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A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary?
Schiphol Airport (Netherlands) at sea is slowly but surely coming into the picture again as a future perspective for aviation. The public debate about the future of Schiphol has completely erupted again. Local residents’ associations and D66 (political party) suggest that Schiphol at sea is a solution for stranded Schiphol. Schiphol Airport Cutting Edge As a vital hub in international aviation, Schiphol Airport has offered excellent accessibility to business people and tourists over the years, steadily benefiting the employment and economic growth of the Netherlands. However, it is predicted that the number of air travellers will continue to grow in the near future. In order to maintain Schiphol’s current ‘hub position’, the airport will have to increase its capacity to cater for the needs of travellers. In addition to improving service systems inside the airport, infrastructure surrounding the airport such as stations, parking spaces and roads must also be enlarged. For this to happen, space is needed, but where to find the space? How about space on water? What does Schiphol mean? There are several legends about the name 'Schiphol' Consequently, this place became known as: 'Schip Holl' or 'Scheepshol'. 'Schip' and 'Scheep' meaning 'ship', and 'hol' meaning 'grave' in this context. Another explanation is that the name comes from the word 'scheepshaal'. Schiphol's name is derived from a former fortification named Fort Schiphol, which was part of theStelling van Amsterdam defence works. Before 1852, theHaarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas. There are multiple stories of how the place got its name. A Floating Airport: Radical Solutions Technically, socially and legally, it is possible. The integral social cost-benefit analysis will be beneficial.  Is Schiphol airport below sea level? -3 m                                                                  World's First Floating City Documentary                                                    A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? On May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy gave his famous Moon Shot Speech: "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth." The rest is history and the U.S.A. is still revelling in its accomplishment. Recommended:  Climate Change Dodgy Politicians And Lobbyists Match Badly Google successfully uses the moon-shot strategy. The core of this strategy and its operations is simple: think of a major problem in the medium-long term, think of radical solutions and use ground-breaking knowledge. Reasoned attempts is about trial and error. We do not solve new problems with conventional solutions. Based on a growth strategy, maintaining Schiphol Airport in the Haarlemmermeer (municipality in the south of the Dutch province of Noord-Holland) is not an option in the longer term. Noise pollution, fuel tanks, congestion and so on lead to public uproar and riots. ‘It is the economy, stupid’ will not always apply. Slowing down is an expensive economic and political cost. The growth of the national aviation sector is only possible if a radically innovative solution is chosen. Aviation must be CO2 neutral and not cause any inconvenience. The water offers unprecedented opportunities for this. Recommended:  CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? By placing an airport at sea, the flight paths can also largely take place over the sea and do not cause any inconvenience. Around the floating airport, enough biofuels can be produced by means of floating algae and seaweed plantations to fuel the Schiphol fleet. Recommended: Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows  CO2  Faster Than Trees! How? Why float and not land reclamation? Research with underwater drones shows that ecology remains under floating platforms and sometimes even strengthened. In the case of land reclamation, the aquatic ecology disappears. With a floating airport you also retain the flexibility to move further in the future. After all, Schiphol Airport was once also a sea, so who knows what needs will exist in future? Finally, a floating airport adapts to rising sea levels and is therefore a climate-adaptive solution. Recommended:  Agriculture Under Water: Farming Deep At Sea In Italy Floating Schiphol can be connected to Amsterdam and Rotterdam with lightning fast connections with a travel time of less than 20 minutes. An example of such a connection based on vacuum tubes is the Hyperloop system. This is an initiative of Tesla boss Elon Musk, where TU Delft is working on. Recommended:  Sustainable Travel With Elon Musk’s Hyperloop The Boring Company Around Schiphol, other functions can be added such as artificial reefs, energy storage and logistics. This creates an iconic project in which the Netherlands can put itself on the map internationally as a water and innovation country. The Netherlands: Testbed For Floating Developments In the Netherlands we realized already floating projects, the most iconic example is the floating pavilion in Rotterdam. The floating pavilion is a pilot for building on water as a first step towards floating urbanization. What are dikes and polders? A polder (Dutch pronunciation: (ˈpɔldər) is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes. Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike. The urban development in unprotected areas outside the dikes is of major importance to cities like Rotterdam (largest harbour in Europe). With this project the municipality of Rotterdam took a pioneering role in climate adaption and delta technology. The floating pavilion demonstrates how cities can pro-actively adapt to the effects of climate change. In cooperation with InHolland University of Applied Sciences, Blue21 (global leading expert in floating architecture and urban development) developed a masterplan for redevelopment of the Rijnhaven harbor. It combines many floating building blocks that already exist. Like floating houses, floating wetlands, breakwaters and roads. The Rijnhaven is an ideal playground for floating. Floating trees Rijnhaven Harbour Rotterdam, Netherlands At the moment the redevelopment of the Rijnhaven is just a plan. But if we take climate change serious and care about the wellbeing of people and our planet, then we need to take action now. Plans like these are a stepping stone for floating urbanization and sustainable projects to save our oceans, the planet and the lives of people. New developments and initiatives that improve the quality of life can be commercially attractive at the same time! Floating Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary Urbanization 2030 - 2050 What does it mean to be a visionary? A visionary is someone with a strong vision of the future. Since such visions aren't always accurate, a visionary's ideas may either work brilliantly or fail miserably. The word is also an adjective; thus, for example, we may speak of a visionary project, a visionary leader, a visionary painter, or a visionary company. Development of floating neighbourhoods and floating cities are a unique opportunity for the Netherlands to become a world leader in floating developments. As an early adapter we can create a competitive advantage over other countries and companies in the world. Dutch floating developments can become an export product by which we are going to write history and save people, our oceans and our planet at the same time. Although it is technically feasible to build large floating structures on the sea, it is commercially more attractive to expand the land to floating islands in densely populated areas.                                 Seasteading: Floating libertarian city coming soon to French Polynesia - TomoNews                                                       A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? Once we have realized floating neighbourhoods in sheltered areas and near high value locations like large cities, it is our ambition to build the first environmentally friendly floating city on the sea. In 2050 the world will look completely different than today. By then, the first floating city in the ocean may have been built and could look like this:  We can save our oceans, we can save our planet and we can improve our quality of live, all at the same time. These floating developments are not science fiction, it is technically feasible and it is already happening. However, to meet the global challenges we are currently facing we don’t have a lot of time… 2050 is closer than we think. Floating city: Plan for 40,000 people to live on the high seas. A Florida-based firm wants to create a 'community on the sea' which would circle the globe every two years Floating developments could save the lives of people in low lying areas like coastal cities and island communities. It provides space for the growing world population. And at the same time, it can produce food and energy in a renewable and sustainable way. References: Jan van Kessel, Barbara, Vicky, David, Harriet, Bart, Karina and Rutger at Blue21 Richard Gray, How can we manage Earth’s land? BBC, 29 June 2017 Joe McCarthy, The Planet Will Face Major Water Shortages by 2050, UN Chief Warns. Global Citizen, 8 June 2017 NU / AT5, Nog ruim 42.000 woningen tekort in regio Amsterdam. 11 February 2019 Joe Quirk, The future of floating cities. World’s Fair Nano Future Festival, 29 March 2018 Before you go! Recommended:  Floating Cities: A Sustainable Concept For Future Communities Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Schiphol Airport (Netherlands) at sea is slowly but surely coming into the picture again as a future perspective for aviation. The public debate about the future of Schiphol has completely erupted again. Local residents’ associations and D66 (political party) suggest that Schiphol at sea is a solution for stranded Schiphol. Schiphol Airport Cutting Edge As a vital hub in international aviation, Schiphol Airport has offered excellent accessibility to business people and tourists over the years, steadily benefiting the employment and economic growth of the Netherlands. However, it is predicted that the number of air travellers will continue to grow in the near future. In order to maintain Schiphol’s current ‘hub position’, the airport will have to increase its capacity to cater for the needs of travellers. In addition to improving service systems inside the airport, infrastructure surrounding the airport such as stations, parking spaces and roads must also be enlarged. For this to happen, space is needed, but where to find the space? How about space on water? What does Schiphol mean? There are several legends about the name 'Schiphol' Consequently, this place became known as: 'Schip Holl' or 'Scheepshol'. 'Schip' and 'Scheep' meaning 'ship', and 'hol' meaning 'grave' in this context. Another explanation is that the name comes from the word 'scheepshaal'. Schiphol's name is derived from a former fortification named Fort Schiphol, which was part of theStelling van Amsterdam defence works. Before 1852, theHaarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas. There are multiple stories of how the place got its name. A Floating Airport: Radical Solutions Technically, socially and legally, it is possible. The integral social cost-benefit analysis will be beneficial.  Is Schiphol airport below sea level? -3 m                                                                  World's First Floating City Documentary                                                    A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? On May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy gave his famous Moon Shot Speech: "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth." The rest is history and the U.S.A. is still revelling in its accomplishment. Recommended:  Climate Change Dodgy Politicians And Lobbyists Match Badly Google successfully uses the moon-shot strategy. The core of this strategy and its operations is simple: think of a major problem in the medium-long term, think of radical solutions and use ground-breaking knowledge. Reasoned attempts is about trial and error. We do not solve new problems with conventional solutions. Based on a growth strategy, maintaining Schiphol Airport in the Haarlemmermeer (municipality in the south of the Dutch province of Noord-Holland) is not an option in the longer term. Noise pollution, fuel tanks, congestion and so on lead to public uproar and riots. ‘It is the economy, stupid’ will not always apply. Slowing down is an expensive economic and political cost. The growth of the national aviation sector is only possible if a radically innovative solution is chosen. Aviation must be CO2 neutral and not cause any inconvenience. The water offers unprecedented opportunities for this. Recommended:  CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? By placing an airport at sea, the flight paths can also largely take place over the sea and do not cause any inconvenience. Around the floating airport, enough biofuels can be produced by means of floating algae and seaweed plantations to fuel the Schiphol fleet. Recommended: Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows  CO2  Faster Than Trees! How? Why float and not land reclamation? Research with underwater drones shows that ecology remains under floating platforms and sometimes even strengthened. In the case of land reclamation, the aquatic ecology disappears. With a floating airport you also retain the flexibility to move further in the future. After all, Schiphol Airport was once also a sea, so who knows what needs will exist in future? Finally, a floating airport adapts to rising sea levels and is therefore a climate-adaptive solution. Recommended:  Agriculture Under Water: Farming Deep At Sea In Italy Floating Schiphol can be connected to Amsterdam and Rotterdam with lightning fast connections with a travel time of less than 20 minutes. An example of such a connection based on vacuum tubes is the Hyperloop system. This is an initiative of Tesla boss Elon Musk, where TU Delft is working on. Recommended:  Sustainable Travel With Elon Musk’s Hyperloop The Boring Company Around Schiphol, other functions can be added such as artificial reefs, energy storage and logistics. This creates an iconic project in which the Netherlands can put itself on the map internationally as a water and innovation country. The Netherlands: Testbed For Floating Developments In the Netherlands we realized already floating projects, the most iconic example is the floating pavilion in Rotterdam. The floating pavilion is a pilot for building on water as a first step towards floating urbanization. What are dikes and polders? A polder (Dutch pronunciation: (ˈpɔldər) is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes. Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike. The urban development in unprotected areas outside the dikes is of major importance to cities like Rotterdam (largest harbour in Europe). With this project the municipality of Rotterdam took a pioneering role in climate adaption and delta technology. The floating pavilion demonstrates how cities can pro-actively adapt to the effects of climate change. In cooperation with InHolland University of Applied Sciences, Blue21 (global leading expert in floating architecture and urban development) developed a masterplan for redevelopment of the Rijnhaven harbor. It combines many floating building blocks that already exist. Like floating houses, floating wetlands, breakwaters and roads. The Rijnhaven is an ideal playground for floating. Floating trees Rijnhaven Harbour Rotterdam, Netherlands At the moment the redevelopment of the Rijnhaven is just a plan. But if we take climate change serious and care about the wellbeing of people and our planet, then we need to take action now. Plans like these are a stepping stone for floating urbanization and sustainable projects to save our oceans, the planet and the lives of people. New developments and initiatives that improve the quality of life can be commercially attractive at the same time! Floating Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary Urbanization 2030 - 2050 What does it mean to be a visionary? A visionary is someone with a strong vision of the future. Since such visions aren't always accurate, a visionary's ideas may either work brilliantly or fail miserably. The word is also an adjective; thus, for example, we may speak of a visionary project, a visionary leader, a visionary painter, or a visionary company. Development of floating neighbourhoods and floating cities are a unique opportunity for the Netherlands to become a world leader in floating developments. As an early adapter we can create a competitive advantage over other countries and companies in the world. Dutch floating developments can become an export product by which we are going to write history and save people, our oceans and our planet at the same time. Although it is technically feasible to build large floating structures on the sea, it is commercially more attractive to expand the land to floating islands in densely populated areas.                                 Seasteading: Floating libertarian city coming soon to French Polynesia - TomoNews                                                       A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? Once we have realized floating neighbourhoods in sheltered areas and near high value locations like large cities, it is our ambition to build the first environmentally friendly floating city on the sea. In 2050 the world will look completely different than today. By then, the first floating city in the ocean may have been built and could look like this:  We can save our oceans, we can save our planet and we can improve our quality of live, all at the same time. These floating developments are not science fiction, it is technically feasible and it is already happening. However, to meet the global challenges we are currently facing we don’t have a lot of time… 2050 is closer than we think. Floating city: Plan for 40,000 people to live on the high seas. A Florida-based firm wants to create a 'community on the sea' which would circle the globe every two years Floating developments could save the lives of people in low lying areas like coastal cities and island communities. It provides space for the growing world population. And at the same time, it can produce food and energy in a renewable and sustainable way. References: Jan van Kessel, Barbara, Vicky, David, Harriet, Bart, Karina and Rutger at Blue21 Richard Gray, How can we manage Earth’s land? BBC, 29 June 2017 Joe McCarthy, The Planet Will Face Major Water Shortages by 2050, UN Chief Warns. Global Citizen, 8 June 2017 NU / AT5, Nog ruim 42.000 woningen tekort in regio Amsterdam. 11 February 2019 Joe Quirk, The future of floating cities. World’s Fair Nano Future Festival, 29 March 2018 Before you go! Recommended:  Floating Cities: A Sustainable Concept For Future Communities Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary?
A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary?
Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How?
South Korea wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022. South Korea is vying to win the race to create the first hydrogen-powered society. It wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022 as it positions itself as a leader in the green technology. Hydrogen Cities: Living, Transportation The plan will see the cities use hydrogen as the fuel for cooling, heating, electricity and transportation. Consultation on where the three cities will be located is under way. The test cities will use a hydrogen-powered transportation system, including buses and personal cars. Hydrogen charging stations will be available in bus stations and parking spaces. The strategy is part of a wider vision to power 10% of the country’s cities, counties and towns by hydrogen by 2030, growing to 30% by 2040. This includes drastic increases in the numbers of hydrogen-powered vehicles and charging points in the next three years. The government has earmarked money to subsidize these vehicles and charging infrastructure. Recommended:  Green Hydrogen Economy: The Enormous Potential Worldwide South Korea’s Hydrogen Roadmap’s Goals The goal of Korea’s hydrogen roadmap is essentially to make the country the world’s largest producer of fuel cells globally by 2030. By 2040, Korea aims to be producing over six million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. And it wants 40,000 hydrogen-powered buses, 80,000 hydrogen taxis and 30,000 hydrogen trucks on its roads all powered by 1,200 hydrogen refuelling stations. On the stationary power side, the country wants to build on its lead in fuel cells for utility power generation, while also placing increased focus on fuel cells for residential and commercial use here. By 20 years’ time, South Korea wants to be producing 15GW of fuel cells for its domestic and export markets. And this does not just look like wishful thinking, as it’s being backed by some serious investment. Next year alone, the Korean government will invest almost half a billion dollars in the hydrogen economy of which will be spent on fuel cell vehicles and refuelling stations. That’s a ten-fold increase on its 2018 spending and represents only the public sector side. Hyundai and its suppliers alone plan to invest an additional USD $6.5 billion by 2030.  How to produce hydrogen? Natural Gas Reforming/Gasification: Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for the majority of hydrogen produced in the United States annually A synthesis gas can also be created by reacting coal or biomass with high-temperature steam and oxygen in a pressurized gasifier, which is converted into gaseous components—a process called gasification. The resulting synthesis gas contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is reacted with steam to separate the hydrogen Electrolysis: An electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity is produced by renewable sources, such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen will be considered renewable as well, and has numerous emissions benefits. Power-to-hydrogen projects are taking off, where excess renewable electricity, when it's available, is used to make hydrogen through electrolysis Renewable Liquid Reforming: Renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol, are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end use Fermentation: Biomass is converted into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be fermented to produce hydrogen A number of hydrogen production methods are in development: High-Temperature Water Splitting: High temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen Photobiological Water Splitting: Microbes, such as green algae, consume water in the presence of sunlight, producing hydrogen as a byproduct Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Photoelectrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight.                                                    South Korea build 3 hydrogen-powered cities in Future                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? Hydrogen, The Fuel Of The Future Countries including Germany, Japan and China are also looking to a future hydrogen society, with a number of Asian car manufacturers including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda sinking resources into creating a range of hydrogen-powered cars. Recommended:  Green Sustainable Hydrogen By Hyundai, Toyota And Honda With fuel cell vehicles – or FCVs – generally offering greater range and faster refuelling times than electric vehicles, there is great hope that they will accelerate the transition to cleaner vehicles. But challenges remain with the technology. Although some FCVs are now on the market, for many the cost remains prohibitive and they have some way to go before they become mainstream. The output from hydrogen-powered cars is certainly clean – they only produce water as a by-product – at the moment they are not necessarily as clean as they may first seem. Producing the hydrogen itself from renewable energy sources like wind and solar is still a challenge. Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa Hydrogen, Alternative Energy In The World Moving to clean energy is key to combatting climate change, yet in the past five years, the energy transition has stagnated. Energy consumption and production contribute to two-thirds of global emissions, and 81% of the global energy system is still based on fossil fuels, the same percentage as 30 years ago. Is hydrogen better than fossil fuels? Hydrogen fuel is very efficient. More energy is extracted from this fuel source than with conventional power technologies. Fossil fuels have a high combustion rate and are capable of releasing tremendous amount of energy. Recommended:  Fossil Fuel Will Dominate Energy Use Through 2050: Globally Effective policies, private-sector action and public-private cooperation are needed to create a more inclusive, sustainable, affordable and secure global energy system. Benchmarking progress is essential to a successful transition. The World Economic Forum’s Energy Transition Index, which ranks 115 economies on how well they balance energy security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability, shows that the biggest challenge facing energy transition is the lack of readiness among the world’s largest emitters, including US, China, India and Russia. Recommended:  Zero Emission Day: No Fossil Fuel Transport Worldwide The 10 countries that score the highest in terms of readiness account for only 2.6% of global annual emissions. To future-proof the global energy system, the Forum’s Shaping the Future of Energy initiative is working with projects including the Partnering for Sustainable Energy Innovation, the Future of Electricity, the Global Battery Alliance and Scaling Renewable Energy to encourage and enable innovative energy investments, technologies and solutions. Hydrogen-Powered Cities: What About Safety? How dangerous is hydrogen? When liquid hydrogen is stored in tanks, it's relatively safe, but if it escapes there are associated hazards. Topping the list of concerns is hydrogen burns. In the presence of an oxidizer - oxygen is a good one - hydrogen can catch fire, sometimes explosively, and it burns more easily than gasoline does. The other major caveat is hydrogen’s explosive nature, which is still causing safety concerns. Earlier this year (2019) an explosion of a hydrogen storage tank at one of South Korea’s government research projects killed two people and injured others. Storage of the gas requires a lot of infrastructure, and despite government incentives to support development, until hydrogen becomes more widespread private investors can still struggle to turn a profit. Recommended:  Hydrogen Energy Storage Revolution In The Netherlands Fortunate a research team at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea, has invented a high-performance and cost-effective hydrogen sensor. Hydrogen gas is widely considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy resources. It is also an important material for various industrial applications, such as hydrogen-cooled systems, petroleum refinement and metallurgical processes. However, hydrogen, which is highly flammable, is colourless and odourless and thus difficult to detect with human senses. Therefore, developing hydrogen gas sensors with high sensitivity, fast response, high selectivity and good stability is important for the growing hydrogen economy. Hydrogen sensor In the present study, a team of scientists led by Professors Park In-gyu and Jung Yeon-Sik from KAIST successfully fabricated a nanostructured high-performance hydrogen gas sensor. Their sensor achieved dramatically greater hydrogen gas sensitivity compared with a silicon thin film sensor without nanopatterns. The sensor device shows a fast hydrogen response (response time less than five seconds) and ten times higher selectivity for hydrogen gas than other gases. They also demonstrated that the sensor was stable and produced reliable responses in both dry and high-humidity ambient environments. Is hydrogen dangerous to breathe? Inhalation: High concentrations of this gas can cause an oxygen-deficient environment. Individuals breathing such an atmosphere may experience symptoms which include headaches, ringing in ears, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and depression of all the senses. Hydrogen-Powered Economy South Korea underlines a great determination to shift large swathes of its economy to hydrogen energy by 2040 from power and heat generation to passenger and freight transport. This is bringing huge opportunities for western firms, particularly in the upstream hydrogen technologies Korean companies need to complement their strength in fuel cells. Recommended:  H ydrogen Car Is Extremely Fuel Efficient: 5.000 Km One Liter South Korea Bets Big On Hydrogen: Why? Korea hopes that, by becoming a leader in hydrogen energy, it can improve its terrible air quality, meet its bold emission reduction targets, strengthen its energy security and create the jobs and export industries of the future. There’s now ferocious opposition to coal in Korea due to its effect on air quality, and to nuclear power on account of safety concerns. While more solar and wind power is coming online here, few believe these will ever be adequate, reliable energy sources for the country’s dense population centres or its energy-intensive manufacturing base.  Recommended: Renewables In Danger! Solar And Wind Energy: Start Digging At the same time, Korea is now able to import large quantities of cheap natural gas from the US. As most of the hydrogen used in energy production is ‘still’ reformed from natural gas, a hydrogen economy potentially allows the country to reduce its dependence on oil from the Middle East and geopolitical chokepoints such as the Straits of Hormuz and Straits of Malacca. So, if the country is able to roll out a safe infrastructure and drive the necessary technologies down the cost curve, hydrogen fuel cells hold the promise of reliable, large-scale distributed power on a small footprint. And, if Korea can crack that nut, the global export potential for its fuel cells could be huge. South Korea’s Current Situation On Hydrogen South Korea already has strong incentives that encourage the uptake of fuel cells, such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard, mandatory renewable energy in public buildings and subsidies for fuel cell vehicles. The new hydrogen roadmap builds on these measures.                                          Hydrogen Fuel Cells Overview - 1 (HYDROGEN FUEL CELL DRONE)                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? In terms of the primary players, Doosan dominates the stationary fuel cell market here with three technologies. The latest of these - an SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) product. Doosan’s PAFC (phosphoric acid fuel cell) product is the first viable utility-scale fuel cell in the Korean market albeit still supported by state subsidies. Doosan’s PAFC division topped USD $1 billion in 2018, with most coming from the domestic market. The company has now modified its product so it’s able to run directly on hydrogen (rather than natural gas) and recently won a contract for the largest such fuel cell installation in the world. What is a fuel cell? A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (often hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Doosan employee Ben Yoon with an individual cell stack. Four stacks are combined in a fuel cell unit Doosan also became the first company in the world to commercialise hydrogen-powered drones when it launched its DS30 drone system this month. The drone is able to stay airborne for two hours and is aimed primarily at global infrastructure and logistics markets. Hydrogen Transport: What About Fuel Cell Cars? What are types of fuel cells? Types of Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Alkaline fuel cells Phosphoric acid fuel cells Molten carbonate fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cells Reversible fuel cells Korea’s Hyundai, meanwhile, leads the global pack in fuel cell cars, alongside Japan’s Toyota.  Recommended:  Hydrogen Transport Wins It From The Electric Battery Car Hyundai wants to drive the uptake of fuel cells on a worldwide scale and recently announced it will sell its PEM (proton-exchange membrane) fuel cell drive system to other OEMs. This month, the company also signed an MOU with American engine manufacturer Cummins, aiming to replace diesel trucks with fuel cell trucks in the US commercial vehicle market. So, Doosan and Hyundai dominate in Korea, but there are plenty of other strong local players here, too.                                            Hyundai Hydrogen Powered Autonomous Self Driving Semi Truck                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? International entrants are also looking to exploit the market and signing licensing or distribution agreements with well-placed Korean firms. US firm Bloom Energy, for example, signed a distribution agreement with SK D&D this year and, just this month, announced a collaboration with Samsung Heavy Industries to develop fuel cell-powered cargo ships.  Recommended: Solar, Hydrogen And Wind Power Makes The Current Sail Cargo Ship South Korea’s Hydrogen: Emerging Opportunities Hydrogen storage, distribution and production, though currently a developed area, represent significant potential for heavy industrial companies to capture new business opportunities. What they need to do is to move away from the status quo: Steel and petrochemical companies. Upgrade their existing facilities to produce more hydrogen for future use Shipbuilders. New business from liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and build hydrogen powered vessels to replace diesel vessels in the future Gasoline companies. Leverage the existing storage and distribution network to tap into the hydrogen fuelling station infrastructure development. On balance, there is a strong incentive for these industrial players to participate in the hydrogen infrastructure investments, given the potential to generate sustainable earnings. Hydrogen: The Dawn Of The Shifting Trend That said, there must be systematic research and development, together with a clear governmental policy framework and funding mechanisms to incentivise private companies to participate. State-funded think tank H2Korea was set up to bridge the gap between the government and private sectors on hydrogen technologies. In addition, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) has earmarked an investment outlay of USD2.23 billion for a joint venture with private sector companies to speed up the development of the hydrogen infrastructure. Such partnerships between government and business are powerful because they increase the amount of funding and result in better vetting of the projects, thereby yielding greater economic benefits. In view of this, the outlook for Korea’s hydrogen industry and the associated responsible investment opportunities should remain positive. Only asset managers who can understand the implications of this shifting trend and identify emerging leaders within this space can fully tap into the potential of South Korea’s emerging hydrogen industry. Before you go! Recommended:  Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
South Korea wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022. South Korea is vying to win the race to create the first hydrogen-powered society. It wants to build three hydrogen-powered cities by 2022 as it positions itself as a leader in the green technology. Hydrogen Cities: Living, Transportation The plan will see the cities use hydrogen as the fuel for cooling, heating, electricity and transportation. Consultation on where the three cities will be located is under way. The test cities will use a hydrogen-powered transportation system, including buses and personal cars. Hydrogen charging stations will be available in bus stations and parking spaces. The strategy is part of a wider vision to power 10% of the country’s cities, counties and towns by hydrogen by 2030, growing to 30% by 2040. This includes drastic increases in the numbers of hydrogen-powered vehicles and charging points in the next three years. The government has earmarked money to subsidize these vehicles and charging infrastructure. Recommended:  Green Hydrogen Economy: The Enormous Potential Worldwide South Korea’s Hydrogen Roadmap’s Goals The goal of Korea’s hydrogen roadmap is essentially to make the country the world’s largest producer of fuel cells globally by 2030. By 2040, Korea aims to be producing over six million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. And it wants 40,000 hydrogen-powered buses, 80,000 hydrogen taxis and 30,000 hydrogen trucks on its roads all powered by 1,200 hydrogen refuelling stations. On the stationary power side, the country wants to build on its lead in fuel cells for utility power generation, while also placing increased focus on fuel cells for residential and commercial use here. By 20 years’ time, South Korea wants to be producing 15GW of fuel cells for its domestic and export markets. And this does not just look like wishful thinking, as it’s being backed by some serious investment. Next year alone, the Korean government will invest almost half a billion dollars in the hydrogen economy of which will be spent on fuel cell vehicles and refuelling stations. That’s a ten-fold increase on its 2018 spending and represents only the public sector side. Hyundai and its suppliers alone plan to invest an additional USD $6.5 billion by 2030.  How to produce hydrogen? Natural Gas Reforming/Gasification: Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a small amount of carbon dioxide, is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam. The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for the majority of hydrogen produced in the United States annually A synthesis gas can also be created by reacting coal or biomass with high-temperature steam and oxygen in a pressurized gasifier, which is converted into gaseous components—a process called gasification. The resulting synthesis gas contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is reacted with steam to separate the hydrogen Electrolysis: An electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity is produced by renewable sources, such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen will be considered renewable as well, and has numerous emissions benefits. Power-to-hydrogen projects are taking off, where excess renewable electricity, when it's available, is used to make hydrogen through electrolysis Renewable Liquid Reforming: Renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol, are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end use Fermentation: Biomass is converted into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be fermented to produce hydrogen A number of hydrogen production methods are in development: High-Temperature Water Splitting: High temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen Photobiological Water Splitting: Microbes, such as green algae, consume water in the presence of sunlight, producing hydrogen as a byproduct Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Photoelectrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight.                                                    South Korea build 3 hydrogen-powered cities in Future                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? Hydrogen, The Fuel Of The Future Countries including Germany, Japan and China are also looking to a future hydrogen society, with a number of Asian car manufacturers including Hyundai, Toyota and Honda sinking resources into creating a range of hydrogen-powered cars. Recommended:  Green Sustainable Hydrogen By Hyundai, Toyota And Honda With fuel cell vehicles – or FCVs – generally offering greater range and faster refuelling times than electric vehicles, there is great hope that they will accelerate the transition to cleaner vehicles. But challenges remain with the technology. Although some FCVs are now on the market, for many the cost remains prohibitive and they have some way to go before they become mainstream. The output from hydrogen-powered cars is certainly clean – they only produce water as a by-product – at the moment they are not necessarily as clean as they may first seem. Producing the hydrogen itself from renewable energy sources like wind and solar is still a challenge. Recommended:  Hydrogen Powered Car That Emits Water No CO2: The Rasa Hydrogen, Alternative Energy In The World Moving to clean energy is key to combatting climate change, yet in the past five years, the energy transition has stagnated. Energy consumption and production contribute to two-thirds of global emissions, and 81% of the global energy system is still based on fossil fuels, the same percentage as 30 years ago. Is hydrogen better than fossil fuels? Hydrogen fuel is very efficient. More energy is extracted from this fuel source than with conventional power technologies. Fossil fuels have a high combustion rate and are capable of releasing tremendous amount of energy. Recommended:  Fossil Fuel Will Dominate Energy Use Through 2050: Globally Effective policies, private-sector action and public-private cooperation are needed to create a more inclusive, sustainable, affordable and secure global energy system. Benchmarking progress is essential to a successful transition. The World Economic Forum’s Energy Transition Index, which ranks 115 economies on how well they balance energy security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability, shows that the biggest challenge facing energy transition is the lack of readiness among the world’s largest emitters, including US, China, India and Russia. Recommended:  Zero Emission Day: No Fossil Fuel Transport Worldwide The 10 countries that score the highest in terms of readiness account for only 2.6% of global annual emissions. To future-proof the global energy system, the Forum’s Shaping the Future of Energy initiative is working with projects including the Partnering for Sustainable Energy Innovation, the Future of Electricity, the Global Battery Alliance and Scaling Renewable Energy to encourage and enable innovative energy investments, technologies and solutions. Hydrogen-Powered Cities: What About Safety? How dangerous is hydrogen? When liquid hydrogen is stored in tanks, it's relatively safe, but if it escapes there are associated hazards. Topping the list of concerns is hydrogen burns. In the presence of an oxidizer - oxygen is a good one - hydrogen can catch fire, sometimes explosively, and it burns more easily than gasoline does. The other major caveat is hydrogen’s explosive nature, which is still causing safety concerns. Earlier this year (2019) an explosion of a hydrogen storage tank at one of South Korea’s government research projects killed two people and injured others. Storage of the gas requires a lot of infrastructure, and despite government incentives to support development, until hydrogen becomes more widespread private investors can still struggle to turn a profit. Recommended:  Hydrogen Energy Storage Revolution In The Netherlands Fortunate a research team at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea, has invented a high-performance and cost-effective hydrogen sensor. Hydrogen gas is widely considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy resources. It is also an important material for various industrial applications, such as hydrogen-cooled systems, petroleum refinement and metallurgical processes. However, hydrogen, which is highly flammable, is colourless and odourless and thus difficult to detect with human senses. Therefore, developing hydrogen gas sensors with high sensitivity, fast response, high selectivity and good stability is important for the growing hydrogen economy. Hydrogen sensor In the present study, a team of scientists led by Professors Park In-gyu and Jung Yeon-Sik from KAIST successfully fabricated a nanostructured high-performance hydrogen gas sensor. Their sensor achieved dramatically greater hydrogen gas sensitivity compared with a silicon thin film sensor without nanopatterns. The sensor device shows a fast hydrogen response (response time less than five seconds) and ten times higher selectivity for hydrogen gas than other gases. They also demonstrated that the sensor was stable and produced reliable responses in both dry and high-humidity ambient environments. Is hydrogen dangerous to breathe? Inhalation: High concentrations of this gas can cause an oxygen-deficient environment. Individuals breathing such an atmosphere may experience symptoms which include headaches, ringing in ears, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and depression of all the senses. Hydrogen-Powered Economy South Korea underlines a great determination to shift large swathes of its economy to hydrogen energy by 2040 from power and heat generation to passenger and freight transport. This is bringing huge opportunities for western firms, particularly in the upstream hydrogen technologies Korean companies need to complement their strength in fuel cells. Recommended:  H ydrogen Car Is Extremely Fuel Efficient: 5.000 Km One Liter South Korea Bets Big On Hydrogen: Why? Korea hopes that, by becoming a leader in hydrogen energy, it can improve its terrible air quality, meet its bold emission reduction targets, strengthen its energy security and create the jobs and export industries of the future. There’s now ferocious opposition to coal in Korea due to its effect on air quality, and to nuclear power on account of safety concerns. While more solar and wind power is coming online here, few believe these will ever be adequate, reliable energy sources for the country’s dense population centres or its energy-intensive manufacturing base.  Recommended: Renewables In Danger! Solar And Wind Energy: Start Digging At the same time, Korea is now able to import large quantities of cheap natural gas from the US. As most of the hydrogen used in energy production is ‘still’ reformed from natural gas, a hydrogen economy potentially allows the country to reduce its dependence on oil from the Middle East and geopolitical chokepoints such as the Straits of Hormuz and Straits of Malacca. So, if the country is able to roll out a safe infrastructure and drive the necessary technologies down the cost curve, hydrogen fuel cells hold the promise of reliable, large-scale distributed power on a small footprint. And, if Korea can crack that nut, the global export potential for its fuel cells could be huge. South Korea’s Current Situation On Hydrogen South Korea already has strong incentives that encourage the uptake of fuel cells, such as the Renewable Portfolio Standard, mandatory renewable energy in public buildings and subsidies for fuel cell vehicles. The new hydrogen roadmap builds on these measures.                                          Hydrogen Fuel Cells Overview - 1 (HYDROGEN FUEL CELL DRONE)                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? In terms of the primary players, Doosan dominates the stationary fuel cell market here with three technologies. The latest of these - an SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) product. Doosan’s PAFC (phosphoric acid fuel cell) product is the first viable utility-scale fuel cell in the Korean market albeit still supported by state subsidies. Doosan’s PAFC division topped USD $1 billion in 2018, with most coming from the domestic market. The company has now modified its product so it’s able to run directly on hydrogen (rather than natural gas) and recently won a contract for the largest such fuel cell installation in the world. What is a fuel cell? A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (often hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Doosan employee Ben Yoon with an individual cell stack. Four stacks are combined in a fuel cell unit Doosan also became the first company in the world to commercialise hydrogen-powered drones when it launched its DS30 drone system this month. The drone is able to stay airborne for two hours and is aimed primarily at global infrastructure and logistics markets. Hydrogen Transport: What About Fuel Cell Cars? What are types of fuel cells? Types of Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Alkaline fuel cells Phosphoric acid fuel cells Molten carbonate fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cells Reversible fuel cells Korea’s Hyundai, meanwhile, leads the global pack in fuel cell cars, alongside Japan’s Toyota.  Recommended:  Hydrogen Transport Wins It From The Electric Battery Car Hyundai wants to drive the uptake of fuel cells on a worldwide scale and recently announced it will sell its PEM (proton-exchange membrane) fuel cell drive system to other OEMs. This month, the company also signed an MOU with American engine manufacturer Cummins, aiming to replace diesel trucks with fuel cell trucks in the US commercial vehicle market. So, Doosan and Hyundai dominate in Korea, but there are plenty of other strong local players here, too.                                            Hyundai Hydrogen Powered Autonomous Self Driving Semi Truck                                                     Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How? International entrants are also looking to exploit the market and signing licensing or distribution agreements with well-placed Korean firms. US firm Bloom Energy, for example, signed a distribution agreement with SK D&D this year and, just this month, announced a collaboration with Samsung Heavy Industries to develop fuel cell-powered cargo ships.  Recommended: Solar, Hydrogen And Wind Power Makes The Current Sail Cargo Ship South Korea’s Hydrogen: Emerging Opportunities Hydrogen storage, distribution and production, though currently a developed area, represent significant potential for heavy industrial companies to capture new business opportunities. What they need to do is to move away from the status quo: Steel and petrochemical companies. Upgrade their existing facilities to produce more hydrogen for future use Shipbuilders. New business from liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and build hydrogen powered vessels to replace diesel vessels in the future Gasoline companies. Leverage the existing storage and distribution network to tap into the hydrogen fuelling station infrastructure development. On balance, there is a strong incentive for these industrial players to participate in the hydrogen infrastructure investments, given the potential to generate sustainable earnings. Hydrogen: The Dawn Of The Shifting Trend That said, there must be systematic research and development, together with a clear governmental policy framework and funding mechanisms to incentivise private companies to participate. State-funded think tank H2Korea was set up to bridge the gap between the government and private sectors on hydrogen technologies. In addition, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) has earmarked an investment outlay of USD2.23 billion for a joint venture with private sector companies to speed up the development of the hydrogen infrastructure. Such partnerships between government and business are powerful because they increase the amount of funding and result in better vetting of the projects, thereby yielding greater economic benefits. In view of this, the outlook for Korea’s hydrogen industry and the associated responsible investment opportunities should remain positive. Only asset managers who can understand the implications of this shifting trend and identify emerging leaders within this space can fully tap into the potential of South Korea’s emerging hydrogen industry. Before you go! Recommended:  Hydrogen Is The Fuel Of The Future: Questions & Answers Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How?
Building Hydrogen-Powered Cities: Who, Where, How?
Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?
Fashion from Algae - Biogarmentry clothes - can photosynthesise like plants. Canadian-Iranian designer Roya Aghighi has created clothes made from algae that turn carbon dioxide into oxygen via photosynthesis, as a more sustainable alternative to fast fashion and it feels like linen! Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Biogarmentry Named Biogarmentry, the clothes are the proof of concept for a textile made with living, photosynthetic cells. In a collaboration between the University of British Colombia (UBC) and Emily Carr Univeristy, Aghighi's biofabricated textiles are living organisms that respirate by turning carbon dioxide into oxygen. Sustainable Future With Fashion From Algae Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular "Biogarmentry suggests a complete overhaul rather than tinkering at the edges," said Aghighi. "The living aspect of the textile will transform users' relationship to their clothing, shifting collective behaviours around our consumption-oriented habits towards forming a sustainable future." Recommended:  CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? To make the fabric for Biogarmentry, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae, are spun together with nano polymers. The result, which feels like linen, is "the first non woven living and photosynthetic textile" to be created. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae Wearers would need to take care of their garment as they would a plant in order to keep them alive, rather than engaging in the environmentally destructive practice of making synthetic clothes and discarding them after a few uses. What are the characteristic of green algae? Cellular structure. Green algae have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll a and b, giving them a bright green color, as well as the accessory pigments beta carotene and xanthophylls, in stacked thylakoids. The cell walls of green algae usually contain cellulose, and they store carbohydrate in the form of starch. Recommended:  Israeli 3D Printed Fashion As Sustainable Works Of Art                                                   Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?                                                                                  Biogarmentry Biogarmentry is activated by being exposed to sunlight. Rather than wash their clothes, the owner would just need to spray them with water once a week. "By making textiles alive, users will develop an emotional attachments to their garments," said Aghighi. Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth "Since the life cycle of the living photosynthetic textile is directly dependent on how it is taken care of, caring for clothes would regain ascendance as a crucial part of the system." By turning carbon dioxide into oxygen, the clothes also improve the immediate environment of the wearer, and worn en masse could help regulate carbon emissions. After the user is finished with the garment, it could be disposed of via composting. Currently the textile is expected to live for around a month, but this period can be extended if it is cared for properly. Which algae used as food? Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are seaweeds that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food. They typically contain high amounts of fiber. They may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. Fashion From Algae: Biogarmentry Feasibility Biogarmentry's feasibility study was a joint undertaking by the Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Laboratory and the Botany Lab at UBC. Aghighi is currently a designer in residence at Material Experience Lab in the Netherlands. Other recent designs in the field of biofabrication include headphones made from fungus and food packaging made from algae. Headphones made from fungus EcoLogicStudio is harnessing the power of photosynthesis with an algae-filled facade covering for buildings that filters air pollution, and Dutch designer Ermi van Oers has invented a lamp that helps plants to grow indoors. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Fashion from Algae - Biogarmentry clothes - can photosynthesise like plants. Canadian-Iranian designer Roya Aghighi has created clothes made from algae that turn carbon dioxide into oxygen via photosynthesis, as a more sustainable alternative to fast fashion and it feels like linen! Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Biogarmentry Named Biogarmentry, the clothes are the proof of concept for a textile made with living, photosynthetic cells. In a collaboration between the University of British Colombia (UBC) and Emily Carr Univeristy, Aghighi's biofabricated textiles are living organisms that respirate by turning carbon dioxide into oxygen. Sustainable Future With Fashion From Algae Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular "Biogarmentry suggests a complete overhaul rather than tinkering at the edges," said Aghighi. "The living aspect of the textile will transform users' relationship to their clothing, shifting collective behaviours around our consumption-oriented habits towards forming a sustainable future." Recommended:  CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? To make the fabric for Biogarmentry, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae, are spun together with nano polymers. The result, which feels like linen, is "the first non woven living and photosynthetic textile" to be created. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a type of single-cell green algae Wearers would need to take care of their garment as they would a plant in order to keep them alive, rather than engaging in the environmentally destructive practice of making synthetic clothes and discarding them after a few uses. What are the characteristic of green algae? Cellular structure. Green algae have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll a and b, giving them a bright green color, as well as the accessory pigments beta carotene and xanthophylls, in stacked thylakoids. The cell walls of green algae usually contain cellulose, and they store carbohydrate in the form of starch. Recommended:  Israeli 3D Printed Fashion As Sustainable Works Of Art                                                   Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?                                                                                  Biogarmentry Biogarmentry is activated by being exposed to sunlight. Rather than wash their clothes, the owner would just need to spray them with water once a week. "By making textiles alive, users will develop an emotional attachments to their garments," said Aghighi. Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth "Since the life cycle of the living photosynthetic textile is directly dependent on how it is taken care of, caring for clothes would regain ascendance as a crucial part of the system." By turning carbon dioxide into oxygen, the clothes also improve the immediate environment of the wearer, and worn en masse could help regulate carbon emissions. After the user is finished with the garment, it could be disposed of via composting. Currently the textile is expected to live for around a month, but this period can be extended if it is cared for properly. Which algae used as food? Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are seaweeds that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food. They typically contain high amounts of fiber. They may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. Fashion From Algae: Biogarmentry Feasibility Biogarmentry's feasibility study was a joint undertaking by the Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Laboratory and the Botany Lab at UBC. Aghighi is currently a designer in residence at Material Experience Lab in the Netherlands. Other recent designs in the field of biofabrication include headphones made from fungus and food packaging made from algae. Headphones made from fungus EcoLogicStudio is harnessing the power of photosynthesis with an algae-filled facade covering for buildings that filters air pollution, and Dutch designer Ermi van Oers has invented a lamp that helps plants to grow indoors. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?
Fashion From Algae Absorbs CO2: Is It possible To Wear?
Smart Communities: Eco-Living Through Technology
Meet ReGen Villages. A concept for a smart community, based on eco-friendly living, as ideated by a Danish architectural firm. It is meant to actively combat  climate change and wasteful emissions, while living in a greener and more sustainable manner - through the philosophy of going ‘back to the basics’. Smart Communities: What Are Regen Villages? After all, not too long ago, the world was not as connected as it is today. In earlier times, trade was limited to the exchanging of goods between villagers ('I give you fresh meat, if you share your berries with me') or, at the most, between bordering villages. Just the thought of having tropical fruits such as pineapple and bananas available to you in Western Europe in the dead of winter, would be nothing short of laughable in medieval times. What does eco living mean? Eco-friendly literally means earth-friendly or not harmful to the environment (see References 1). This term most commonly refers to products that contribute to green living or practices that help conserve resources like water and energy. Eco-friendly products also prevent contributions to air, water and land pollution. Community were built to be self-reliant, rather than reliant on external factors, excessive power demands, and complicated (inter)national trade relations. If something could not be produced or generated, it was simply not available. In essence, this sums up what ReGen Villages are hoping to achieve. Recommended:  Regenerative Agriculture: Basics For Safe Food (Part 1 of 3) Essentially, ReGen villages aim to be a micro-city, which offer residents the luxury of living in a 'high-tech eco village'. So, back to basics, in a high-tech manner! To reach this unique goal, artificial intelligence is integrated with self-providing systems. As such, this entire community is self-reliant and minimises its waste and energy use. Even if this means converting trash into sources of energy to fuel other projects in the village. And no, this project is not the ambitious dream of a dreamer. Plans for implementing it are in an advanced stage, with the first pilot community planned to be built in the Almere area in the Netherlands at the end of this year. Plans for similar ReGen Villages in Northern Europe, the USA, and even in Asia are well underway as well. So if you are looking to play your part in making the world a better place and always wanted to live in a small-scale, self-sufficient village, this might just be your chance. What is the difference between eco friendly and environmentally friendly? Eco-friendly isn't quite so broad. It means that something doesn't harm the planet. Compared to 'green” and eco-friendly',sustainability has much higher standards. Sustainability includes eco-friendly activities and green products, but green doesn't necessarily mean sustainable. Eco-Living Through Technology: ReGen Villages The Netherlands The Netherlands is set to have the World’s First Self-Sustaining Eco Village near Amsterdam. The world’s first self-sustaining eco village near Amsterdam is coming in 2020: truly the height of Dutch innovation. The village has been designed and will be built by ReGenVillages.  ReGenVillages, how does this work exactly? This 60-acre village in Almere does what it says on the tin – it’s going to be self-sustaining. This means that roads will only be the width of a bike or pedestrian path and no houses will have a driveway, so no cars allowed! The surrounding landscape will be filled with fruit and vegetable patches and greenhouses, complete with collected rainwater, to feed the neighbouring residents. Rainwater will also be filtered through these 194 homes and then it can be used as drinking water. Any food waste that the residents have will be used to feed fish and other animals, which are used for farming. You’ll even be able to volunteer at the community centre and in return, you would get Home Association fee discounts. And if you want to go into Amsterdam and the center of Almere, self-driving electric buses and cars, located on the outskirts of this village will take you there. Clever, huh? The construction company ReGen Villages, wanted to be able to tackle the issues of our time – population growth, housing shortages and environmental and sustainability issues. This is definitely one way of doing it! ReGenVillages: How much will they cost? Prices will range quite considerably within this village. On the lower end of the scale, the smaller houses will go for around €200,000, whereas a much larger place will go for around €850,000. Once you’ve bought a house there, you are expected to maintain the sustainability by helping out. Like I said earlier, as a reward you’d get HOA free discounts, which is possible by logging the number of hours worked by using blockchain technology. When is this new Regen Village coming to Almere? While 203 homes were approved by Almere in July 2018, ReGen filed for more land for more homes this year. If approved, they could be breaking ground in 2020! Click here for more information. What are your thoughts on this new self-sustaining eco village near Amsterdam? Let us know in the comments! {youtube}                                                       Smart Communities: Eco-Living Through Technology                                                                                  Regen Villages   Eco-Living Through Technology: Agricultural Communes The inventors drew inspiration from the idea of small agriculture communes, that produce all the food that they need. And such initiatives could prove to be very valuable and much needed: one of the greatest threats to our earth is the excessive agriculture, serving to feed billions and billions of people. Resulting in deforestation, scarcity of water, higher CO2 emissions and excessive consumption water and fertiliser. Hence, a huge threat to the wellbeing of our future generations. How can I be eco friendly?  Ten Easy Ways To Live A More Eco-Friendly Lifestyle Eat less meat Use paper less and recycle more Use canvas bags instead of plastic Start a compost pile or bin Purchase the right light bulb Choose cloth over paper Cut down on energy in your home Borrow instead of buying By combining existing techniques, ReGen Villages will help the environment recover instead of actively destroying it. The small community hosts various buildings that are dedicated to the cultivation of certain vegetables and crops, all grown in a favourable climate through the use of greenhouses. This leads to a quiet and rustic, yet cohesive neighbourhood that feeds its diverse population with organic food, that meets the equally diverse nutritional needs. Eco-Living: Off Grid Sustainable Neighbourhoods The villages will be positively off-grid, cleverly playing in to the ever increasing need of a place to unwind and settle down, in this increasingly noisier and busier time. They are comprised of power positive homes alone, while completely running on renewable energy, employing smart and sustainable water management, and using advanced waste-to-resource systems. All of these systems will continuously be subject to ongoing research to further improve and optimise its efficiency.   For these systems to work smoothly, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things play an important role. Such as for the infrastructure of the community, eventually leading to more energy, water and organic food being produced per household than that it actually uses. The surplus can be exchanged for reduced mortgage payments.   Recommended:  Regenerative Farming: Agro-Ecology In Practice (Part 2 of 3) Eco Living: Why Should You Join The Waiting List? ReGen is just one of the many eco-village concepts that are popping up left, right and center. Although, as most of these projects are still in the stage of being built, you might not be able to move into one of these communities instantly. But if you are excited and passionate about the concept, you are welcome to join the waiting list for any of the planned communities in your desired country. Why, you ask? Well, for one, living in such a micro-city will ensure that the life of your family does not negatively impact the planet. Such eco villages combine smart living and the technology of smart cities with a higher quality of life and more of that unique community-feel. At the same time, they offer an open platform for more innovation initiatives, especially when it comes to solutions for renewable energy, smart agriculture, and water and waste management. And, even more importantly, a platform that can easily be duplicated.   All of these are arguments that you could use to convince your spouse or significant other to pack your bags, put the house on sale, and secure your spot in a true eco-community. Although they might be more tempted by the stunning house and lack of noisy neighbours that come with the deal. Before you go! Recommended:  Regenerative Agriculture: Its Full Potential (Part 3 of 3) Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Meet ReGen Villages. A concept for a smart community, based on eco-friendly living, as ideated by a Danish architectural firm. It is meant to actively combat  climate change and wasteful emissions, while living in a greener and more sustainable manner - through the philosophy of going ‘back to the basics’. Smart Communities: What Are Regen Villages? After all, not too long ago, the world was not as connected as it is today. In earlier times, trade was limited to the exchanging of goods between villagers ('I give you fresh meat, if you share your berries with me') or, at the most, between bordering villages. Just the thought of having tropical fruits such as pineapple and bananas available to you in Western Europe in the dead of winter, would be nothing short of laughable in medieval times. What does eco living mean? Eco-friendly literally means earth-friendly or not harmful to the environment (see References 1). This term most commonly refers to products that contribute to green living or practices that help conserve resources like water and energy. Eco-friendly products also prevent contributions to air, water and land pollution. Community were built to be self-reliant, rather than reliant on external factors, excessive power demands, and complicated (inter)national trade relations. If something could not be produced or generated, it was simply not available. In essence, this sums up what ReGen Villages are hoping to achieve. Recommended:  Regenerative Agriculture: Basics For Safe Food (Part 1 of 3) Essentially, ReGen villages aim to be a micro-city, which offer residents the luxury of living in a 'high-tech eco village'. So, back to basics, in a high-tech manner! To reach this unique goal, artificial intelligence is integrated with self-providing systems. As such, this entire community is self-reliant and minimises its waste and energy use. Even if this means converting trash into sources of energy to fuel other projects in the village. And no, this project is not the ambitious dream of a dreamer. Plans for implementing it are in an advanced stage, with the first pilot community planned to be built in the Almere area in the Netherlands at the end of this year. Plans for similar ReGen Villages in Northern Europe, the USA, and even in Asia are well underway as well. So if you are looking to play your part in making the world a better place and always wanted to live in a small-scale, self-sufficient village, this might just be your chance. What is the difference between eco friendly and environmentally friendly? Eco-friendly isn't quite so broad. It means that something doesn't harm the planet. Compared to 'green” and eco-friendly',sustainability has much higher standards. Sustainability includes eco-friendly activities and green products, but green doesn't necessarily mean sustainable. Eco-Living Through Technology: ReGen Villages The Netherlands The Netherlands is set to have the World’s First Self-Sustaining Eco Village near Amsterdam. The world’s first self-sustaining eco village near Amsterdam is coming in 2020: truly the height of Dutch innovation. The village has been designed and will be built by ReGenVillages.  ReGenVillages, how does this work exactly? This 60-acre village in Almere does what it says on the tin – it’s going to be self-sustaining. This means that roads will only be the width of a bike or pedestrian path and no houses will have a driveway, so no cars allowed! The surrounding landscape will be filled with fruit and vegetable patches and greenhouses, complete with collected rainwater, to feed the neighbouring residents. Rainwater will also be filtered through these 194 homes and then it can be used as drinking water. Any food waste that the residents have will be used to feed fish and other animals, which are used for farming. You’ll even be able to volunteer at the community centre and in return, you would get Home Association fee discounts. And if you want to go into Amsterdam and the center of Almere, self-driving electric buses and cars, located on the outskirts of this village will take you there. Clever, huh? The construction company ReGen Villages, wanted to be able to tackle the issues of our time – population growth, housing shortages and environmental and sustainability issues. This is definitely one way of doing it! ReGenVillages: How much will they cost? Prices will range quite considerably within this village. On the lower end of the scale, the smaller houses will go for around €200,000, whereas a much larger place will go for around €850,000. Once you’ve bought a house there, you are expected to maintain the sustainability by helping out. Like I said earlier, as a reward you’d get HOA free discounts, which is possible by logging the number of hours worked by using blockchain technology. When is this new Regen Village coming to Almere? While 203 homes were approved by Almere in July 2018, ReGen filed for more land for more homes this year. If approved, they could be breaking ground in 2020! Click here for more information. What are your thoughts on this new self-sustaining eco village near Amsterdam? Let us know in the comments! {youtube}                                                       Smart Communities: Eco-Living Through Technology                                                                                  Regen Villages   Eco-Living Through Technology: Agricultural Communes The inventors drew inspiration from the idea of small agriculture communes, that produce all the food that they need. And such initiatives could prove to be very valuable and much needed: one of the greatest threats to our earth is the excessive agriculture, serving to feed billions and billions of people. Resulting in deforestation, scarcity of water, higher CO2 emissions and excessive consumption water and fertiliser. Hence, a huge threat to the wellbeing of our future generations. How can I be eco friendly?  Ten Easy Ways To Live A More Eco-Friendly Lifestyle Eat less meat Use paper less and recycle more Use canvas bags instead of plastic Start a compost pile or bin Purchase the right light bulb Choose cloth over paper Cut down on energy in your home Borrow instead of buying By combining existing techniques, ReGen Villages will help the environment recover instead of actively destroying it. The small community hosts various buildings that are dedicated to the cultivation of certain vegetables and crops, all grown in a favourable climate through the use of greenhouses. This leads to a quiet and rustic, yet cohesive neighbourhood that feeds its diverse population with organic food, that meets the equally diverse nutritional needs. Eco-Living: Off Grid Sustainable Neighbourhoods The villages will be positively off-grid, cleverly playing in to the ever increasing need of a place to unwind and settle down, in this increasingly noisier and busier time. They are comprised of power positive homes alone, while completely running on renewable energy, employing smart and sustainable water management, and using advanced waste-to-resource systems. All of these systems will continuously be subject to ongoing research to further improve and optimise its efficiency.   For these systems to work smoothly, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things play an important role. Such as for the infrastructure of the community, eventually leading to more energy, water and organic food being produced per household than that it actually uses. The surplus can be exchanged for reduced mortgage payments.   Recommended:  Regenerative Farming: Agro-Ecology In Practice (Part 2 of 3) Eco Living: Why Should You Join The Waiting List? ReGen is just one of the many eco-village concepts that are popping up left, right and center. Although, as most of these projects are still in the stage of being built, you might not be able to move into one of these communities instantly. But if you are excited and passionate about the concept, you are welcome to join the waiting list for any of the planned communities in your desired country. Why, you ask? Well, for one, living in such a micro-city will ensure that the life of your family does not negatively impact the planet. Such eco villages combine smart living and the technology of smart cities with a higher quality of life and more of that unique community-feel. At the same time, they offer an open platform for more innovation initiatives, especially when it comes to solutions for renewable energy, smart agriculture, and water and waste management. And, even more importantly, a platform that can easily be duplicated.   All of these are arguments that you could use to convince your spouse or significant other to pack your bags, put the house on sale, and secure your spot in a true eco-community. Although they might be more tempted by the stunning house and lack of noisy neighbours that come with the deal. Before you go! Recommended:  Regenerative Agriculture: Its Full Potential (Part 3 of 3) Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Smart Communities: Eco-Living Through Technology
Smart Communities: Eco-Living Through Technology
Is Autumn’s Wild Food Healthy And Good For The Environment?
Autumn is an exciting time. Not only for cycling, running and photo’s like we wrote in our last NewsLetter but also for food and what you can find in nature. There is plenty to find, of course depending where you live. Healthier food choices almost always benefit the environment as well. Autumn’s Wild Food Autumn is a fantastic time to forage. With the end of the summer growing season, after everything has been blasted with sunshine, there are lots of exciting options for good eats to be found without us having to cultivate a thing. We just need to get better at responsibly taking advantage of what nature has to offer. Foraging requires both a knowledge of what can be found, as well as the drive to go out and find it. For enthusiasts, there are books upon books of edible wild plants, but for novices, these can be absolutely overwhelming. The trick for getting started with foraging - and Autumn is an awesome time to do it - is to tackle only a couple of plants at a time. Before long, both forests and fields will seem like smorgasbords. For now, get together a basket or something to carry the bounty in, a sharp knife or scissors for harvesting, and some decent shoes for clambering about. Here are some great Autumn finds for getting started with foraging. Autumn’s Wild Food: Mushrooms Mushrooms are probably the most terrifying thing to forage because we all know that there are poisonous ones out there. While this is something we definitely shouldn’t forget, that isn’t to say that we shouldn’t - even as beginners - go out in search of wild mushrooms. We just need to use caution, some common sense, and readily available information. What is a mushroom considered? A mushroom is neither a fruit nor a vegetable; technically mushrooms aren't even plants. They are a special type of fungus a notion that puts some people off. If you don't mind the fungus part, though, mushrooms are a great addition to a healthy diet not to mention totally delicious. There are some great websites to help identify mushrooms, as well as become aware of what’s on the go in your area at any time of year. These can be used to spur the hunt for particular types of mushrooms, choosing ones that are easy to find and identify. Recommended:  Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere Edible Wild Mushrooms And Some Not To Touch {youtube}                                                                   Mushroom Foraging for Beginners Throughout history, people around the world have foraged wild mushrooms for food. Gathering wild mushrooms can also be an extremely rewarding and interesting hobby. However, those who do it must proceed with the utmost caution. Though many wild mushrooms are highly nutritious, delicious, and safe to consume, others pose a serious risk to your health and can even cause death if ingested. For this reason, it’s critical to only hunt mushrooms with someone who’s highly experienced at identifying both edible and poisonous mushrooms. Hen-Of-The-Woods Grifola frondosa, commonly known as hen-of-the-woods or maitake, is an edible mushroom that’s a favourite of mushroom hunters. Growth Hen-of-the-woods is a polypore a type of fungus that has small pores covering its underside. They grow on the bases of trees in shelf-like clusters, favouring hardwoods like oak. These clusters resemble the tail feathers of a sitting hen hence the name ‘hen-of-the-woods’. Several hen-of-the-woods may grow on a single tree. This mushroom is native to China but also grows in Japan and North America, especially the northeaster United States. They are not common in Europe. It’s a perennial mushroom and often grows in the same spot for many years. Identification Hen-of-the-woods are grayish-brown in colour, while the underside of the caps and branch-like stalk are white, though colouring can vary. These mushrooms are most commonly found in the Autumn, but they can be found less frequently in the summer months as well. Hen-of-the-woods can grow quite large. Some mushroom hunters have scored massive mushrooms weighing up to 50 pounds (about 23 kg), but most weigh 3–15 pounds (1.5–7 kg). A helpful clue when identifying hen-of-the-woods is that it does not have gills, and the underside of its cap has tiny pores, which are smallest at the edges. Don’t eat older specimens that are orange or reddish in color, as they may be contaminated with bacteria or mold. Hen-of-the-woods is often favoured by beginner mushroom hunters. It’s distinctive and does not have many dangerous look-alikes, making it a safe option for novices. Nutrition Hen-of-the-woods are quite nutritious and particularly high in the B vitamins folate, niacin (B3), and riboflavin (B2), all of which are involved in energy metabolism and cellular growth. This mushroom also contains powerful health-promoting compounds, including complex carbohydrates called glucans. These mushrooms may have cholesterol-reducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Hen-of-the-woods have a savory, rich flavour and are delicious when added to stir-fries, sautés, grain dishes, and soups. What are the benefits of mushrooms? Mushrooms are packed with nutritional value. They're low in calories, are great sources of fiber and protein (good for plant-based diets). They also provide many important nutrients, including B vitamins, selenium, potassium, copper, and (particularly when exposed to the sun) vitamin D Oyster Mushroom The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a delicious edible mushroom that resembles an oyster in shape and is commonly sought after by mushroom hunters. Growth Oyster mushrooms grow in forests around the world, including throughout North America. These mushrooms grow on dead or dying hardwood trees like beech and oak trees. They can sometimes be found growing on Autumnen branches and dead stumps. Oyster mushrooms decompose decaying wood and release nutrients into the soil, recycling nutrients to be used by other plants and organisms in forest ecosystems. They can be found during the spring and Autumn months in the Northern United States and year-round in warmer climates. Identification Oyster mushrooms grow in clusters resembling shelves on dead or dying hardwood trees. Depending on the time of year, the tops of the oyster-shaped caps of these mushrooms can range from white to brownish-gray and are typically 2–8 inches (5–20 cm) wide. The undersides of the caps are covered with tightly spaced gills that run down the stubby, sometimes non-existent, stem and are white or tan in colour. Oyster mushrooms can grow in large numbers, and many different clusters can be found on the same tree. Nutrition Oyster mushrooms have thick, white, mild-tasting flesh that contains a variety of nutrients. They are particularly high in B vitamins, including niacin (B3) and riboflavin (B2), as well as the minerals potassium, copper, iron, and zinc. They also contain powerful anti-inflammatory plant compounds. Oyster mushrooms are excellent sautéed with onions and garlic as a side dish. You can also add them to soups, pastas, and meat dishes. Sulphur Shelf Mushroom The sulphur shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus) mushroom is also known as chicken-of-the-woods or chicken mushroom. It’s a bright orange or yellow mushroom with a unique, meaty flavour. Growth Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on hardwood trees in North America and Europe. These mushrooms can either act as parasites on living or dying trees, or derive nutrients from dead trees, such as rotting tree stumps. Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on trees in shelf-like clusters. They are commonly found on large oak trees and typically harvested during the summer and Autumn months. It should be noted that sulphur shelf look-alike Laetiporus species exist. They grow on conifer trees should be avoided, as they can cause severe allergic reactions in some people. Identification Sulphur shelf mushrooms are typically orange or yellow in colour and grow in overlapping shelf-like clusters on hardwoods, such as oak, willow, and chestnut. The caps of the mushroom are fan-like or semi-circular in shape and typically 2–12 inches (5–30 cm) across and up to 8 inches (20 cm) deep. The sulphur shelf does not have gills, and the underside of the caps is covered with tiny pores. This mushroom has a smooth, suede-like texture and yellow-orange colour, which fades to a dull white when the mushroom is past maturity. Many sulphur shelf mushrooms may grow on a single tree, with individual mushrooms growing heavier than 50 pounds (23 kg). Nutrition Like most mushrooms, sulphur shelf mushrooms are low in calories and offer a good amount of nutrients, including fiber, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium. They have been shown to have antifungal and antioxidant properties. Sulphur shelf mushrooms should be eaten cooked not raw. You can bring out their meaty texture and hearty flavour by sautéing them with butter, adding them to vegetable dishes, or mixing them into omelettes. How can you tell if a mushroom is safe to eat? Avoid mushrooms with white gills, a skirt or ring on the stem and a bulbous or sack like base called a volva. You may be missing out on some good edible fungi but it means you will be avoiding the deadly members of the Amanita family. Avoid mushrooms with red on the cap or stem. Recommended: Mushroom Recipes Poisonous mushrooms to avoid Though many wild mushrooms can be enjoyed safely, others pose a threat to your health. Never consume the following mushrooms: Death cap (Amanita phalloides) . Death caps are among the most poisonous of all mushrooms and responsible for the majority of mushroom-related deaths worldwide. They grow in many countries around the world. Conocybe filaris.  This mushroom grows in Europe, Asia, and North America and contains the same toxins as the Death cap. It has a smooth, cone-like cap that is brownish in color. They are highly toxic and can be fatal if ingested. Autumn skullcap (Galerina marginata) . Also known as the ‘deadly Galerina’, autumn skullcaps are among the most poisonous of mushrooms. They have small, brown caps and grow on rotting wood. Death angel (Amanita ocreata) . Related to the death cap, the death angel grows along the West Coast of the United States. This mushroom is mostly white and can cause severe illness and death if eaten. False morels (Gyromitra esculenta and Gyromitra infula).  These resemble edible true morels, making them especially dangerous. Unlike true morels, they are not completely hollow when cut. Fruits: Autumn’s Wild Food What fruits are found in the forest? The most common types of forest fruits are berries, such as blackberries, serviceberries, lignonberries, elderberries, blueberries. Wild plum, pawpaw and hardy kiwi are other forest fruits of interest. Though all of those lovely summer berries will have come and gone, lots of fruits produce their bounty in the Autumn, and depending on where we are, there is every bit of a possibility of stumbling upon wild varieties of these fruits. We just have to learn to harvest a bushel or two and make the most of the season. Apples are probably the number one Autumn time harvest, and these are often in neighbourhoods or areas where people have left a mark. Crab apples tend to be the wilder option. Persimmons and prickly pears are both reaching readiness in the autumn. In some areas, wild grapes will be producing tasty bunches, either for snacking or making jelly. Elderberries are also a possibility in Autumn. 'Go Nuts' Nuts are a great find on a forage because we can usually identify them without much trouble, and they are fairly common in the wild. Unlike any other foraged food, these will bring a good helping of calories and healthy fats to the bounty, which is a welcome thing for a plant-based, foraged feast. Autumn is the best time to find nuts. What are nuts considered? A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context ‘nut’ implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). There are lots of options to keep an eye out for, and some of these will definitely depend on location. Walnuts start in late summer and can be found into the middle of Autumn, at which time chestnuts are coming on in abundance. Pecans are late Autumn additions, and gingko nuts are available throughout the autumn. Acorns are usually present around October, and they’ll require some processing. Tree nuts are tasty, healthy and can be obtained for free. If you are willing to forage, then a bounty of food awaits you in the trees. Harvesting nuts does require patience. You need to identify the best trees, wait for the nuts to drop and check for ripeness. Once you have tapped your inner squirrel and gathered your nuts, they will need to be cleaned, dried, or husked (or all three) before they are ready to eat. Though it is not the easiest task, nut harvests are rewarding in the end. It is a fun project for the family. Black Walnuts Black walnuts are housed inside yellowish-green and brown husks (similar in colour to pears) that are about two inches in diameter. They are further housed inside a tough shell that is dark black. Harvest Time   September and October Harvesting   Allow walnut husks to Autumn from the tree. Remove the husks and cure the nuts before storing. Black walnut produces a mild toxin and husks should not be disposed of in your yard, garden or compost. Chestnuts Chestnuts are dark brown in colour, smooth in texture, are pointed at one end and have an oblong spot on the opposite end that is light brown. They are housed inside a spiny burr, which turns yellowish-brown and opens when the chestnuts are ready for harvest. Harvest Time September through December Harvesting Allow chestnuts to Autumn from the tree. Gather nuts with open burrs and remove burrs. Wear gloves to protect yourself from the spines. English Walnuts English walnuts are housed inside a greenish-black hull. They are further housed inside a tan shell. The nut itself is light brown to golden-brown. Harvest Time Late August through October Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or lay out a blanket and shake the tree. Check a few nuts for ripeness first. Remove husks with gloved hands, or they will stain. Rinse, inspect and dry the nuts Pecans Pecans are housed in a brown oval to an oblong shaped shell. The meat itself is brown in colour and possess two-lobes. Harvest Time Mid-October through November Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or shake the tree. Inspect pecans for damage or worms. Air dry for two weeks before Acorns In Autumn Become The Next ‘Superfood’ The humble acorn has long been ignored. That could all be about to change. In South Korea, acorns have achieved ‘superfood’ status, with people devouring ‘acorn noodles, jelly and powder’. Native Americans relied on acorns – rich in nutrients – as a staple part of their diet. They are farmed in China and South Korea, and often ground into flour. Many cultures make acorn ‘coffee’. They are rich in protein, fats, fibre and essential minerals. Recommended: Acorn Recipes For some people life revolves around acorns. These people produce cookies made from acorn flour. Protecting oak trees, and planting more, could help tackle the climate crisis and that acorns are good for food security because they can be stored, squirrel-like, long-term. Now is the perfect season. You might think to head off to the woods, but go to parks, gardens and golf courses. The acorns Autumn on to clean, short grass, which makes them easier to collect than rooting through leaf litter. Getting them ready to eat, takes a little bit of work. You need to shell them first. If you’re working small-scale, you could just slit them with a knife and pop them out of their shell. With bigger harvests (remembering to leave enough for wildlife), Drennan likes to dry them – you can do it on a radiator or spread out in a warm room – before sandwiching them between two sheets and getting some friends round to dance and stamp on them. Then you should leach them to get the bitter tannins out. Put them in a porous sack and stick them in a toilet cistern. That can take between two and six weeks, as the quantity of tannin can be variable. Don’t mix batches from different trees, even if they’re the same variety because they can have different tannin levels. Then they can be roasted, or ground for coffee or flour. You can make an acorn chocolate cake. More commonly, put it in bread, or tagliatelle with it. They taste, nutty, a bit earthy. There’s a kind of density to it. Leaves Foraging wild greens is amazing because they are crazy abundant and can be used in just about every meal. No surprise, the springtime is usually more revered for foraging greens, but that isn’t to say that autumn doesn’t have any to offer. In fact, as the summer heat dissipates, there are some herbs that are ready to leaf out again. Greens, like mushrooms, do require a bit of caution, as there are some toxic possibilities that are better left unexplored. Part of playing it safe is not harvesting from polluted areas, such as alongside highways or dumping sites. The other part is researching a little and double-checking once a potentially tasty leaf has been found. Again, go for the easy-to-identify stuff first. Here are five easy Autumn finds:  chickweed dandelion plantain sheep sorre wild mustard greens With just a few of these, it’s possible to forage a lot of food for free. Wild foods tend to have stronger flavours and be packed with nutrients. Foraging is a fun thing to do, another reason to get outdoors, enjoy nature, see the Autumn foliage, and make the most of what’s around us. In other words, Autumn is here, and it’s time to get started! Before you go! Recommended:  Spider-Woman: Tarantula Staple Food Gets A Snack: Cambodia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Autumn is an exciting time. Not only for cycling, running and photo’s like we wrote in our last NewsLetter but also for food and what you can find in nature. There is plenty to find, of course depending where you live. Healthier food choices almost always benefit the environment as well. Autumn’s Wild Food Autumn is a fantastic time to forage. With the end of the summer growing season, after everything has been blasted with sunshine, there are lots of exciting options for good eats to be found without us having to cultivate a thing. We just need to get better at responsibly taking advantage of what nature has to offer. Foraging requires both a knowledge of what can be found, as well as the drive to go out and find it. For enthusiasts, there are books upon books of edible wild plants, but for novices, these can be absolutely overwhelming. The trick for getting started with foraging - and Autumn is an awesome time to do it - is to tackle only a couple of plants at a time. Before long, both forests and fields will seem like smorgasbords. For now, get together a basket or something to carry the bounty in, a sharp knife or scissors for harvesting, and some decent shoes for clambering about. Here are some great Autumn finds for getting started with foraging. Autumn’s Wild Food: Mushrooms Mushrooms are probably the most terrifying thing to forage because we all know that there are poisonous ones out there. While this is something we definitely shouldn’t forget, that isn’t to say that we shouldn’t - even as beginners - go out in search of wild mushrooms. We just need to use caution, some common sense, and readily available information. What is a mushroom considered? A mushroom is neither a fruit nor a vegetable; technically mushrooms aren't even plants. They are a special type of fungus a notion that puts some people off. If you don't mind the fungus part, though, mushrooms are a great addition to a healthy diet not to mention totally delicious. There are some great websites to help identify mushrooms, as well as become aware of what’s on the go in your area at any time of year. These can be used to spur the hunt for particular types of mushrooms, choosing ones that are easy to find and identify. Recommended:  Sustainable Fashion: Fungi, Roots From MycoWorks, Inspidere Edible Wild Mushrooms And Some Not To Touch {youtube}                                                                   Mushroom Foraging for Beginners Throughout history, people around the world have foraged wild mushrooms for food. Gathering wild mushrooms can also be an extremely rewarding and interesting hobby. However, those who do it must proceed with the utmost caution. Though many wild mushrooms are highly nutritious, delicious, and safe to consume, others pose a serious risk to your health and can even cause death if ingested. For this reason, it’s critical to only hunt mushrooms with someone who’s highly experienced at identifying both edible and poisonous mushrooms. Hen-Of-The-Woods Grifola frondosa, commonly known as hen-of-the-woods or maitake, is an edible mushroom that’s a favourite of mushroom hunters. Growth Hen-of-the-woods is a polypore a type of fungus that has small pores covering its underside. They grow on the bases of trees in shelf-like clusters, favouring hardwoods like oak. These clusters resemble the tail feathers of a sitting hen hence the name ‘hen-of-the-woods’. Several hen-of-the-woods may grow on a single tree. This mushroom is native to China but also grows in Japan and North America, especially the northeaster United States. They are not common in Europe. It’s a perennial mushroom and often grows in the same spot for many years. Identification Hen-of-the-woods are grayish-brown in colour, while the underside of the caps and branch-like stalk are white, though colouring can vary. These mushrooms are most commonly found in the Autumn, but they can be found less frequently in the summer months as well. Hen-of-the-woods can grow quite large. Some mushroom hunters have scored massive mushrooms weighing up to 50 pounds (about 23 kg), but most weigh 3–15 pounds (1.5–7 kg). A helpful clue when identifying hen-of-the-woods is that it does not have gills, and the underside of its cap has tiny pores, which are smallest at the edges. Don’t eat older specimens that are orange or reddish in color, as they may be contaminated with bacteria or mold. Hen-of-the-woods is often favoured by beginner mushroom hunters. It’s distinctive and does not have many dangerous look-alikes, making it a safe option for novices. Nutrition Hen-of-the-woods are quite nutritious and particularly high in the B vitamins folate, niacin (B3), and riboflavin (B2), all of which are involved in energy metabolism and cellular growth. This mushroom also contains powerful health-promoting compounds, including complex carbohydrates called glucans. These mushrooms may have cholesterol-reducing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Hen-of-the-woods have a savory, rich flavour and are delicious when added to stir-fries, sautés, grain dishes, and soups. What are the benefits of mushrooms? Mushrooms are packed with nutritional value. They're low in calories, are great sources of fiber and protein (good for plant-based diets). They also provide many important nutrients, including B vitamins, selenium, potassium, copper, and (particularly when exposed to the sun) vitamin D Oyster Mushroom The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a delicious edible mushroom that resembles an oyster in shape and is commonly sought after by mushroom hunters. Growth Oyster mushrooms grow in forests around the world, including throughout North America. These mushrooms grow on dead or dying hardwood trees like beech and oak trees. They can sometimes be found growing on Autumnen branches and dead stumps. Oyster mushrooms decompose decaying wood and release nutrients into the soil, recycling nutrients to be used by other plants and organisms in forest ecosystems. They can be found during the spring and Autumn months in the Northern United States and year-round in warmer climates. Identification Oyster mushrooms grow in clusters resembling shelves on dead or dying hardwood trees. Depending on the time of year, the tops of the oyster-shaped caps of these mushrooms can range from white to brownish-gray and are typically 2–8 inches (5–20 cm) wide. The undersides of the caps are covered with tightly spaced gills that run down the stubby, sometimes non-existent, stem and are white or tan in colour. Oyster mushrooms can grow in large numbers, and many different clusters can be found on the same tree. Nutrition Oyster mushrooms have thick, white, mild-tasting flesh that contains a variety of nutrients. They are particularly high in B vitamins, including niacin (B3) and riboflavin (B2), as well as the minerals potassium, copper, iron, and zinc. They also contain powerful anti-inflammatory plant compounds. Oyster mushrooms are excellent sautéed with onions and garlic as a side dish. You can also add them to soups, pastas, and meat dishes. Sulphur Shelf Mushroom The sulphur shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus) mushroom is also known as chicken-of-the-woods or chicken mushroom. It’s a bright orange or yellow mushroom with a unique, meaty flavour. Growth Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on hardwood trees in North America and Europe. These mushrooms can either act as parasites on living or dying trees, or derive nutrients from dead trees, such as rotting tree stumps. Sulphur shelf mushrooms grow on trees in shelf-like clusters. They are commonly found on large oak trees and typically harvested during the summer and Autumn months. It should be noted that sulphur shelf look-alike Laetiporus species exist. They grow on conifer trees should be avoided, as they can cause severe allergic reactions in some people. Identification Sulphur shelf mushrooms are typically orange or yellow in colour and grow in overlapping shelf-like clusters on hardwoods, such as oak, willow, and chestnut. The caps of the mushroom are fan-like or semi-circular in shape and typically 2–12 inches (5–30 cm) across and up to 8 inches (20 cm) deep. The sulphur shelf does not have gills, and the underside of the caps is covered with tiny pores. This mushroom has a smooth, suede-like texture and yellow-orange colour, which fades to a dull white when the mushroom is past maturity. Many sulphur shelf mushrooms may grow on a single tree, with individual mushrooms growing heavier than 50 pounds (23 kg). Nutrition Like most mushrooms, sulphur shelf mushrooms are low in calories and offer a good amount of nutrients, including fiber, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium. They have been shown to have antifungal and antioxidant properties. Sulphur shelf mushrooms should be eaten cooked not raw. You can bring out their meaty texture and hearty flavour by sautéing them with butter, adding them to vegetable dishes, or mixing them into omelettes. How can you tell if a mushroom is safe to eat? Avoid mushrooms with white gills, a skirt or ring on the stem and a bulbous or sack like base called a volva. You may be missing out on some good edible fungi but it means you will be avoiding the deadly members of the Amanita family. Avoid mushrooms with red on the cap or stem. Recommended: Mushroom Recipes Poisonous mushrooms to avoid Though many wild mushrooms can be enjoyed safely, others pose a threat to your health. Never consume the following mushrooms: Death cap (Amanita phalloides) . Death caps are among the most poisonous of all mushrooms and responsible for the majority of mushroom-related deaths worldwide. They grow in many countries around the world. Conocybe filaris.  This mushroom grows in Europe, Asia, and North America and contains the same toxins as the Death cap. It has a smooth, cone-like cap that is brownish in color. They are highly toxic and can be fatal if ingested. Autumn skullcap (Galerina marginata) . Also known as the ‘deadly Galerina’, autumn skullcaps are among the most poisonous of mushrooms. They have small, brown caps and grow on rotting wood. Death angel (Amanita ocreata) . Related to the death cap, the death angel grows along the West Coast of the United States. This mushroom is mostly white and can cause severe illness and death if eaten. False morels (Gyromitra esculenta and Gyromitra infula).  These resemble edible true morels, making them especially dangerous. Unlike true morels, they are not completely hollow when cut. Fruits: Autumn’s Wild Food What fruits are found in the forest? The most common types of forest fruits are berries, such as blackberries, serviceberries, lignonberries, elderberries, blueberries. Wild plum, pawpaw and hardy kiwi are other forest fruits of interest. Though all of those lovely summer berries will have come and gone, lots of fruits produce their bounty in the Autumn, and depending on where we are, there is every bit of a possibility of stumbling upon wild varieties of these fruits. We just have to learn to harvest a bushel or two and make the most of the season. Apples are probably the number one Autumn time harvest, and these are often in neighbourhoods or areas where people have left a mark. Crab apples tend to be the wilder option. Persimmons and prickly pears are both reaching readiness in the autumn. In some areas, wild grapes will be producing tasty bunches, either for snacking or making jelly. Elderberries are also a possibility in Autumn. 'Go Nuts' Nuts are a great find on a forage because we can usually identify them without much trouble, and they are fairly common in the wild. Unlike any other foraged food, these will bring a good helping of calories and healthy fats to the bounty, which is a welcome thing for a plant-based, foraged feast. Autumn is the best time to find nuts. What are nuts considered? A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context ‘nut’ implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). There are lots of options to keep an eye out for, and some of these will definitely depend on location. Walnuts start in late summer and can be found into the middle of Autumn, at which time chestnuts are coming on in abundance. Pecans are late Autumn additions, and gingko nuts are available throughout the autumn. Acorns are usually present around October, and they’ll require some processing. Tree nuts are tasty, healthy and can be obtained for free. If you are willing to forage, then a bounty of food awaits you in the trees. Harvesting nuts does require patience. You need to identify the best trees, wait for the nuts to drop and check for ripeness. Once you have tapped your inner squirrel and gathered your nuts, they will need to be cleaned, dried, or husked (or all three) before they are ready to eat. Though it is not the easiest task, nut harvests are rewarding in the end. It is a fun project for the family. Black Walnuts Black walnuts are housed inside yellowish-green and brown husks (similar in colour to pears) that are about two inches in diameter. They are further housed inside a tough shell that is dark black. Harvest Time   September and October Harvesting   Allow walnut husks to Autumn from the tree. Remove the husks and cure the nuts before storing. Black walnut produces a mild toxin and husks should not be disposed of in your yard, garden or compost. Chestnuts Chestnuts are dark brown in colour, smooth in texture, are pointed at one end and have an oblong spot on the opposite end that is light brown. They are housed inside a spiny burr, which turns yellowish-brown and opens when the chestnuts are ready for harvest. Harvest Time September through December Harvesting Allow chestnuts to Autumn from the tree. Gather nuts with open burrs and remove burrs. Wear gloves to protect yourself from the spines. English Walnuts English walnuts are housed inside a greenish-black hull. They are further housed inside a tan shell. The nut itself is light brown to golden-brown. Harvest Time Late August through October Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or lay out a blanket and shake the tree. Check a few nuts for ripeness first. Remove husks with gloved hands, or they will stain. Rinse, inspect and dry the nuts Pecans Pecans are housed in a brown oval to an oblong shaped shell. The meat itself is brown in colour and possess two-lobes. Harvest Time Mid-October through November Harvesting Allow nuts to Autumn to the ground or shake the tree. Inspect pecans for damage or worms. Air dry for two weeks before Acorns In Autumn Become The Next ‘Superfood’ The humble acorn has long been ignored. That could all be about to change. In South Korea, acorns have achieved ‘superfood’ status, with people devouring ‘acorn noodles, jelly and powder’. Native Americans relied on acorns – rich in nutrients – as a staple part of their diet. They are farmed in China and South Korea, and often ground into flour. Many cultures make acorn ‘coffee’. They are rich in protein, fats, fibre and essential minerals. Recommended: Acorn Recipes For some people life revolves around acorns. These people produce cookies made from acorn flour. Protecting oak trees, and planting more, could help tackle the climate crisis and that acorns are good for food security because they can be stored, squirrel-like, long-term. Now is the perfect season. You might think to head off to the woods, but go to parks, gardens and golf courses. The acorns Autumn on to clean, short grass, which makes them easier to collect than rooting through leaf litter. Getting them ready to eat, takes a little bit of work. You need to shell them first. If you’re working small-scale, you could just slit them with a knife and pop them out of their shell. With bigger harvests (remembering to leave enough for wildlife), Drennan likes to dry them – you can do it on a radiator or spread out in a warm room – before sandwiching them between two sheets and getting some friends round to dance and stamp on them. Then you should leach them to get the bitter tannins out. Put them in a porous sack and stick them in a toilet cistern. That can take between two and six weeks, as the quantity of tannin can be variable. Don’t mix batches from different trees, even if they’re the same variety because they can have different tannin levels. Then they can be roasted, or ground for coffee or flour. You can make an acorn chocolate cake. More commonly, put it in bread, or tagliatelle with it. They taste, nutty, a bit earthy. There’s a kind of density to it. Leaves Foraging wild greens is amazing because they are crazy abundant and can be used in just about every meal. No surprise, the springtime is usually more revered for foraging greens, but that isn’t to say that autumn doesn’t have any to offer. In fact, as the summer heat dissipates, there are some herbs that are ready to leaf out again. Greens, like mushrooms, do require a bit of caution, as there are some toxic possibilities that are better left unexplored. Part of playing it safe is not harvesting from polluted areas, such as alongside highways or dumping sites. The other part is researching a little and double-checking once a potentially tasty leaf has been found. Again, go for the easy-to-identify stuff first. Here are five easy Autumn finds:  chickweed dandelion plantain sheep sorre wild mustard greens With just a few of these, it’s possible to forage a lot of food for free. Wild foods tend to have stronger flavours and be packed with nutrients. Foraging is a fun thing to do, another reason to get outdoors, enjoy nature, see the Autumn foliage, and make the most of what’s around us. In other words, Autumn is here, and it’s time to get started! Before you go! Recommended:  Spider-Woman: Tarantula Staple Food Gets A Snack: Cambodia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Is Autumn’s Wild Food Healthy And Good For The Environment?
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