Close Welcome writers, influencers and dreamers, make the world a greener place
Register here
Forgot password
Forgot password
or
or

Close
Close Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
Close Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
Close Reset password
your profile is 33% complete:
33%
Update profile Close
Close WhatsOrb Global Sustainability X-Change

For writers, influencers and dreamers who want to make the world a greener place.

WhatsOrb reaches monthly about 28.000 thousand visitors who want - like you - to make the world a greener place. Share your expertise and all can benefit.

Become an influencer and write and share sustainable news and innovations globally
Are you a writer or do you have ideas about sustainability which you want to share? Register and share your green knowledge and news. WhatsOrb offers you global exposure for your article.

If your article meets certain standards, you receive promotional gains like Facebook promotions and Google Ads advertising.

Community coronavirus  from bat  pangolin or raccoon dogs | Upload Society

Coronavirus: From Bat, Pangolin Or Raccoon Dogs

by: Joyce Mahler
coronavirus  from bat  pangolin or raccoon dogs | Upload

Coronavirus, COVID-19 originated in Wuhan, China, has killed 1.164.784+ people, and 43.800.644 people got infected worldwide with the COVID-19 (Tuesday, 27-10-2020). COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease, meaning it jumps from animals to humans. 

The Coronavirus: What Was The Intermediate Host

The SARS coronavirus, which killed 774 people in the early 2000s, jumped from bats to civets to people. COVID-19 has originated in bats, which may have passed the disease to snakes or Pangolins, which then gave it to humans. Snakes Could Be the Original Source of the New Coronavirus Outbreak in China. A study of the virus’s genetic sequence suggests similarities to that seen in snakes, but is it?

Recommended: Coronavirus COVID-19: Worse Than Thought: A Must Read Update

SARS and MERS: The Bat, The Masked Palm Civet, And Camels

Both SARS and MERS are classified as zoonotic viral diseases, meaning the first infected patients acquired these viruses directly from animals. The infection was possible because while in the animal host, the virus had received a series of genetic mutations that allowed it to infect and multiply inside humans.

How do docters test for SARS?
Lab tests to detect SARS virus include a blood test, a nasal swab or a sample from your stool or urine, or growing the virus in culture.

Now, these viruses are transmitted from person to person. Field studies have revealed that the source of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is the bat and that the masked palm civets (a mammal native to Asia and Africa) and camels, respectively, served as intermediate hosts between bats and humans.

Recommended: Coronavirus: What A Blessing For The Planet. Provocative?

Graph Sars, Mers, Bats, Camels, Humans

How do you test for MERS?
Molecular Tests. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays are molecular tests that can be used to detect viral RNA in clinical samples. Most state laboratories in the United States are approved to test for MERS-CoV by using an rRT-PCR assay developed by CDC.

From Bats To Snakes: The Wuhan Market

In the case of this 2019 coronavirus outbreak, reports state that most of the first group of patients hospitalized were workers or customers at a local seafood wholesale market. These people also sold processed meats and live consumable animals, including poultry, donkeys, sheep, pigs, camels, foxes, badgers, bamboo rats, hedgehogs, and reptiles. No one has ever reported finding a coronavirus infecting aquatic animals. It is plausible that the coronavirus may have originated from other animals sold in that market.

snake eats bat

The hypothesis that COVID-19 jumped from an animal at the market got supported by a new publication in the Journal of Medical Virology. The scientists conducted an analysis and compared the genetic sequences of 2019-nCoV and all other known coronaviruses.

From Bats To Pangolins

Some Chinese researchers are investigating the pangolin as a possible origin of the deadly coronavirus outbreak in China. Friday, they said that the endangered pangolin might be the ‘missing link’ between bats and humans, but other scientists reported the search might not be over.

Pangolin

An earlier study pointed to snakes, and there remain numerous candidate species in the Wuhan wildlife market thought to be ground zero of the epidemic. But according to Arnaud Fontanet, from France's Pasteur Institute, the disease likely didn't jump straight from bats to humans. "We think there's another animal that's an intermediary." Fontanet believes the intermediary was ‘probably a mammal’ possible belonging to the badger family.


                                                      Coronavirus and the link of wild animals, 15-03-2020


After testing more than 1,000 samples from wild animals, scientists at the South China Agricultural University found the genome sequences of viruses in pangolins to be 99 percent identical to those on coronavirus patients, the official Xinhua news agency reported.

"This is not scientific evidence," said James Wood, head of the department of veterinary medicine at the University of Cambridge. "Investigations into animal reservoirs are significant, and results will be published for international scrutiny." "Simply reporting detection of viral RNA with sequence similarity of 99+ percent is not sufficient," he added. Eric Leroy, a virologist, and vet at the IRD said the search could well turn up a result quickly like in the case of SARS. Equally, it could take years.

Coronavirus: From Raccoon Dogs

The Media often point a finger to the Pangolins as the intermediate host. But Germany’s leading coronavirus expert Christian Drosten on Merkel’s leadership has another opinion.

“I don’t see any reason to assume that the virus passed through pangolins on its way to humans. There is an interesting piece of information from the old Sars literature. That virus was found in civet cats, but also in raccoon dogs – something the media overlooked. Raccoon dogs are a massive industry in China, where they are bred on farms and caught in the wild for their fur. If somebody gave me a few hundred thousand bucks and free access to China to find the source of the virus, I would look in places where people raccoon dogs breed.”

Racoon dog, grass

Coronavirus, COVID-19: Recombination Mechanism

On February 7, 2020, we learned that a virus even closer to SARS-CoV-2 got discovered in pangolins. With 99% of genomic concordance reported, this suggested a more likely reservoir than bats. However, a recent study under review shows that the coronavirus's genomes isolated from the Malaysian pangolin (Manis javanica) are less similar to SARS-Cov-2, with only 90% of genomic concordance. Above would indicate that the virus isolated in the pangolin is not responsible for the COVID-19 epidemic currently raging.

However, the coronavirus isolated from pangolin is similar at 99% in a specific region of the S protein, which corresponds to the 74 amino acids involved in the ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) receptor binding domain, the one that allows the virus to enter human cells to infect them. By contrast, the virus RaTG13 isolated from bat R. affinis is highly divergent in this specific region (only 77 % of similarity). Above means that the coronavirus isolated from pangolin is capable of entering human cells, whereas the one isolated from bat R. affinis is not.

bat, pangolin, human torso, lungs, coronavirus

Besides, these genomic comparisons suggest that the SARS-Cov-2 virus is the result of a recombination between two different viruses, one close to RaTG13 and the other closer to the pangolin virus. In other words, it is an illusion between two pre-existing infections.

This recombination mechanism had already been described in coronaviruses, in particular, to explain the origin of SARS-CoV. It is essential to know that recombination results in a new virus capable of infecting a new host species. For recombination to occur, the two divergent viruses must have affected the same organism simultaneously.

Two questions remain unanswered: in which organism did this recombination occur? (a bat, a pangolin, or another species?) And above all, under what conditions did this recombination take place?

Recommended: Coronavirus Images From Around The Globe

Ferret badger
Chinese Ferret Badger

The study of the genetic code of COVID-19 reveals that the new virus is most closely related to two bat SARS-like coronavirus samples from China, initially suggesting that, like SARS and MERS, the bat might also be the origin of COVID-19. The authors further found that the DNA coding sequence of COVID-19 spike protein, which forms the ‘crown’ of the virus particle that recognizes the receptor on a host cell, indicates that the bat virus might have mutated before infecting people. But when the researchers performed a more detailed bioinformatics analysis of the sequence of COVID-19, it suggests that this coronavirus might come from snakes.

Recommended: Coronavirus, Flu, And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?

Coronavirus: Protein Codes From Snakes

The researchers used an analysis of the protein codes favored by the new coronavirus. They compared it to the protein codes from coronaviruses found in different animal hosts, like birds, snakes, marmots, hedgehogs, manis, bats, and humans. Surprisingly, they found that the protein codes in the CoV are most similar to those used in snakes.

What does a gene code for a protein?
The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. The type of RNA that contains the information for making a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.


                                                  Snakes Hunt Bats In A Cave | Planet Earth | BBC Earth

Snakes often hunt for bats in the wild. Reports indicate that snakes were sold in the local seafood market in Wuhan, raising the possibility that COVID-19 might have jumped from the host species—bats—to snakes and then to humans at the beginning of this coronavirus outbreak. However, how the virus could adapt to both the cold-blooded and warm-blooded hosts remains a mystery.

Snake eating bat

Researchers must verify the origin of the virus through laboratory experiments. Searching for the COVID-19 sequence in snakes would be the first thing to do. However, since the outbreak, the seafood market has been disinfected and shut down, which makes it challenging to trace the new virus’ source animal.

Sampling DNA from animals sold at the market and from wild snakes and bats is needed to confirm the virus's origins. Nonetheless, the reported findings will also provide insights for developing prevention and treatment protocols.

Recommended: Coronavirus: Bill Gates, 65 Million Death In A Simulation

Coronavirus And Sars: Passed From Animals To Humans In a Wet Market

The coronavirus spreading in China and the SARS outbreak of 2003 have two things in common: Both are from the coronavirus family, and both were passed from animals to humans in a wet market. Poorly regulated live-animal markets mixed with illegal wildlife trade offer a unique opportunity for viruses to spillover from wildlife hosts into the human population. In the case of SARS, and probably this coronavirus outbreak too, bats were the original hosts. They then infected other animals via their poop or saliva, and the unwitting intermediaries transmitted the virus to humans.

What does zoonotic mean?
Zoonosis is another name for a zoonotic disease. This type of disease passes from an animal or insect to a human. Some don't make the animal sick but will sicken a human. Zoonotic diseases range from minor short-term illness to a major life-changing illness. Certain ones can even cause death.

people, meat, market, purple light
Chinese 'wet market'. 

Coronavirus, COVID-19: Bats & Birds Reservoir Species For Viruses

Bats and birds are considered reservoir species for viruses with pandemic potential, according to Bart Haagmans, a virologist at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands.

In the past 45 years, at least three other pandemics (besides SARS) have been traced back to bats. The creatures were the source of Ebola, which has killed 13,500 people in multiple outbreaks since 1976:

  • Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, better known as MERS, which can found in 28 countries
  • The Nipah virus, which has a 78% fatality rate
  • The coronavirus might have jumped from bats to snakes to people.

Not all coronaviruses are deadly; the ones endemic to humans, like the common cold, are often considered inconsequential. The coronaviruses that pose a pandemic risk, however, are those that hang out in animals. Because these viruses have not circulated in humans before, specific immunity to these viruses is absent in humans.

Coronavirus: Wuhan

Experts haven’t yet confirmed the animal species that enabled it to spread to people, but they have some guesses. Scientists in China compared the genetic code of COVID-19 to other coronaviruses. They found it to be most similar to two bat coronavirus samples.

Chinese Cobra
Coronavirus via The Chinese Cobra?

There’s an indication that it’s a bat virus, said Vincent Munster, a scientist at Rocky Mountain Laboratories. According to a group of scientists who edit the Journal of Medical Virology, the intermediary species, in this case, could be the Chinese cobra.

How do Coronaviruses spread?
Coronaviruses primarily spread through close contact with another individual, in particular through coughing and sneezing on somebody else who is within a range of about 3 to 6 feet from that person.
If an infected person sneezes or coughs onto a surface a countertop, for example  and another person touches that surface and then rubs his or her eyes or nose, for example, the latter may get sick.

That’s because further genetic analysis showed that the genetic building blocks of COVID-19 closely resembled snakes. So the researchers think a population of bats could have infected snakes, which passed the virus to humans ere sold at the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market in Wuhan. But the only way to be sure about where the virus came from is to take DNA samples from animals sold at that market and from wild snakes and bats in the area.

Coronavirus: Why Bats Pose Such A Threat

Bats harbor a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than other mammals, according to a 2017 study. Experts think that’s because bats can fly across large geographical ranges, transporting diseases as they go. That makes them an ideal host. Bats pass along viruses in their poop: If they drop feces onto a fruit piece that a different animal then eats, the creature can become a carrier.

We know a fair amount of viruses on the World Health Organization’s Blueprint list of priority diseases have either a direct or indirect link with bats,” Munster said. (The list includes the SARS and MERS viruses.) Last March, a study even predicted that bats could be the source of a new coronavirus outbreak in China. It is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China.

2 bats, tree branch

That’s because:

  • The majority of coronaviruses – those that circulate both in humans and in animals – can be found in China.
  • Plus, the study authors said, most of the bat hosts of these coronaviruses live near humans in China, potentially transmitting viruses to humans and livestock.
  • The bat population from which the SARS virus originated, for example, lived in a cave just over 1 kilometer, or about half a mile, from the nearest village.
  • Similarly, a 2017 study warned that the risk of spillover into people and the emergence of a disease similar to SARS is possible. The authors identified at least 300 separate strains of coronaviruses still circulating in bats.

How SARS, MERS, And Ebola Jumped From Bats To People

Here are five viruses that most likely came from bats, and how the outbreaks compare.
  • Researchers traced SARS to a population of horseshoe bats in China’s Yunnan province. Humans caught it from weasel-like mammals called masked palm civets at a wet market in Guangdong
  • From 2002 to 2003, SARS killed 774 people across 29 countries and infected more than 8,000. Patients experienced fevers, headaches, and a type of deadly pneumonia that could cause respiratory failure
  • MERS, similarly, passed from bats to dromedary camels in the Middle East. That coronavirus circulated in the camel population undetected for decades before jumping to humans in 2012. So far, 858 people have died in 28 countries from the illness, which comes with fever, cough, and shortness of breath
  • In Southeast Asia, fruit bats were the original hosts of the deadly Nipah virus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998 and then again in India in 2001. The bats passed it to farmed pigs, which gave it to people. Patients experienced headaches and vomiting; many slipped into a coma and died
  • Fruit bats in Africa have played a significant role in Ebola outbreaks since 1976. The worst Ebola outbreak in history, however, came from a population of long-fingered bats. More than 11,000 people got killed from 2013 to 2016.

Fruitbat, fruit
Fruit Bat

Coronavirus: How To Prevent The Coronavirus From Spilling Over To People?

At wet markets, shoppers' proximity to stall vendors and live and dead animals creates a prime breeding ground for zoonotic diseases. For cultural reasons in the region, people want to see the specific animals they’re buying be slaughtered in front of them, so they know the products they paid for,” according to Emily Langdon, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Chicago Medicine. Meaning, there’s a lot of skinning of dead animals in front of shoppers—the skinning results in aerosolizing of all sorts of things.

The most likely virus that might cause a new pandemic would be a coronavirus. We’re in an age of epidemics because:

  • of globalization
  • of encroachment on wild environments

Coronavirus, COVID-19: Human Health And Climate Change

Climate change produced many harmful effects on human health in Central China. The cardiovascular mortalities increased year by year in Wuhan from 1998 to 2008. And the morbidity was highest in winter and lowest in summer. The increasing frequency and intensity of summer heatwaves resulted in an increased risk of summer cardiovascular, respiratory system diseases, and heatstroke.

The regional precipitation became uneven in Central China. The irregular rainfall caused more floods and increased the risk of infectious diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and conjunctivitis. Contagious intestinal diseases rose from 66.04% to 80.97% in Hubei during 1991–1997.

Climate Change Helped Snails Survive The Winter Season 

Behavioral risks that lead to the emergence of bat coronaviruses in humans

  • Bat borne coronaviruses have caused several emerging infectious disease outbreaks of global significance, including SARS. Novel SARS-related coronaviruses have been discovered in bat populations in Southern China, some of which can infect human cells
  • Human-animal interactions are critical for the emergence of bat coronaviruses; however, the specific interactions linked to animal-to-human spill over remain unknown.

Coronavirus: New Findings

This study found serological evidence for bat-borne coronavirus transmission to people. Direct contact with bats is not a risk factor. However, self-reported severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) was linked to human interaction with other wildlife and livestock, suggesting that there may be other zoonotic exposures leading to clinical disease in these populations.

Dogs, cages, legs
Vendors wait for customers as dogs are kept in a cage at the Dashichang dog market ahead of a local dog meat festival in Yulin, Guangxi Autonomous Region.

Human interaction with animals has been implicated as a primary risk factor for several high impact zoonoses, including many bat-origin viral diseases. However, the animal-to-human spillover events that lead to emerging diseases are rarely observed or clinically examined, and the link between specific interactions and spillover risk is poorly understood.

Researchers conducted biological-behavioral surveillance among rural residents in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong districts of Southern China, where we have identified several SARS-related coronaviruses in bats to investigate this phenomenon. Serum samples got tested for four bat-borne coronaviruses. Researchers are using newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Survey data got used to characterize associations between human-animal contact and bat coronavirus spillover risk.

Coronavirus From Animals To Humans

A total of 1,596 residents got enrolled in the study from 2015 to 2017

Nine participants (0.6%) tested positive for bat coronaviruses. 265 (17%) participants reported severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms in the past year, which were associated with poultry, carnivore, rodent/shrew, or bat contact, with variability by family income and district of residence. This study provides serological evidence of bat coronavirus spillover in rural communities in Southern China. The low

number of persons in a population who test positive in this study suggests that a bat coronavirus spillover is a rare event.

Nonetheless, this study highlights associations between human-animal interaction and zoonotic spillover risk. These findings e used to support targeted biological, behavioral surveillance in high-risk geographic areas to reduce the risk of zoonotic disease emergence.

Coronavirus, COVID-19: Interaction Between Humans And Animals A Health Risk?

In the highly biodiverse southern region of China, interactions among humans, wildlife, and livestock are likely to be familiar. They are a risk factor in the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Human-animal interactions may pose a particular public health threat in rural communities where frequent contact with animals occurs, and disease prevention measures are likely less well-developed.

What is a hypothesis?
In science, a hypothesis is an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. Outside science, a theory or guess can also be called a hypothesis. A hypothesis is something more than a wild guess but less than a well-established theory.

2 girls, sticks, houses

Although human-animal interaction can be associated with zoonotic disease emergence, few studies have addressed the nature of specific interactions between animals (particularly wild animals) and humans, leading to pathogen spillover.

  • Bats (order Chiroptera) are reservoirs of many zoonotic viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs) that have caused disease outbreaks in human and livestock populations.
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the causative agent of the SARS outbreak affecting 32 countries in 2002-3, infecting 8,096 people and causing 774 deaths
  • The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has caused 823 deaths from 2,374 human cases in 27 countries by the end of February 2019, and have spilled initially over from bats into camels, in which is it now endemic
  • Severe acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) which emerged in the pig population of Southern China and caused the deaths of more than 20,000 piglets in 2017 and 2018
  • A broad diversity of coronaviruses, including SARS-related Coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), has been discovered in bats, and phylogenetic and pathogenesis studies suggest a high capacity for transmission across species barriers.

However, few studies have analyzed bat-to-human spillover events in non-outbreak conditions, likely due to these events' rarity and difficulties in identifying at-risk populations or target geographies. Additionally, the symptoms of new bat coronavirus infection in the human population may not be clinically recognized at the time of emergence due to a lack of adequate surveillance or confusion with other diseases. The outcome represents a significant biosafety risk. They are considering the large and increasing number of coronaviruses discovered in bats and the wide distribution of bat populations in rural regions such as Southern China. We report on a study designed to characterize the bat coronavirus spillover associated with presumed high-risk human behavior in Southern China's rural communities.

woman, ruaral area, goats

Human Populations Close To bats And Wildlife

A cross-sectional study was done in the districts of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong, China. These provinces are known for their high wildlife biodiversity, active wildlife trade activity, and historic zoonotic disease emergence events. Eight study sites got selected in areas where we have previously reported diverse coronaviruses in bat populations roosting close (within 5 km) to human dwellings.

The study targeted human populations highly exposed to bats and other wildlife. They included people who visit or workaround bat caves, work in local live animal markets, raise animals, or are involved in wildlife trade (e.g., wild animal harvest, trade, transportation, and preparation), as identified by previous exploratory ethnographic interviews.

2 Men, catched rats

Recruitment and sampling

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 400 participants from each of the three districts (Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong), for a total sample size of over 1,200 participants. A snowball sampling method was used because the population size at selected sites and the people exposed to wild animals were challenging to elucidate.

Results

From October 2015 to July 2017, a total of 1,596 residents from eight sites in Yunnan (n=761), Guangxi (n=412), and Guangdong (n=423) provinces got enrolled in this study. Of these, 1,585 participants completed the questionnaires, and 11 participants withdrew from the questionnaire interview due to scheduling reasons. After the meetings, 1,497 participants provided biological samples for lab analysis.

Demographics

More females (62%) than male (38%) community members participated in this study. Most participants were adults over 45 years old (69%) and had been living in the community for more than five years (97%) with their family members (95%). A majority (86%) relied on a comparatively low family annual per capita income of less than 10,000 RMB, below the national mean for per capita disposable income of rural households from 2015 to 2017 (11,422 - 13,432 RMB). Most participants (98%) had not received a college education and lived in crop production (76%). 9% of participants frequently traveled outside the county as migrant laborers. Some participants were working in sectors where frequent human-animal contact occurs, such as the animal production business (1.7%), wild animal trade (0.5%), slaughterhouses or abattoirs (0.5%), protected nature reserve rangers (0.4%), or in wildlife restaurants (0.3%). It was common for participants to have multiple part-time jobs as income sources (Table 1)

Animal contact and exposure to bat Coronaviruses

Serological testing of serum samples from 1,497 residents revealed the following; nine individuals (0.6%) in four study sites were positive for bat coronaviruses. Above indicates exposure at some point in their life to bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV or other coronaviruses that are phylogenetically closely related to these. All individuals who tested positive (male=6, female=3) were over 45 years old, and most (n=8) were making a living from crop production. None of those participants reported any symptoms in the 12 months preceding the interview.

Due to the low rate of seropositivity, we did not obtain robust results from the coronavirus's statistical comparisons of animal-contact behavior. Among the 1,585 participants who responded, 265 (17%) reported experiencing SARI (n = 73) and ILI (n = 227) symptoms in the last year.

Some demographic variables were associated with self-reported SARI and ILI symptoms as either independent or interactive terms. For example, respondents aged 41 to 60, and Yunnan province residents were less likely to report symptoms. Slaughtering poultry was positively associated with the outcome only in Guangxi residents, whereas the association was negative in Guangdong residents. Family income also showed interactions, with family income less than 10,000 RMB positively associated with the outcome in respondents who raised poultry but negatively associated with respondents who cooked or handled chicken. Gender is not salient in either direction.

Girl, bike, chicken, cages

Attitudes towards zoonotic diseases emergence

When asked about animals and disease transmission, more than half of the study participants believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals in wet markets. Of those worried about disease emergence, 46% purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months. Among all participants who purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months 32%), some  39% took protection measures or strategies such as washing hands, purchasing live animals less often 30%, or purchasing meat at supermarkets instead of living animal markets. Very few participants considered wearing a mask 1% or gloves  1%) while visiting the markets.

Discussion

Used was a novel human surveillance approach to integrate serological and behavioral data to characterize associations between human-animal contact and zoonotic disease spillover risk in Southern China. This study provides the first serological evidence of bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV transmission to people and highlights potential spillover pathways through animal contact.

Given the high diversity, recombination rate of bat coronaviruses, and the close relationship of SARSr-CoVs to SARS-CoV, it is possible that exposure to these coronaviruses may lead to disease emergence in human populations.

Continuous surveillance of both human and bat populations and further pathogenesis studies of these viruses is essential to determine the disease risk's extent. Contact with animals was prevalent among the survey population.

tree-shrew

Raising poultry and having rodents/shrews in the house were the most common types of contact.

It’s important to note that the questionnaire used a broad classification of animals' type for these exposures due to the presumed variability in the respondent’s capacity to identify species or genera of wildlife. The most significant exposure we identified (to carnivores) likely reflects animals as diverse as civets, porcupines, ferret badgers, and taxes that respondents recognized as non-rodent and non-shrew. This study also assessed health risks from human interaction activities for each study participant in the survey based on their travel history and people's health history with who they lived. The goal was to minimize the possibility that illness was caused by the human-to-human transmission of pathogens causing ILI and SARI symptoms.

Researchers did not find evidence of a direct relationship between bat contact and bat coronavirus seropositivity in the human population. However, there is frequent contact with domestic animals in these communities. Other bat-borne viruses have been transmitted to humans via livestock (e.g., henipaviruses and filoviruses). These findings may reflect other indirect exposures to bat CoVs. Future surveillance may benefit from including a wide range of livestock and peri-domestic animals in viral and serological studies to identify potential spillover pathways.

While most survey respondents believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals at wet markets, many did not take measures to protect themselves from exposure. Further work on what drives these local attitudes to risk may help in developing risk-mitigation behavior change programs. Several affordable and readily adaptable measures could be targeted to these at-risk populations, including the use of gloves and masks while killing or butchering animals and handwashing.

The low levels of seropositivity found in the study could reflect several factors:

  • the rarity of spillover and bat-to-human transmission, as has been reported for other virus-host systems
  • the use of a snowball technique for sample selection that could have biased the population sampled
  • the limited diversity of CoVs that this study tested for
  • the possibility that these infections cause high mortality rates and therefore the number of survivors and number of seropositive people is low, although this seems unlikely because the mortality rate from SARS was >10% during an outbreak that included hospital exposure and therefore likely high infectious doses
  • that antibodies to these viruses wane rapidly in humans. The latter hypothesis supports findings that antibodies to SARS decline quickly (2–3 years) after an illness.

This approach to a larger population, using a repeated sampling approach, and targeting people in the higher-risk categories provided a more significant number of sero-positives and more critical information on the driving factors of viral spillover.

However, despite the small sample sizes, this study suggests that a substantial number of people in rural Southern China are exposed to bat-borne viruses. Exposure likely occurs through rural communities' daily or regular practices, rather than specific high-risk behaviors (e.g., wild animal hunting). The potential of some SARSr-CoVs in bats in southern China to infect human cells, cause clinical signs in humanized mouse models and lead to infections that s impossible to treat with monoclonal therapies effective against SARS-CoV this represents a clear and present danger to our biosafety and public health. Further studies to determine the relationship between SARSr-CoV and HKU10-CoV exposure and illness in people may help elucidate this risk and provide critical mitigation strategies.

What About the Bats?

Bat populations in China appear to have decreased considerably in the last 30 years. China has a rich bat fauna, with 100 species described, and taxonomic research on bats has increased during the previous two decades.

Four reasons may have been responsible:

  • Extensive pesticide use has resulted in bioaccumulation in bats, reducing their survival.
  • Many old buildings were demolished during urbanization, reducing the availability of suitable roost sites.
  • People often include bats in their diet, and bats get served in restaurants. We make recommendations for improving bat conservation in China. Education programs about bat conservation should be provided for adults and schoolchildren, and laws for protecting bats need to be enacted and enforced. The roosting sites of bats should be protected comprehensively, and pesticide use should be regulated.
  • Cave exploitation for tourism has changed the atmosphere and temperature in caves, disturbing bats directly.

bats in caves

The flow of visitors causes fluctuations in carbon dioxide content and temperature, and cave topography and dimensions affect the accumulation and diffusion of the gas, disturbing bats directly, for example, the maximum CO2 content increased from 1,000 to 7,000 ppm in the chamber in Baiyun Cave, Hebei, after c. Three thousand people visited for 5 hours, and the temperature increased from 16.8 to 19.6.

The effects of disturbance on bats and other cave fauna have seldom been studied in China. Lighting schemes installed for visitors without considering the impact on bats and other cave animals, paths have constructed, and gates at cave entrances for managing visitors are often unsuitable for flying bats to negotiate. The population of fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti in Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province, for example, decreased from c. 5,000 to 2,000 after cave tourism started in 1993.

Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province stalagmites, many colors
Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province

Based on surveys of bats in China, combined with inquiries to local people, we estimate that the bat population may have decreased by 60% in the last 30 years.

Bats provide essential ecosystem services, pollinating plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling pests. However, many people in China regard bats as vermin because some species feed on economically essential fruits, such as longan and litchi. Bats are also regarded as nefarious animals because they fly in the dark.

3 logan fruit

Before the emergence of the SARS virus, many restaurants in Guangzhou and other south China cities offered bats, and live bats are sold in markets. Our surveys have repeatedly revealed that local people capture wild bats to eat in some remote villages to meet their protein requirements. We have also found bamboo wattles, used to kill bats, in caves.

There are additional factors causing decreases in bat populations in China. Many forests are destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), and vast steel-making and iron-smelting facilities are established, resulting in the loss of many roosting sites and foraging areas.

Recently, small paper mills are built, resulting in the clear-cutting of forests and their replacement with the mills' fast-growing eucalypts. We have found that many limestone hills excavated to make cement have lost their bat-roosting caves. No bat species are included in the lists of wildlife under special state protection (1989 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife). No nature reserves protect bat species or their roost sites.

The 2019-nCoV outbreak is another reminder that people should limit wild animals' consumption to prevent zoonotic infections.

Before you go!

Recommended: Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected

Did you find this an interesting article, or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below.
We try to respond the same day.

Like to write your article about the change in wildlife?
Click on 'Register' or push the button 'Write An Article' on the 'HomePage.'

Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
SIGN UP
More like this:
Messange
You
Jayaram Girdhar Surwade - 27 WEEKS AGO
Post Reported Report Post
Your Comment is Under Moderation
Yes I fully support the views of the author of this article. After going through this research study, I firmly believe that the Corona virus must have it's origin in passing from bat to snake and finally to human.
The snake could be cobra which has fatal effect on animals including human which affects the respiratory systems. Hence the line of treatment has to be focused on treating the Corona virus affected persons for snake poisons. I hav one such Herbaĺ Medicine which can cure it ,subject to the condion that it is needed to be tested in the Testing Laboratory to see whether the herbal medicine which I intend to name as
" FAKIRA- VRN- JAL- MS- IND " can kill the Corona virus in various dilutions.
Let's pray for wellbeing of everyone on earth & Corona to diminish from all over the earth.
Reply
Avakin Blogger - 29 WEEKS AGO
Post Reported Report Post
Your Comment is Under Moderation
It takes me around 40 minutes to read it fully, It's really amazing report.
In my opinion, this virus transfers from bats to pangolin because people in Wuhan eating more Pangolins as compared to other animals like snakes along with I found that pangolins cells (DNA) are looking at some kind of amoeba. The Cell of Pangolins has a layer and something inside in it which grows after contacting with something...
Chinese govt. Researching on Biochemical weapons from a long time like the USA.

"Virus Antidote is hidden under Viruses"
Anyone think that these viruses can be destroyed by giving another virus-like "Eagles DNA"

Try to drink hot water or soups which help to clean Bloods and do some stretching at home for fighting against Corona.
Reply
https://www.jopestkil.com/ - 30 WEEKS AGO
Post Reported Report Post
Your Comment is Under Moderation
Its total wonder, these wild animals meat are all infectious. My question is this Chinese culture or just a thoughtful decision amongst them. https://www.fumigationpestcontrolservices.co.ke/
Reply
https://www.jopestkil.com/ - 30 WEEKS AGO
Post Reported Report Post
Your Comment is Under Moderation
Its real problem from these animals meat. How can humans spare wild animals meat. I want more... https://www.jopestkil.com
Reply
Debra - 32 WEEKS AGO
Post Reported Report Post
Your Comment is Under Moderation
I wonder if the Covid19 virus originated in an insect, which was eaten or bit a bat/pangolin, which then in turn bit a human who had a cold? Many insects can be very poisonous. I have a sister-in-law, who was bitten by a mosquito in Florida many years ago. She nearly died and her health has never been the same, since. Fascinating and informative article, by the way.
Reply
Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations
SIGN UP FOR MONTHLY TIPS & TRICKS
More like this:

Coronavirus: From Bat, Pangolin Or Raccoon Dogs

Coronavirus, COVID-19 originated in Wuhan, China, has killed 1.164.784+ people, and 43.800.644 people got infected worldwide with the COVID-19 (Tuesday, 27-10-2020). COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease, meaning it jumps from animals to humans.  The Coronavirus: What Was The Intermediate Host The SARS coronavirus, which killed 774 people in the early 2000s, jumped from bats to civets to people. COVID-19 has originated in bats, which may have passed the disease to snakes or Pangolins, which then gave it to humans. Snakes Could Be the Original Source of the New Coronavirus Outbreak in China. A study of the virus’s genetic sequence suggests similarities to that seen in snakes, but is it? Recommended:  Coronavirus COVID-19: Worse Than Thought: A Must Read Update SARS and MERS: The Bat, The Masked Palm Civet, And Camels Both SARS and MERS are classified as zoonotic viral diseases, meaning the first infected patients acquired these viruses directly from animals. The infection was possible because while in the animal host, the virus had received a series of genetic mutations that allowed it to infect and multiply inside humans. How do docters test for SARS? Lab tests to detect SARS virus include a blood test, a nasal swab or a sample from your stool or urine, or growing the virus in culture. Now, these viruses are transmitted from person to person. Field studies have revealed that the source of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is the bat and that the masked palm civets (a mammal native to Asia and Africa) and camels, respectively, served as intermediate hosts between bats and humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus: What A Blessing For The Planet. Provocative? How do you test for MERS? Molecular Tests.  Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays are molecular tests that can be used to detect viral RNA in clinical samples.  Most state laboratories in the United States are approved to test for MERS-CoV by using an rRT-PCR assay developed by CDC. From Bats To Snakes: The Wuhan Market In the case of this 2019 coronavirus outbreak, reports state that most of the first group of patients hospitalized were workers or customers at a local seafood wholesale market. These people also sold processed meats and live consumable animals, including poultry, donkeys, sheep, pigs, camels, foxes, badgers, bamboo rats, hedgehogs, and reptiles. No one has ever reported finding a coronavirus infecting aquatic animals. It is plausible that the coronavirus may have originated from other animals sold in that market. The hypothesis that COVID-19 jumped from an animal at the market got supported by a new publication in the Journal of Medical Virology. The scientists conducted an analysis and compared the genetic sequences of 2019-nCoV and all other known coronaviruses. From Bats To Pangolins Some Chinese researchers are investigating the pangolin as a possible origin of the deadly coronavirus outbreak in China. Friday, they said that the endangered pangolin might be the ‘missing link’ between bats and humans, but other scientists reported the search might not be over. An earlier study pointed to snakes, and there remain numerous candidate species in the Wuhan wildlife market thought to be ground zero of the epidemic. But according to Arnaud Fontanet, from France's Pasteur Institute, the disease likely didn't jump straight from bats to humans. "We think there's another animal that's an intermediary." Fontanet believes the intermediary was ‘probably a mammal’ possible belonging to the badger family. {youtube}                                                        Coronavirus and the link of wild animals, 15-03-2020 After testing more than 1,000 samples from wild animals, scientists at the South China Agricultural University found the genome sequences of viruses in pangolins to be 99 percent identical to those on coronavirus patients, the official Xinhua news agency reported. "This is not scientific evidence," said James Wood, head of the department of veterinary medicine at the University of Cambridge. "Investigations into animal reservoirs are significant, and results will be published for international scrutiny." "Simply reporting detection of viral RNA with sequence similarity of 99+ percent is not sufficient," he added. Eric Leroy, a virologist, and vet at the IRD said the search could well turn up a result quickly like in the case of SARS. Equally, it could take years. Coronavirus: From Raccoon Dogs The Media often point a finger to the Pangolins as the intermediate host. But Germany’s leading coronavirus expert Christian Drosten on Merkel’s leadership has another opinion. “I don’t see any reason to assume that the virus passed through pangolins on its way to humans. There is an interesting piece of information from the old Sars literature. That virus was found in civet cats, but also in raccoon dogs – something the media overlooked. Raccoon dogs are a massive industry in China, where they are bred on farms and caught in the wild for their fur. If somebody gave me a few hundred thousand bucks and free access to China to find the source of the virus, I would look in places where people raccoon dogs breed.” Coronavirus, COVID-19: Recombination Mechanism On February 7, 2020, we learned that a virus even closer to SARS-CoV-2 got discovered in pangolins . With 99% of genomic concordance reported, this suggested a more likely reservoir than bats. However, a recent study under review shows that the coronavirus's genomes isolated from the Malaysian pangolin (Manis javanica) are less similar to SARS-Cov-2, with only 90% of genomic concordance . Above would indicate that the virus isolated in the pangolin is not responsible for the COVID-19 epidemic currently raging. However, the coronavirus isolated from pangolin is similar at 99% in a specific region of the S protein , which corresponds to the 74 amino acids involved in the ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) receptor binding domain, the one that allows the virus to enter human cells to infect them. By contrast, the virus RaTG13 isolated from bat R. affinis is highly divergent in this specific region (only 77 % of similarity). Above means that the coronavirus isolated from pangolin is capable of entering human cells, whereas the one isolated from bat R. affinis is not. Besides, these genomic comparisons suggest that the SARS-Cov-2 virus is the result of a recombination between two different viruses, one close to RaTG13 and the other closer to the pangolin virus. In other words, it is an illusion between two pre-existing infections. This recombination mechanism had already been described in coronaviruses, in particular, to explain the origin of SARS-CoV. It is essential to know that recombination results in a new virus capable of infecting a new host species. For recombination to occur, the two divergent viruses must have affected the same organism simultaneously. Two questions remain unanswered: in which organism did this recombination occur? (a bat, a pangolin, or another species?) And above all, under what conditions did this recombination take place? Recommended:  Coronavirus Images From Around The Globe Chinese Ferret Badger The study of the genetic code of COVID-19 reveals that the new virus is most closely related to two bat SARS-like coronavirus samples from China, initially suggesting that, like SARS and MERS, the bat might also be the origin of COVID-19. The authors further found that the DNA coding sequence of COVID-19 spike protein, which forms the ‘crown’ of the virus particle that recognizes the receptor on a host cell, indicates that the bat virus might have mutated before infecting people. But when the researchers performed a more detailed bioinformatics analysis of the sequence of COVID-19, it suggests that this coronavirus might come from snakes. Recommended:  Coronavirus, Flu, And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Coronavirus: Protein Codes From Snakes The researchers used an analysis of the protein codes favored by the new coronavirus. They compared it to the protein codes from coronaviruses found in different animal hosts, like birds, snakes, marmots, hedgehogs, manis, bats, and humans. Surprisingly, they found that the protein codes in the CoV are most similar to those used in snakes. What does a gene code for a protein? The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. The type of RNA that contains the information for making a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.                                                   Snakes Hunt Bats In A Cave | Planet Earth | BBC Earth Snakes often hunt for bats in the wild . Reports indicate that snakes were sold in the local seafood market in Wuhan, raising the possibility that COVID-19 might have jumped from the host species—bats—to snakes and then to humans at the beginning of this coronavirus outbreak. However, how the virus could adapt to both the cold-blooded and warm-blooded hosts remains a mystery. Researchers must verify the origin of the virus through laboratory experiments. Searching for the COVID-19 sequence in snakes would be the first thing to do. However, since the outbreak, the seafood market has been disinfected and shut down, which makes it challenging to trace the new virus’ source animal. Sampling DNA from animals sold at the market and from wild snakes and bats is needed to confirm the virus's origins. Nonetheless, the reported findings will also provide insights for developing prevention and treatment protocols. Recommended:  Coronavirus: Bill Gates, 65 Million Death In A Simulation Coronavirus And Sars: Passed From Animals To Humans In a Wet Market The coronavirus spreading in China and the SARS outbreak of 2003 have two things in common: Both are from the coronavirus family, and both were passed from animals to humans in a wet market. Poorly regulated live-animal markets mixed with illegal wildlife trade offer a unique opportunity for viruses to spillover from wildlife hosts into the human population. In the case of SARS, and probably this coronavirus outbreak too, bats were the original hosts. They then infected other animals via their poop or saliva, and the unwitting intermediaries transmitted the virus to humans. What does zoonotic mean? Zoonosis is another name for a zoonotic disease. This type of disease passes from an animal or insect to a human. Some don't make the animal sick but will sicken a human. Zoonotic diseases range from minor short-term illness to a major life-changing illness. Certain ones can even cause death. Chinese 'wet market'.  Coronavirus, COVID-19: Bats & Birds Reservoir Species For Viruses Bats and birds are considered reservoir species for viruses with pandemic potential, according to Bart Haagmans, a virologist at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands. In the past 45 years, at least three other pandemics (besides SARS) have been traced back to bats. The creatures were the source of Ebola, which has killed 13,500 people in multiple outbreaks since 1976: Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, better known as MERS, which can found in 28 countries The Nipah virus, which has a 78% fatality rate The coronavirus might have jumped from bats to snakes to people. Not all coronaviruses are deadly; the ones endemic to humans, like the common cold, are often considered inconsequential. The coronaviruses that pose a pandemic risk, however, are those that hang out in animals. Because these viruses have not circulated in humans before, specific immunity to these viruses is absent in humans. Coronavirus: Wuhan Experts haven’t yet confirmed the animal species that enabled it to spread to people, but they have some guesses. Scientists in China compared the genetic code of COVID-19 to other coronaviruses. They found it to be most similar to two bat coronavirus samples. Coronavirus via The Chinese Cobra? There’s an indication that it’s a bat virus, said Vincent Munster, a scientist at Rocky Mountain Laboratories. According to a group of scientists who edit the Journal of Medical Virology, the intermediary species, in this case, could be the Chinese cobra. How do Coronaviruses spread? Coronaviruses primarily spread through close contact with another individual, in particular through coughing and sneezing on somebody else who is within a range of about 3 to 6 feet from that person. If an infected person sneezes or coughs onto a surface a countertop, for example  and another person touches that surface and then rubs his or her eyes or nose, for example, the latter may get sick. That’s because further genetic analysis showed that the genetic building blocks of COVID-19 closely resembled snakes. So the researchers think a population of bats could have infected snakes, which passed the virus to humans ere sold at the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market in Wuhan. But the only way to be sure about where the virus came from is to take DNA samples from animals sold at that market and from wild snakes and bats in the area. Coronavirus: Why Bats Pose Such A Threat Bats harbor a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than other mammals, according to a 2017 study. Experts think that’s because bats can fly across large geographical ranges, transporting diseases as they go. That makes them an ideal host.  Bats pass along viruses in their poop: If they drop feces onto a fruit piece that a different animal then eats, the creature can become a carrier. We know a fair amount of viruses on the World Health Organization’s Blueprint list of priority diseases have either a direct or indirect link with bats,” Munster said. (The list includes the SARS and MERS viruses.) Last March, a study even predicted that bats could be the source of a new coronavirus outbreak in China. It is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China. That’s because: The majority of coronaviruses – those that circulate both in humans and in animals – can be found in China. Plus, the study authors said, most of the bat hosts of these coronaviruses live near humans in China, potentially transmitting viruses to humans and livestock. The bat population from which the SARS virus originated, for example, lived in a cave just over 1 kilometer, or about half a mile, from the nearest village. Similarly, a 2017 study warned that the risk of spillover into people and the emergence of a disease similar to SARS is possible. The authors identified at least 300 separate strains of coronaviruses still circulating in bats. How SARS, MERS, And Ebola Jumped From Bats To People Here are five viruses that most likely came from bats, and how the outbreaks compare. Researchers traced SARS to a population of horseshoe bats in China’s Yunnan province. Humans caught it from weasel-like mammals called masked palm civets at a wet market in Guangdong From 2002 to 2003, SARS killed 774 people across 29 countries and infected more than 8,000. Patients experienced fevers, headaches, and a type of deadly pneumonia that could cause respiratory failure MERS, similarly, passed from bats to dromedary camels in the Middle East. That coronavirus circulated in the camel population undetected for decades before jumping to humans in 2012. So far, 858 people have died in 28 countries from the illness, which comes with fever, cough, and shortness of breath In Southeast Asia, fruit bats were the original hosts of the deadly Nipah virus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998 and then again in India in 2001. The bats passed it to farmed pigs, which gave it to people. Patients experienced headaches and vomiting; many slipped into a coma and died Fruit bats in Africa have played a significant role in Ebola outbreaks since 1976. The worst Ebola outbreak in history, however, came from a population of long-fingered bats. More than 11,000 people got killed from 2013 to 2016. Fruit Bat Coronavirus: How To Prevent The Coronavirus From Spilling Over To People? At wet markets, shoppers' proximity to stall vendors and live and dead animals creates a prime breeding ground for zoonotic diseases. For cultural reasons in the region, people want to see the specific animals they’re buying be slaughtered in front of them, so they know the products they paid for,” according to Emily Langdon, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Chicago Medicine. Meaning, there’s a lot of skinning of dead animals in front of shoppers—the skinning results in aerosolizing of all sorts of things. The most likely virus that might cause a new pandemic would be a coronavirus. We’re in an age of epidemics because: of globalization of encroachment on wild environments Coronavirus, COVID-19: Human Health And Climate Change Climate change produced many harmful effects on human health in Central China. The cardiovascular mortalities increased year by year in Wuhan from 1998 to 2008. And the morbidity was highest in winter and lowest in summer. The increasing frequency and intensity of summer heatwaves resulted in an increased risk of summer cardiovascular, respiratory system diseases, and heatstroke. The regional precipitation became uneven in Central China. The irregular rainfall caused more floods and increased the risk of infectious diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and conjunctivitis. Contagious intestinal diseases rose from 66.04% to 80.97% in Hubei during 1991–1997. Climate Change Helped Snails Survive The Winter Season  Behavioral risks that lead to the emergence of bat coronaviruses in humans Bat borne coronaviruses have caused several emerging infectious disease outbreaks of global significance, including SARS. Novel SARS-related coronaviruses have been discovered in bat populations in Southern China, some of which can infect human cells Human-animal interactions are critical for the emergence of bat coronaviruses; however, the specific interactions linked to animal-to-human spill over remain unknown. Coronavirus: New Findings This study found serological evidence for bat-borne coronavirus transmission to people. Direct contact with bats is not a risk factor. However, self-reported severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) was linked to human interaction with other wildlife and livestock, suggesting that there may be other zoonotic exposures leading to clinical disease in these populations. Vendors wait for customers as dogs are kept in a cage at the Dashichang dog market ahead of a local dog meat festival in Yulin, Guangxi Autonomous Region. Human interaction with animals has been implicated as a primary risk factor for several high impact zoonoses, including many bat-origin viral diseases. However, the animal-to-human spillover events that lead to emerging diseases are rarely observed or clinically examined, and the link between specific interactions and spillover risk is poorly understood. Researchers conducted biological-behavioral surveillance among rural residents in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong districts of Southern China, where we have identified several SARS-related coronaviruses in bats to investigate this phenomenon. Serum samples got tested for four bat-borne coronaviruses. Researchers are using newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Survey data got used to characterize associations between human-animal contact and bat coronavirus spillover risk. Coronavirus From Animals To Humans A total of 1,596 residents got enrolled in the study from 2015 to 2017 Nine participants (0.6%) tested positive for bat coronaviruses . 265 (17%) participants reported severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms in the past year, which were associated with poultry, carnivore, rodent/shrew, or bat contact, with variability by family income and district of residence. This study provides serological evidence of bat coronavirus spillover in rural communities in Southern China. The low number of persons in a population who test positive in this study suggests that a bat coronavirus spillover is a rare event. Nonetheless, this study highlights associations between human-animal interaction and zoonotic spillover risk. These findings e used to support targeted biological, behavioral surveillance in high-risk geographic areas to reduce the risk of zoonotic disease emergence. Coronavirus, COVID-19: Interaction Between Humans And Animals A Health Risk? In the highly biodiverse southern region of China, interactions among humans, wildlife, and livestock are likely to be familiar. They are a risk factor in the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Human-animal interactions may pose a particular public health threat in rural communities where frequent contact with animals occurs, and disease prevention measures are likely less well-developed. What is a hypothesis? In science, a hypothesis is an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. Outside science, a theory or guess can also be called a hypothesis. A hypothesis is something more than a wild guess but less than a well-established theory. Although human-animal interaction can be associated with zoonotic disease emergence, few studies have addressed the nature of specific interactions between animals (particularly wild animals) and humans, leading to pathogen spillover. Bats (order Chiroptera) are reservoirs of many zoonotic viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs) that have caused disease outbreaks in human and livestock populations. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the causative agent of the SARS outbreak affecting 32 countries in 2002-3, infecting 8,096 people and causing 774 deaths The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has caused 823 deaths from 2,374 human cases in 27 countries by the end of February 2019, and have spilled initially over from bats into camels , in which is it now endemic Severe acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) which emerged in the pig population of Southern China and caused the deaths of more than 20,000 piglets in 2017 and 2018 A broad diversity of coronaviruses, including SARS-related Coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), has been discovered in bats, and phylogenetic and pathogenesis studies suggest a high capacity for transmission across species barriers. However, few studies have analyzed bat-to-human spillover events in non-outbreak conditions, likely due to these events' rarity and difficulties in identifying at-risk populations or target geographies. Additionally, the symptoms of new bat coronavirus infection in the human population may not be clinically recognized at the time of emergence due to a lack of adequate surveillance or confusion with other diseases. The outcome represents a significant biosafety risk. They are considering the large and increasing number of coronaviruses discovered in bats and the wide distribution of bat populations in rural regions such as Southern China. We report on a study designed to characterize the bat coronavirus spillover associated with presumed high-risk human behavior in Southern China's rural communities. Human Populations Close To bats And Wildlife A cross-sectional study was done in the districts of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong, China. These provinces are known for their high wildlife biodiversity, active wildlife trade activity, and historic zoonotic disease emergence events. Eight study sites got selected in areas where we have previously reported diverse coronaviruses in bat populations roosting close (within 5 km) to human dwellings. The study targeted human populations highly exposed to bats and other wildlife. They included people who visit or workaround bat caves, work in local live animal markets, raise animals, or are involved in wildlife trade (e.g., wild animal harvest, trade, transportation, and preparation), as identified by previous exploratory ethnographic interviews. Recruitment and sampling We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 400 participants from each of the three districts (Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong), for a total sample size of over 1,200 participants. A snowball sampling method was used because the population size at selected sites and the people exposed to wild animals were challenging to elucidate. Results From October 2015 to July 2017, a total of 1,596 residents from eight sites in Yunnan (n=761), Guangxi (n=412), and Guangdong (n=423) provinces got enrolled in this study. Of these, 1,585 participants completed the questionnaires, and 11 participants withdrew from the questionnaire interview due to scheduling reasons. After the meetings, 1,497 participants provided biological samples for lab analysis. Demographics More females (62%) than male (38%) community members participated in this study. Most participants were adults over 45 years old (69%) and had been living in the community for more than five years (97%) with their family members (95%). A majority (86%) relied on a comparatively low family annual per capita income of less than 10,000 RMB, below the national mean for per capita disposable income of rural households from 2015 to 2017 (11,422 - 13,432 RMB). Most participants (98%) had not received a college education and lived in crop production (76%). 9% of participants frequently traveled outside the county as migrant laborers. Some participants were working in sectors where frequent human-animal contact occurs, such as the animal production business (1.7%), wild animal trade (0.5%), slaughterhouses or abattoirs (0.5%), protected nature reserve rangers (0.4%), or in wildlife restaurants (0.3%). It was common for participants to have multiple part-time jobs as income sources (Table 1) Animal contact and exposure to bat Coronaviruses Serological testing of serum samples from 1,497 residents revealed the following; nine individuals (0.6%) in four study sites were positive for bat coronaviruses. Above indicates exposure at some point in their life to bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV or other coronaviruses that are phylogenetically closely related to these. All individuals who tested positive (male=6, female=3) were over 45 years old, and most (n=8) were making a living from crop production. None of those participants reported any symptoms in the 12 months preceding the interview. Due to the low rate of seropositivity, we did not obtain robust results from the coronavirus's statistical comparisons of animal-contact behavior. Among the 1,585 participants who responded, 265 (17%) reported experiencing SARI (n = 73) and ILI (n = 227) symptoms in the last year. Some demographic variables were associated with self-reported SARI and ILI symptoms as either independent or interactive terms. For example, respondents aged 41 to 60, and Yunnan province residents were less likely to report symptoms. Slaughtering poultry was positively associated with the outcome only in Guangxi residents, whereas the association was negative in Guangdong residents. Family income also showed interactions, with family income less than 10,000 RMB positively associated with the outcome in respondents who raised poultry but negatively associated with respondents who cooked or handled chicken. Gender is not salient in either direction. Attitudes towards zoonotic diseases emergence When asked about animals and disease transmission, more than half of the study participants believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals in wet markets. Of those worried about disease emergence, 46% purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months. Among all participants who purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months 32%), some  39% took protection measures or strategies such as washing hands, purchasing live animals less often 30%, or purchasing meat at supermarkets instead of living animal markets. Very few participants considered wearing a mask 1% or gloves  1%) while visiting the markets. Discussion Used was a novel human surveillance approach to integrate serological and behavioral data to characterize associations between human-animal contact and zoonotic disease spillover risk in Southern China. This study provides the first serological evidence of bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV transmission to people and highlights potential spillover pathways through animal contact. Given the high diversity, recombination rate of bat coronaviruses , and the close relationship of SARSr-CoVs to SARS-CoV, it is possible that exposure to these coronaviruses may lead to disease emergence in human populations. Continuous surveillance of both human and bat populations and further pathogenesis studies of these viruses is essential to determine the disease risk's extent. Contact with animals was prevalent among the survey population. Raising poultry and having rodents/shrews in the house were the most common types of contact. It’s important to note that the questionnaire used a broad classification of animals' type for these exposures due to the presumed variability in the respondent’s capacity to identify species or genera of wildlife. The most significant exposure we identified (to carnivores) likely reflects animals as diverse as civets, porcupines, ferret badgers, and taxes that respondents recognized as non-rodent and non-shrew. This study also assessed health risks from human interaction activities for each study participant in the survey based on their travel history and people's health history with who they lived. The goal was to minimize the possibility that illness was caused by the human-to-human transmission of pathogens causing ILI and SARI symptoms. Researchers did not find evidence of a direct relationship between bat contact and bat coronavirus seropositivity in the human population . However, there is frequent contact with domestic animals in these communities. Other bat-borne viruses have been transmitted to humans via livestock (e.g., henipaviruses and filoviruses). These findings may reflect other indirect exposures to bat CoVs. Future surveillance may benefit from including a wide range of livestock and peri-domestic animals in viral and serological studies to identify potential spillover pathways. While most survey respondents believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals at wet markets, many did not take measures to protect themselves from exposure. Further work on what drives these local attitudes to risk may help in developing risk-mitigation behavior change programs. Several affordable and readily adaptable measures could be targeted to these at-risk populations, including the use of gloves and masks while killing or butchering animals and handwashing. The low levels of seropositivity found in the study could reflect several factors: the rarity of spillover and bat-to-human transmission, as has been reported for other virus-host systems the use of a snowball technique for sample selection that could have biased the population sampled the limited diversity of CoVs that this study tested for the possibility that these infections cause high mortality rates and therefore the number of survivors and number of seropositive people is low, although this seems unlikely because the mortality rate from SARS was >10% during an outbreak that included hospital exposure and therefore likely high infectious doses that antibodies to these viruses wane rapidly in humans. The latter hypothesis supports findings that antibodies to SARS decline quickly (2–3 years) after an illness. This approach to a larger population, using a repeated sampling approach, and targeting people in the higher-risk categories provided a more significant number of sero-positives and more critical information on the driving factors of viral spillover. However, despite the small sample sizes, this study suggests that a substantial number of people in rural Southern China are exposed to bat-borne viruses. Exposure likely occurs through rural communities' daily or regular practices, rather than specific high-risk behaviors (e.g., wild animal hunting). The potential of some SARSr-CoVs in bats in southern China to infect human cells, cause clinical signs in humanized mouse models and lead to infections that s impossible to treat with monoclonal therapies effective against SARS-CoV this represents a clear and present danger to our biosafety and public health. Further studies to determine the relationship between SARSr-CoV and HKU10-CoV exposure and illness in people may help elucidate this risk and provide critical mitigation strategies. What About the Bats? Bat populations in China appear to have decreased considerably in the last 30 years. China has a rich bat fauna, with 100 species described, and taxonomic research on bats has increased during the previous two decades. Four reasons may have been responsible: Extensive pesticide use has resulted in bioaccumulation in bats, reducing their survival. Many old buildings were demolished during urbanization, reducing the availability of suitable roost sites. People often include bats in their diet, and bats get served in restaurants. We make recommendations for improving bat conservation in China. Education programs about bat conservation should be provided for adults and schoolchildren, and laws for protecting bats need to be enacted and enforced. The roosting sites of bats should be protected comprehensively, and pesticide use should be regulated. Cave exploitation for tourism has changed the atmosphere and temperature in caves, disturbing bats directly. The flow of visitors causes fluctuations in carbon dioxide content and temperature, and cave topography and dimensions affect the accumulation and diffusion of the gas, disturbing bats directly, for example, the maximum CO2 content increased from 1,000 to 7,000 ppm in the chamber in Baiyun Cave, Hebei, after c. Three thousand people visited for 5 hours, and the temperature increased from 16.8 to 19.6. The effects of disturbance on bats and other cave fauna have seldom been studied in China. Lighting schemes installed for visitors without considering the impact on bats and other cave animals, paths have constructed, and gates at cave entrances for managing visitors are often unsuitable for flying bats to negotiate. The population of fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti in Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province, for example, decreased from c. 5,000 to 2,000 after cave tourism started in 1993. Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province Based on surveys of bats in China, combined with inquiries to local people, we estimate that the bat population may have decreased by 60% in the last 30 years. Bats provide essential ecosystem services, pollinating plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling pests. However, many people in China regard bats as vermin because some species feed on economically essential fruits, such as longan and litchi. Bats are also regarded as nefarious animals because they fly in the dark. Before the emergence of the SARS virus, many restaurants in Guangzhou and other south China cities offered bats, and live bats are sold in markets. Our surveys have repeatedly revealed that local people capture wild bats to eat in some remote villages to meet their protein requirements. We have also found bamboo wattles, used to kill bats, in caves. There are additional factors causing decreases in bat populations in China. Many forests are destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), and vast steel-making and iron-smelting facilities are established, resulting in the loss of many roosting sites and foraging areas. Recently, small paper mills are built, resulting in the clear-cutting of forests and their replacement with the mills' fast-growing eucalypts. We have found that many limestone hills excavated to make cement have lost their bat-roosting caves. No bat species are included in the lists of wildlife under special state protection (1989 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife). No nature reserves protect bat species or their roost sites. The 2019-nCoV outbreak is another reminder that people should limit wild animals' consumption to prevent zoonotic infections. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Did you find this an interesting article, or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your article about the change in wildlife? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage.'
Stay Updated on Environmental Improvements And Global Innovations