to measure-such as discrimination, differences in school quality, or variations in career opportunities, are likely to be playing a role in the persistence and widening of these gaps over time. Black women draw around two-thirds the average earnings of a white man. When it comes to wages, Black women make 66% the average earnings of white men, who earn around $55,600 annually on average. That means that Black women make roughly $36,700 each year, on average, earning more than Hispanic women but less than both white and Asian women. Experts say that Black women, whether two different types of bias, along the lines of gender and race. “Intersectional discrimination perpetuates the racial and gender wealth gaps, limits Black women’s access to educational opportunities, and impedes their career advancement,” the American Association of University Women, a non-profit organization, said in an analysis. Put another way; a Black woman has to work 226 additional days to earn the average salary of a white man. That gender pay gap also indicates that Black women have to work an additional 226 days into the next year to earn the same amount as a white man. Only a Hispanic woman has to work more than a Black woman – 307 additional days. White women must work just over three months to break even. In 25 states with the most significant shares of Black women working full-time in the labor force, their pay ranges from 47 to 67 cents for each dollar paid to white men, according to the National Partnership for Women and Families. Black workers are more likely to work in high-risk jobs deemed essential during the pandemic, whether that’s in healthcare, a grocery store, or public transit . Jobs ruled to be essential were held by a significant share of Black Americans. Much of this work can’t be done from home, which increases the health risks for essential workers throughout the coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic. While Black workers make up one in nine workers (11.9%) in the labor force overall, they account for one of every six frontline industry workers, or 17%, according to an Economic Policy Institute analysis. Democrats have called to provide hazard pay to essential workers such as grocery stores and health employees since many earn low wages and risk their health by merely showing up for work. Black people have been hospitalized at nearly twice their share of the population. The chart above illustrates that Black Americans were disproportionately hospitalized by the coronavirus at a rate twice their share of the population. Among the factors, experts have highlighted to explain the trend are underlying health conditions that put Blacks at higher risk from COVID-19 – the respiratory illness caused by the coronavirus – such as hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. Many also lack access to quality medical care, which can lead to fewer visits to the doctor’s office and regular check-ups that could detect coronavirus symptoms in patients. Black adults are uninsured at the double the rate of white adults. Black people are uninsured at nearly twice the rate of whites, as shown above. Roughly 10.7% of Blacks do not have health insurance compared to 5.4% of whites. Lacking health insurance is often connected to the decision to delay seeking healthcare barring one’s turn for the worst. During the pandemic, experts say this threatened to create another systemic barrier and inequality that put Black Americans at higher risk from the coronavirus or COVID-19. The Black homeownership rate stands at 44%, while white homeownership levels are nearly 74% – a 30-percentage-point gap. The level of Black families owning a home is little changed from the 1960s. Homeownership generally provides families with a means to accumulate wealth over many years – as long as the economy is in a healthy state. The Great Recession prompted a dip in the number of Black homeowners. But experts say reasons for the disparity vary for other reasons as well, such as a lack of affordable housing and an increasing amount of debt among young buyers. Each Black-owned home, though, is also systematically devalued by the housing market by at least $48,000 on average, per research from the Brookings Institution, another factor that hobbles wealth accumulation. Black people are the likeliest of any racial group in the US to have their application for a home loan rejected. Black adults experience the highest rate of denied home loan applications at 18.4%, which contributes to lower homeownership rates. By comparison, it’s 8.8% for whites. The data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau found lenders cited debt-to-income ratio as well as credit histories when rejecting applicants. However, the analysis also found that Black borrowers were more likely to be charged higher interest rates or ‘higher-priced’ as defined by the government, even when they were able to secure a loan, which is another form of creating inequality. One in five Black Americans lives below the poverty line — or around $26,000 for a family of four. A significant gap in median household income means that Black Americans fall into poverty at more than double the rate of whites. The Census Bureau reported that roughly 20% of Black Americans live in poverty – or under $26,000 for a family of four. The significant gaps of income and, therefore, inequality also help to explain why it’s proven extremely difficult for many Black people to build a sizable financial cushion to weather recessions such as the one triggered by the coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic. Overexploiting Of Natural Resources: Little Consideration For Long-Term Impacts Colonialists saw 'new' territories as places with unlimited resources to exploit, with little consideration for the long-term impacts. They used what they considered to be an 'unending frontier' at the service of early modern state-making and capitalist development. To understand our current ecological catastrophe, described as 'a world of worsening food shortages and wildfires, and a mass die-off of coral reefs as soon as 2040', we need to look at the role of colonialism, inequality at its roots. This exploration is not a debate over whether colonialism and the caused inequality was 'good' or 'bad.' Instead, it is about understanding how this global process helped create the world we currently inhabit. Recommended:  World Environment Day: Natural Capital Is Currently Looted Overexploiting: Clear-Cutting Rainforests For Industrial Rubber Since the 15th century, the Indian Ocean has been the site of global trade. Colonialism built upon local economic systems but also profoundly built up and shaped many of the massive industries and processes that are currently at play in the region, causing enormous inequality. For example, British colonialists transformed the Malay peninsula into a plantation economy to meet the needs of industrial Britain and America. This included the expanding demand for cheap rubber during the industrial revolution. Exploitative colonial policies in Singapore and the peninsula limited the economic options of poor Malays, Indians, and Chinese. These workers were increasingly forced to clear vast cut swathes of rainforest to carve out a living for themselves at the expense of local ecosystems. Deforestation for palm oil plantations Meanwhile, more than half a century after the end of colonial rule in the Malay peninsula, the over-exploitation of local resources through extensive logging continues apace. Once numerous, Malayan tigers are now classified as a critically endangered species due, in part, to habitat loss from logging and road development. Deforestation in Malaysian Borneo also continues to accelerate, mainly due to the ongoing global demand for palm oil and lumber. Overexploiting Of Natural Resources: Exporting For Global Markets In Myanmar (formerly Burma), trade-in raw commodities go back centuries. Under colonial rule, the export of minerals, timber, and opium expanded enormously, placing unprecedented strain on local resources. Recommended:  Hurting The Environment: The Palm Oil Paradox The integration of regions north of the Irrawaddy River basin into the Burmese colonial state drastically increased economic integration between upland areas rich in natural resources and more significant flows of European and Chinese capital. Today, despite generating billions of dollars in revenue, these regions are some of the poorest in the country and are home to widespread human rights abuses and environmental disasters. Photo by: Marion Sabrié. Save the Irrawaddy! Recommended:  Climate Change, The Environment, Having Children: Mad Max Earth Day: Colonialism: Extracting Africa’s Gemstones And Minerals The human cost of the diamond trade in West and South Africa is relatively well-known. Less known are the devastating effects on Africa’s environment that the stripping of natural resources such as diamonds, ivory, bauxite, oil, timber, and minerals has produced. This mining serves as global demand for these minerals and gems. The intensive mining operations required to deliver diamonds and other precious stones or minerals to world markets degrade the land, reduces air quality, and pollutes local water sources. The result is an overall loss of biodiversity and significant environmental impacts on human health. From 1867 to 1871, exploratory digging along the Vaal, Harts, and Orange rivers in South Africa prompted a large-scale diamond rush that saw a massive influx of miners and speculators poured into the region in search of riches. By 1888, the diamond industry in South Africa had transformed into a monopoly, with De Beers Consolidated Mines becoming the sole producer. Around the same time, miners in nearby Witwatersrand discovered the world’s largest goldfields, fuelling the spread of lucrative new mining industries. As European powers carved up the continent in the so-called “scramble for Africa” during the late 19th century, commercial exports came to replace slavery as the primary economic motivation for direct colonial occupation. New transportation technologies and economic growth fuelled by the industrial revolution created a global demand for African exports, including gemstones and minerals that required extensive mining operations to extract. From 1930 to 1961, the diamond industry in Sierra Leone played a crucial role in shaping and defining colonial governmental strategies and scientific expertise throughout the region. Nearby Liberia was never formally colonized and was established as a homeland for freed African-American slaves. But American slaveholders and politicians saw the republic primarily as a solution to limit the “corrupting influence” of freed slaves on American society. To “help” Liberia get out of debt to Britain, the U.S.-based Firestone Tire and Rubber Company extended a $5-million loan in 1926 in exchange for a 99-year lease on a million acres of land to be used for rubber plantations. This loan was the beginning of direct economic control over Liberian affairs. Colonialism: Unequal Power Relations A report suggests that Africa is on the verge of a recent mining boom driven by demand in North America, India, and China that will only worsen existing ecological crises. Consumer demand for minerals such as tantalum, a key component for the production of electronics, lies at the heart of current mining operations. Our understanding of colonialism is often limited to simple ideas about what we think colonialism looked like in the past. These ideas impede our ability to identify the complex ways that colonialism shaped and continues to develop the uneven power structures of the 21st century, as anthropologist and historian Ann Laura Stoler argue in her book, Duress. Unequal power relations between and within developed and developing countries continue to define the causes and consequences of climate change. A clearer understanding of where these problems came from is a necessary first step towards solving them. People in prosperous countries are often unaware that the garbage they throw out every day usually gets shipped around the world to become somebody else’s problem. While people debate whether climate change should be taken seriously from the comfort of their air-conditioned homes, hundreds of thousands of people are already suffering the consequences. Part of this article was originally published on The Conversation, an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis, and commentary from academic experts and the BusinessInsider. All graphs by the BusinessInsider. By: Joseph McQuade. Cover photo by Daniel Berehulak (Tech companies says it's too hard to investigate whether they benefit from child labor ) Recommended:  Electric Cars: Truly Green Or A New Kind Of Liability? Did you find this an interesting article, or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your article about inequality? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage.'
Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations