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Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees! How?
Did you know that algae are one of the most efficient instruments in nature for carbon dioxide consumption? Algae need three crucial elements to grow: light, water and carbon dioxide. CO2 Quantities Nowadays, people are more worried about the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air. Scientists have shown in the early 1800s that greenhouses gases in the atmosphere maintain heat, now also known as global warming. CO2 is a significant contributor to this problem. But how did this problem arise? Well, burning fuels, like natural gas or oil or greenhouse gas emissions, are responsible for a lot of CO2 in the atmosphere. 72% of the total is CO2, in comparison with 18% methane and 9% nitrous oxide. Recommended:  Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? CO2 And Bio Sequestration Since 1950, the amount of these emissions as a result of human activity has increased by more than 400 per cent. Although the effects of climate change are already visible worldwide, many experts claim that it will get even worse as CO2 emissions continue to grow. We need to do something. Does algae remove carbon from the atmosphere? Algae could help remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere - researchers. ... The algae remove CO2 from the atmosphere and turn it into an oil that then serves as the basis for producing carbon fibre, thereby making the capture and reuse of carbon emissions economically viable. One way to slow down this effect is something called bio-commitment; this relates to the capture and storage of carbon dioxide through biological processes. This is an extension of photosynthesis, where plants, such as trees, use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. Currently, an A.I. company from Austin, Texas, thinks it has found a way to make this process considerably more efficient. It is a combination of advanced artificial intelligence and algae, the group of photosynthetic organisms that you probably know best from the green, plant-like film that covers ponds and other water bodies. {youtube}                                                                   NAMI's Microalgae Photobioreactor                                             Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees! How? Algae-Based Bioreactor Is The Answer One of the most significant human challenges of our time is the current global warming crisis. Are trees really the best solution for capturing CO2 or are there other effective alternatives? It appears that algae are much more effective than trees in diminishing atmospheric carbon, and can be used to create carbon-negative fuels, plastics, textiles, food, fertilisers and more. Research has led to the use of algae and A.I. to create the Eos Bioreactor, a prototype bioreactor that can perform up to 400 times better than trees. What is the role of algae in the carbon cycle? Algae and plants absorbs carbon dioxide and give out oxygen but they also return a little carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Algae also need water and they find their nutrients in the water. Algae give us oxygen and use carbon dioxide. This process is called 'photosynthesis'. As said in the introduction: algae are one of the most efficient instruments in nature for carbon dioxide consumption. they need three essential elements to grow: light, water and carbon dioxide. By using CO2, it produces biomass, which can then be processed into materials ranging from fuels, oils and fertilisers to plastics, cosmetics and even protein-rich foods. Algae can not only far surpass the efficiency of agricultural crops in terms of carbon fixation, but they also do not compete for the same croplands. That makes it twice as good a solution alongside the forests that take up space. Algae-Based Device Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees The manufactured device is a controlled closed system model. Every part of the growth process is tightly controlled and optimised with machine intelligence to maximise CO2 use. This is not the first time that researchers have focused on algae as a potential game-changer for carbon fixation. But now, the new bioreactor not only promises to make these capabilities smarter, thanks to machine learning tech but also to wrap its solution in a disarmingly small form factor. Recommended:  Algae Makes Protein From Manure: Nitrogen Problem Solved Algae-Based Bioreactor Still In Early Stages Climate change is a big problem, and we need to do something about it. It asks for big solutions. One Eos Bioreactor absorbs the same amount of carbon from the atmosphere as an entire hectare of trees. It remains to be seen whether this turns out to be the solution people are hoping for. Before you go! Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Did you know that algae are one of the most efficient instruments in nature for carbon dioxide consumption? Algae need three crucial elements to grow: light, water and carbon dioxide. CO2 Quantities Nowadays, people are more worried about the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air. Scientists have shown in the early 1800s that greenhouses gases in the atmosphere maintain heat, now also known as global warming. CO2 is a significant contributor to this problem. But how did this problem arise? Well, burning fuels, like natural gas or oil or greenhouse gas emissions, are responsible for a lot of CO2 in the atmosphere. 72% of the total is CO2, in comparison with 18% methane and 9% nitrous oxide. Recommended:  Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? CO2 And Bio Sequestration Since 1950, the amount of these emissions as a result of human activity has increased by more than 400 per cent. Although the effects of climate change are already visible worldwide, many experts claim that it will get even worse as CO2 emissions continue to grow. We need to do something. Does algae remove carbon from the atmosphere? Algae could help remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere - researchers. ... The algae remove CO2 from the atmosphere and turn it into an oil that then serves as the basis for producing carbon fibre, thereby making the capture and reuse of carbon emissions economically viable. One way to slow down this effect is something called bio-commitment; this relates to the capture and storage of carbon dioxide through biological processes. This is an extension of photosynthesis, where plants, such as trees, use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. Currently, an A.I. company from Austin, Texas, thinks it has found a way to make this process considerably more efficient. It is a combination of advanced artificial intelligence and algae, the group of photosynthetic organisms that you probably know best from the green, plant-like film that covers ponds and other water bodies. {youtube}                                                                   NAMI's Microalgae Photobioreactor                                             Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees! How? Algae-Based Bioreactor Is The Answer One of the most significant human challenges of our time is the current global warming crisis. Are trees really the best solution for capturing CO2 or are there other effective alternatives? It appears that algae are much more effective than trees in diminishing atmospheric carbon, and can be used to create carbon-negative fuels, plastics, textiles, food, fertilisers and more. Research has led to the use of algae and A.I. to create the Eos Bioreactor, a prototype bioreactor that can perform up to 400 times better than trees. What is the role of algae in the carbon cycle? Algae and plants absorbs carbon dioxide and give out oxygen but they also return a little carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Algae also need water and they find their nutrients in the water. Algae give us oxygen and use carbon dioxide. This process is called 'photosynthesis'. As said in the introduction: algae are one of the most efficient instruments in nature for carbon dioxide consumption. they need three essential elements to grow: light, water and carbon dioxide. By using CO2, it produces biomass, which can then be processed into materials ranging from fuels, oils and fertilisers to plastics, cosmetics and even protein-rich foods. Algae can not only far surpass the efficiency of agricultural crops in terms of carbon fixation, but they also do not compete for the same croplands. That makes it twice as good a solution alongside the forests that take up space. Algae-Based Device Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees The manufactured device is a controlled closed system model. Every part of the growth process is tightly controlled and optimised with machine intelligence to maximise CO2 use. This is not the first time that researchers have focused on algae as a potential game-changer for carbon fixation. But now, the new bioreactor not only promises to make these capabilities smarter, thanks to machine learning tech but also to wrap its solution in a disarmingly small form factor. Recommended:  Algae Makes Protein From Manure: Nitrogen Problem Solved Algae-Based Bioreactor Still In Early Stages Climate change is a big problem, and we need to do something about it. It asks for big solutions. One Eos Bioreactor absorbs the same amount of carbon from the atmosphere as an entire hectare of trees. It remains to be seen whether this turns out to be the solution people are hoping for. Before you go! Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees! How?
Algae-Based Bioreactor Swallows CO2 Faster Than Trees! How?
CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer?
The world is desperately looking for safe and cost-effective solutions to counteract climate change by reducing the CO2 levels of the atmosphere. It looks ‘another’ good solution is found! How it’s named: Olivine. Does This Professor Has The Solution For The Increasing CO2 And The Effects On Climate Change? Olaf Schuiling, professor Geo Engineering at the University Utrecht (Netherlands) proposes Olivine. Olivine isn’t new. It is as old as the world, namely to use olivine or similar rocks not in a technology, but in the way it works in nature. Olivine (Mg2SiO4) is the most common mineral on earth. Since the sixties professor Schuiling investigated the reaction between dissolved CO2 and Olivine. In addition, heat is released, and the CO2 binds to the innocent bicarbonate, which may be later precipitates as lime. Schuiling: "It is one of the easiest ways to capture CO2 from the air. It is a safe, natural and inexpensive process." Olivine And Buildings And schools The absorption of CO2 is optimal when the Olivine is crushed to sand. Scattering of the Olivine is possible in streets, green strips near roads and industrial sites, parks, gardens, beaches, and in the sandpits of schools. Olivine converts CO2 into calcium and so reduces CO2 in the air. "If the Olive grid is spread onto land and shallow water in the wet tropics, in a year about 20 percent of the CO2 will be weathered. When we repeat the process every year with 7 cubic kilometres of rock, we will compensate the whole human CO2 emissions." CO2 Absorption Costs The costs to dig and pulverize Olivine in tropical countries are about $ 6.5 per ton. If you assume that for the transportation and spreading another $ 6.5 per ton are needed, the costs are 13 USD per ton of olivine: about 10 USD per ton CO2. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Sediments And Olivine Weathering of calcium and or magnesium silicate rock has kept the CO2 content of the atmosphere within reasonable bounds throughout geological history. Weathering is the neutralization of an acid (usually carbonic acid) by rocks, turning CO2 into the innocuous bicarbonate ion in solution. These bicarbonate solutions are carried by rivers to the sea, where they are ultimately deposited as limestones and dolomites. These carbonate sediments form the ultimate sink for CO2. They contain 1,500 times more CO2 than the amounts of CO2 in biomass, atmosphere and dissolved CO2 in the oceans combined. Reduce CO2 Emissions Two broad families of geo-engineering solutions have been proposed: First is to alter the Earth’s thermal balance by reflecting more incident solar radiation out to space Second is the direct removal of CO2 from the atmosphere Both approaches have their place but note that the first category does not address the serious issue of ocean acidification (report). Accordingly it would be unwise to rely on enhanced reflectivity alone. Of the second category of geo engineering approaches, the most logical is to increase the rate of weathering since this is a natural process whose enhancement may be considered 'benign in principle'. This can be done by mining abundantly available and easily weatherable rocks, milling them and spreading the grains over the surface of the land or in shallow seas. The olivine option is not so much a ‘technology’ in the classical sense, but more a general concept that can be applied in many sectors of society. Recommended:  Does Rising CO2 Benefit Plants? Projects based on enhanced weathering of olivine and related minerals have been formulated for agriculture, forestry, roads and biking paths, buildings, coastal defense, firefighting, playgrounds, suppression of poisonous dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria blooms, diatom farms for biodiesel production, mining, mineral waters, olivine as a green fuel, olivine in environmental applications, natural emissions of CO2 for carbon capture and miscellaneous. Olivine In Silica The solutions that are produced by the digestion of olivine grains are rich in silica, which is a limiting nutrient for diatoms. When silica becomes available in larger quantities, the diatom population will increase, providing food for fishes and birds further up the food chain. CO2 Absorption Can Vary Greatly Colleagues point out correctly that, as in nature, the rates and speed of the reaction of minerals like olivine can vary greatly in different situations found in the natural world. More work needs to be done to understand these processes. However, don’t mistake that for a reason for inaction, whilst we may be unsure of the absolute potential, we are sure that the potential is there. Recommended:  Renewable Energy Turns CO2 Into Fuel For Hydrogen Batteries And, as in nature, with such a wide range of applications for weathering minerals in our human activities, virtually everybody can participate in their own field and help move these techniques forward in the fight to counteract climate change and ocean acidification. Combating climate change and building a sustainable future, there are a lot of interesting and potentially very helpful actions and developments to be embraced. And Olivine is one of them. Olivine: Where Can It Be Found? Olivine is a very common silicate mineral that occurs mostly in dark-coloured igneous rocks like peridotite and basalt. It is usually easily identifiable because of its bright green colour and glassy lustre.                                                                                 Identifying Olivine                                                 CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? Olivine is a common mineral in dark-coloured igneous rocks because these rocks are rich in iron and magnesium (rocks rich in iron-bearing minerals tend to be either black or at least dark-coloured). These chemical elements (Mg and Fe) are the essential components of olivine which has the following chemical formula: (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Magnesium and iron can replace each other in all proportions. There are specific names for compositional varieties, but most of them are rarely used. Only forsterite (more than 90% of the Mg+Fe is Mg) and fayalite (similarly iron-rich endmember) are used more often. The vast majority of all the samples are forsteritic or compositionally close to it. Olivine is a nesosilicate. It means that silica tetrahedra (which is the central building block of all silicate minerals) are surrounded from all sides by other ions. Silica tetrahedra are not in contact with each other. It implies relatively low content of silicon which is indeed the case. It is a silicate mineral that uses silicon very conservatively. On the other end of the spectrum is mineral quartz which is pure silica (SiO2) without any other constituents. Other well-known nesosilicates are garnet, zircon, topaz, kyanite, etc. What defines a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler. Minerals are naturally occurring. They are not made by humans. Minerals are inorganic. Silicate minerals that crystallize from magma have a higher melting/crystallization temperature if the content of silica is lower and the content of Mg+Fe is higher. Hence, olivine has a high crystallization temperature and is therefore one of the first minerals to start crystallizing from a cooling magma. It takes silica out of magma relatively conservatively, as already mentioned. So the concentration of silica rises as olivine crystals form and next silicate minerals to crystallize (which are pyroxenes) are already somewhat richer in silica. This sequential order of crystallizing silicate minerals from olivine to quartz is known as the Bowen’s reaction series after a Canadian geologist Norman Bowen who first described it. It is one of the most important concepts every geology student is taught during the petrology course. Dunite xenolith in basaltic lava from Hawaii. The sample is 8 cm in width Bowen’s series or order of minerals in this series (olivine -> pyroxene -> amphibole -> biotite -> K-feldspar -> muscovite -> quartz) is a really useful one to memorize and there are several properties of these minerals that generally follow the same order. Olivine and its close neighbours are darker, contain iron and magnesium, and have a high melting temperature. Quartz, muscovite and K-feldspars are generally much lighter in color and weight, they melt at lower temperatures, and they contain no iron and magnesium. Another interesting fact is that the order of susceptibility to weathering and metamorphic alteration is exactly the reverse. It is readily altered or weathered while quartz is extremely resistant to any kind of change. All other minerals in the series are somewhere in the middle. In the correct order, of course. What are the 7 types of minerals? The classes are: native elements, silicates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, halides, carbonates, phosphates, and mineraloids. Important aspect that rises from this series is the explanation why certain minerals typically form assemblages while others are almost never found together. Olivine is typically with pyroxenes (in basalt, for example) and quartz + K-feldspar with micas (biotite and muscovite) is a typical composition of granite. But there are no such rock types that are composed of olivine plus quartz. Granite and similar rocks are said to be felsic (composed of feldspar and silica) and basaltic rocks are referred to as mafic rocks (magnesium + ferric). Olivine sand grains from Hawaii. Olivine is actually very rare in sand because it is highly susceptible to weathering. Most of these minerals will not last long as sand grains, but they still dominate because there simply is no quartz available on these islands. The sample is from Papakolea, Hawaii. Width of view 20 mm. Olivine is a common rock-forming mineral in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, but it also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks (picture below). It is a very common mineral in the mantle. Some xenoliths from the mantle are almost entirely composed of this mineral. Such a rock type is known as dunite. Olivine occurs as a groundmass mineral but also as distinct phenocrysts in many basaltic rocks. These rocks need not to be basalts in the strict sense. They may be picrites, basanites, etc. but all of them may be very similar to each other as boundaries between them are arbitrary. So it is frequently impossible to say for sure before chemical analysis is made. Olivine is very susceptible to weathering. Bright green mineral loses its appeal rapidly in the weathering environment. It becomes dull, earthy, and yellowish brown.  This material is usually a mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxide goethite and it is known as iddingsite. It also demonstrates very little resistance to hydrothermal metamorphism. Hot and chemically aggressive fluids quickly alter olivine-rich igneous rocks into metamorphic rock known as serpentinite. It is also an important constituent of many stony and mixed meteorites. Especially beautiful is pallasite. It is a mixture of iron and olivine and is thought to represent a core-mantle boundary of a disintegrated asteroid. Perhaps the core-mantle transition of our own home planet looks something like that too. Is Diamond a mineral? Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring mineral, topping Mohs' Scale of Hardness with a relative hardness value of 10. Diamond is a polymorph of the element carbon, and graphite is another. However, at surface temperatures and pressures graphite is the stable form of carbon. However, there is one little thing to remember. The mantle is indeed most likely compositionally close to it, but most of it is not composed of this exact mineral. Olivine tolerates well pressures in the crust and in the upper mantle, but at 350 km depth its crystal structure starts to break down. The composition remains, but it takes a new and more compact form. It is not technically olivine anymore because minerals have a definite crystal structure. Olivine is not just an igneous mineral. It also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Here olivine crystals are found in a sample of calcitic marble. Some crystals even possess a typical crystal faces which are usually lacking in igneous rocks because olivine grains are often corroded (they reacted with the melt surrounding them). Width of sample is 9 cm. Phenocrysts in ultramafic picritic rock from La Palma, Canary Islands. Width of sample is 5 cm Weathered olivine is dull, earthy, and usually yellowish brown mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxides. Black grains are pyroxene phenocrysts. Rock sample is basanite (ankaramite) from La Palma. Chrysotile is an asbestos mineral that belongs to the serpentine group of minerals. These minerals are the result of hydrothermal alteration of olivine-rich igneous rocks. Width of sample from the Sayan Mountains in Siberia is 8 cm. Before you go! Recommended:  Recycling Asphalt Generates Massive Amount Of Electricity Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
The world is desperately looking for safe and cost-effective solutions to counteract climate change by reducing the CO2 levels of the atmosphere. It looks ‘another’ good solution is found! How it’s named: Olivine. Does This Professor Has The Solution For The Increasing CO2 And The Effects On Climate Change? Olaf Schuiling, professor Geo Engineering at the University Utrecht (Netherlands) proposes Olivine. Olivine isn’t new. It is as old as the world, namely to use olivine or similar rocks not in a technology, but in the way it works in nature. Olivine (Mg2SiO4) is the most common mineral on earth. Since the sixties professor Schuiling investigated the reaction between dissolved CO2 and Olivine. In addition, heat is released, and the CO2 binds to the innocent bicarbonate, which may be later precipitates as lime. Schuiling: "It is one of the easiest ways to capture CO2 from the air. It is a safe, natural and inexpensive process." Olivine And Buildings And schools The absorption of CO2 is optimal when the Olivine is crushed to sand. Scattering of the Olivine is possible in streets, green strips near roads and industrial sites, parks, gardens, beaches, and in the sandpits of schools. Olivine converts CO2 into calcium and so reduces CO2 in the air. "If the Olive grid is spread onto land and shallow water in the wet tropics, in a year about 20 percent of the CO2 will be weathered. When we repeat the process every year with 7 cubic kilometres of rock, we will compensate the whole human CO2 emissions." CO2 Absorption Costs The costs to dig and pulverize Olivine in tropical countries are about $ 6.5 per ton. If you assume that for the transportation and spreading another $ 6.5 per ton are needed, the costs are 13 USD per ton of olivine: about 10 USD per ton CO2. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Sediments And Olivine Weathering of calcium and or magnesium silicate rock has kept the CO2 content of the atmosphere within reasonable bounds throughout geological history. Weathering is the neutralization of an acid (usually carbonic acid) by rocks, turning CO2 into the innocuous bicarbonate ion in solution. These bicarbonate solutions are carried by rivers to the sea, where they are ultimately deposited as limestones and dolomites. These carbonate sediments form the ultimate sink for CO2. They contain 1,500 times more CO2 than the amounts of CO2 in biomass, atmosphere and dissolved CO2 in the oceans combined. Reduce CO2 Emissions Two broad families of geo-engineering solutions have been proposed: First is to alter the Earth’s thermal balance by reflecting more incident solar radiation out to space Second is the direct removal of CO2 from the atmosphere Both approaches have their place but note that the first category does not address the serious issue of ocean acidification (report). Accordingly it would be unwise to rely on enhanced reflectivity alone. Of the second category of geo engineering approaches, the most logical is to increase the rate of weathering since this is a natural process whose enhancement may be considered 'benign in principle'. This can be done by mining abundantly available and easily weatherable rocks, milling them and spreading the grains over the surface of the land or in shallow seas. The olivine option is not so much a ‘technology’ in the classical sense, but more a general concept that can be applied in many sectors of society. Recommended:  Does Rising CO2 Benefit Plants? Projects based on enhanced weathering of olivine and related minerals have been formulated for agriculture, forestry, roads and biking paths, buildings, coastal defense, firefighting, playgrounds, suppression of poisonous dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria blooms, diatom farms for biodiesel production, mining, mineral waters, olivine as a green fuel, olivine in environmental applications, natural emissions of CO2 for carbon capture and miscellaneous. Olivine In Silica The solutions that are produced by the digestion of olivine grains are rich in silica, which is a limiting nutrient for diatoms. When silica becomes available in larger quantities, the diatom population will increase, providing food for fishes and birds further up the food chain. CO2 Absorption Can Vary Greatly Colleagues point out correctly that, as in nature, the rates and speed of the reaction of minerals like olivine can vary greatly in different situations found in the natural world. More work needs to be done to understand these processes. However, don’t mistake that for a reason for inaction, whilst we may be unsure of the absolute potential, we are sure that the potential is there. Recommended:  Renewable Energy Turns CO2 Into Fuel For Hydrogen Batteries And, as in nature, with such a wide range of applications for weathering minerals in our human activities, virtually everybody can participate in their own field and help move these techniques forward in the fight to counteract climate change and ocean acidification. Combating climate change and building a sustainable future, there are a lot of interesting and potentially very helpful actions and developments to be embraced. And Olivine is one of them. Olivine: Where Can It Be Found? Olivine is a very common silicate mineral that occurs mostly in dark-coloured igneous rocks like peridotite and basalt. It is usually easily identifiable because of its bright green colour and glassy lustre.                                                                                 Identifying Olivine                                                 CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer? Olivine is a common mineral in dark-coloured igneous rocks because these rocks are rich in iron and magnesium (rocks rich in iron-bearing minerals tend to be either black or at least dark-coloured). These chemical elements (Mg and Fe) are the essential components of olivine which has the following chemical formula: (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Magnesium and iron can replace each other in all proportions. There are specific names for compositional varieties, but most of them are rarely used. Only forsterite (more than 90% of the Mg+Fe is Mg) and fayalite (similarly iron-rich endmember) are used more often. The vast majority of all the samples are forsteritic or compositionally close to it. Olivine is a nesosilicate. It means that silica tetrahedra (which is the central building block of all silicate minerals) are surrounded from all sides by other ions. Silica tetrahedra are not in contact with each other. It implies relatively low content of silicon which is indeed the case. It is a silicate mineral that uses silicon very conservatively. On the other end of the spectrum is mineral quartz which is pure silica (SiO2) without any other constituents. Other well-known nesosilicates are garnet, zircon, topaz, kyanite, etc. What defines a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler. Minerals are naturally occurring. They are not made by humans. Minerals are inorganic. Silicate minerals that crystallize from magma have a higher melting/crystallization temperature if the content of silica is lower and the content of Mg+Fe is higher. Hence, olivine has a high crystallization temperature and is therefore one of the first minerals to start crystallizing from a cooling magma. It takes silica out of magma relatively conservatively, as already mentioned. So the concentration of silica rises as olivine crystals form and next silicate minerals to crystallize (which are pyroxenes) are already somewhat richer in silica. This sequential order of crystallizing silicate minerals from olivine to quartz is known as the Bowen’s reaction series after a Canadian geologist Norman Bowen who first described it. It is one of the most important concepts every geology student is taught during the petrology course. Dunite xenolith in basaltic lava from Hawaii. The sample is 8 cm in width Bowen’s series or order of minerals in this series (olivine -> pyroxene -> amphibole -> biotite -> K-feldspar -> muscovite -> quartz) is a really useful one to memorize and there are several properties of these minerals that generally follow the same order. Olivine and its close neighbours are darker, contain iron and magnesium, and have a high melting temperature. Quartz, muscovite and K-feldspars are generally much lighter in color and weight, they melt at lower temperatures, and they contain no iron and magnesium. Another interesting fact is that the order of susceptibility to weathering and metamorphic alteration is exactly the reverse. It is readily altered or weathered while quartz is extremely resistant to any kind of change. All other minerals in the series are somewhere in the middle. In the correct order, of course. What are the 7 types of minerals? The classes are: native elements, silicates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, halides, carbonates, phosphates, and mineraloids. Important aspect that rises from this series is the explanation why certain minerals typically form assemblages while others are almost never found together. Olivine is typically with pyroxenes (in basalt, for example) and quartz + K-feldspar with micas (biotite and muscovite) is a typical composition of granite. But there are no such rock types that are composed of olivine plus quartz. Granite and similar rocks are said to be felsic (composed of feldspar and silica) and basaltic rocks are referred to as mafic rocks (magnesium + ferric). Olivine sand grains from Hawaii. Olivine is actually very rare in sand because it is highly susceptible to weathering. Most of these minerals will not last long as sand grains, but they still dominate because there simply is no quartz available on these islands. The sample is from Papakolea, Hawaii. Width of view 20 mm. Olivine is a common rock-forming mineral in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, but it also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks (picture below). It is a very common mineral in the mantle. Some xenoliths from the mantle are almost entirely composed of this mineral. Such a rock type is known as dunite. Olivine occurs as a groundmass mineral but also as distinct phenocrysts in many basaltic rocks. These rocks need not to be basalts in the strict sense. They may be picrites, basanites, etc. but all of them may be very similar to each other as boundaries between them are arbitrary. So it is frequently impossible to say for sure before chemical analysis is made. Olivine is very susceptible to weathering. Bright green mineral loses its appeal rapidly in the weathering environment. It becomes dull, earthy, and yellowish brown.  This material is usually a mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxide goethite and it is known as iddingsite. It also demonstrates very little resistance to hydrothermal metamorphism. Hot and chemically aggressive fluids quickly alter olivine-rich igneous rocks into metamorphic rock known as serpentinite. It is also an important constituent of many stony and mixed meteorites. Especially beautiful is pallasite. It is a mixture of iron and olivine and is thought to represent a core-mantle boundary of a disintegrated asteroid. Perhaps the core-mantle transition of our own home planet looks something like that too. Is Diamond a mineral? Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring mineral, topping Mohs' Scale of Hardness with a relative hardness value of 10. Diamond is a polymorph of the element carbon, and graphite is another. However, at surface temperatures and pressures graphite is the stable form of carbon. However, there is one little thing to remember. The mantle is indeed most likely compositionally close to it, but most of it is not composed of this exact mineral. Olivine tolerates well pressures in the crust and in the upper mantle, but at 350 km depth its crystal structure starts to break down. The composition remains, but it takes a new and more compact form. It is not technically olivine anymore because minerals have a definite crystal structure. Olivine is not just an igneous mineral. It also occurs in impure metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Here olivine crystals are found in a sample of calcitic marble. Some crystals even possess a typical crystal faces which are usually lacking in igneous rocks because olivine grains are often corroded (they reacted with the melt surrounding them). Width of sample is 9 cm. Phenocrysts in ultramafic picritic rock from La Palma, Canary Islands. Width of sample is 5 cm Weathered olivine is dull, earthy, and usually yellowish brown mixture of clay minerals and iron hydroxides. Black grains are pyroxene phenocrysts. Rock sample is basanite (ankaramite) from La Palma. Chrysotile is an asbestos mineral that belongs to the serpentine group of minerals. These minerals are the result of hydrothermal alteration of olivine-rich igneous rocks. Width of sample from the Sayan Mountains in Siberia is 8 cm. Before you go! Recommended:  Recycling Asphalt Generates Massive Amount Of Electricity Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. 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CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer?
CO2 Absorption: Does A Dutch Professor Have The Answer?
Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How?
An urban canopy created with algae has got people talking about the link between technology and environment. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen amounting to the equivalent of four hectares of woodland. Algae Canopy Miracle When it comes to photosynthesis, microalgae organisms are ten times more efficient than large trees and grass. Buildings and architectural surfaces are efficient spaces to utilize this technology. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of the Future The Future Food District project is a 7,000 square metre thematic pavilion that explores the relationship between digital technology and our interactions with food. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of The Future Food District project. Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 The project, which is a culmination of six years’ worth of research, consists of three layers. A custom designed cladding system uses ETFC, fluorine-based plastic that has high corrosion resistance and consistent strength over a wide temperature range. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen.  What exactly is algae? Algae are a group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. Algae have a nucleus, exist as microscopic cells, and generate oxygen through photosynthesis. At any given time the transparency, colour and shading potential of the canopy will be the direct result of the interrelationships between climate, the algae and visitors. For example, when the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular.   For ecoLogicStudio the prototype is a step towards something much larger. There is hope for the use of these in current and future buildings, and a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. “Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. For now, the canopy will remain a prototype and proof of a working concept that allows for experimentation. {youtube}                             EcoLogicStudio transforms cladding system into a bioreactor with Urban Algae Canopy                                                 Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? When the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. It seems algae are already being used in other environmentally-friendly projects as well. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. Is Algae good or bad for humans? No, not all algal blooms are harmful Less than one percent of algal blooms actually produce toxins. Harmful algal blooms are blooms of species of algae that can have negative impacts on humans, marine and freshwater environments, and coastal economies. According to Gajitz, the algae eats the CO2 from the environment, which gets sucked into the chamber by a pump. Once the algae becomes saturated with CO2, it becomes biomass, which is then pushed underground to a filler station. So the lamp not only reduces urban smog, but could in turn use the biomass to power eco-friendly, biomass-fuelled cars. These new designs showcase the need to end the segregation between technology and nature, and instead explore the positive relationships between the two. Do algal blooms produce oxygen? Algae blooms in natural water bodies or fish ponds normally produce much more oxygen in the daylight than they consume during the night, but some situations reduce the amount of oxygen a bloom produces without reducing its nighttime oxygen consumption. There is hope for the use of algae canopies in current and future buildings. It’s part of a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Makes Protein From Manure: Nitrogen Problem Solved Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
An urban canopy created with algae has got people talking about the link between technology and environment. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen amounting to the equivalent of four hectares of woodland. Algae Canopy Miracle When it comes to photosynthesis, microalgae organisms are ten times more efficient than large trees and grass. Buildings and architectural surfaces are efficient spaces to utilize this technology. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of the Future The Future Food District project is a 7,000 square metre thematic pavilion that explores the relationship between digital technology and our interactions with food. The Urban Algae Canopy was presented as a prototype at this year’s Expo Milano. The project was presented by London-based ecoLogicStudio as part of The Future Food District project. Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 The project, which is a culmination of six years’ worth of research, consists of three layers. A custom designed cladding system uses ETFC, fluorine-based plastic that has high corrosion resistance and consistent strength over a wide temperature range. The bio-digital structure pumps a fluid with microalgae around a transparent shelter, which in turn produces shade, energy in the form of biomass, and an impressive amount of oxygen.  What exactly is algae? Algae are a group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. Algae have a nucleus, exist as microscopic cells, and generate oxygen through photosynthesis. At any given time the transparency, colour and shading potential of the canopy will be the direct result of the interrelationships between climate, the algae and visitors. For example, when the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. Is algae bacteria or plant? Algae are photosynthetic creatures. They are neither plant, animal or fungi. Many algae are single celled, however some species are multicellular.   For ecoLogicStudio the prototype is a step towards something much larger. There is hope for the use of these in current and future buildings, and a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. “Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. For now, the canopy will remain a prototype and proof of a working concept that allows for experimentation. {youtube}                             EcoLogicStudio transforms cladding system into a bioreactor with Urban Algae Canopy                                                 Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How? When the sun shines intensively, the algae will photosynthesize and grow, which in turn will reduce the transparency of the canopy and provide shade. It seems algae are already being used in other environmentally-friendly projects as well. The Biolamp Design, created by Hungarian designer Peter Horvath, is a sleek chamber that contains water and algae. Is Algae good or bad for humans? No, not all algal blooms are harmful Less than one percent of algal blooms actually produce toxins. Harmful algal blooms are blooms of species of algae that can have negative impacts on humans, marine and freshwater environments, and coastal economies. According to Gajitz, the algae eats the CO2 from the environment, which gets sucked into the chamber by a pump. Once the algae becomes saturated with CO2, it becomes biomass, which is then pushed underground to a filler station. So the lamp not only reduces urban smog, but could in turn use the biomass to power eco-friendly, biomass-fuelled cars. These new designs showcase the need to end the segregation between technology and nature, and instead explore the positive relationships between the two. Do algal blooms produce oxygen? Algae blooms in natural water bodies or fish ponds normally produce much more oxygen in the daylight than they consume during the night, but some situations reduce the amount of oxygen a bloom produces without reducing its nighttime oxygen consumption. There is hope for the use of algae canopies in current and future buildings. It’s part of a larger vision for a strengthened relationship between organic and high-tech systems. Integrating organic and artificial systems opens up sustainable possibilities for everything from temperature control to power generation methods using advantages of both natural and digital parts. Before you go! Recommended:  Algae Makes Protein From Manure: Nitrogen Problem Solved Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How?
Algae Canopy Miracle Works Better Than A Forrest: How?
To Severn Cullis-Suzuki
Dedicated to Severn Cullis-Suzuki , daughter of David Suzuki , the first chlid environmental activists, who addressed the United Nations' Environmental Programme's seminal Rio Summit, aged just 12  in 1992. ❣️ NOW… LOOK AT WHAT YOU STARTED, MISSY ❣️ (C) Toni Massari, 28th September 2019 Oh how we love you for your words of courage! You blazed the path we followed, from back then, and our children and grandchildren since. Your words etched in the planet’s very roots were flames that smouldered quietly and yet unquenchably in the crucible whence now Angels arise, treading in your fiery footprints, raising the dust to a storm of righteous rage! {youtube} To Severn Cullis-Suzuki Listen to the Children - Severn Cullis-Suzuki's famous speech on the environment (1992) Recommended:  Environmental Activism Is For Everyone, Not Just Scientists So stand again, beloved Queen of Angels, smile on them, your Host, and open your arms wide their time has come for you to welcome them who echoed you loud call, from long ago. We crowd and stand around you, for your shields, we, your grandparents, parents, uncles, aunts. our aged bodies wielding walking sticks to ward off those who’d harm our blessed children. Rise up again, dear Severn, who like a river flowed, from childhood on to adulthood and motherhood!                                                               Billions await your signal, madam, and those of all the young that march in shining, peaceful light who show the way to humanity’s redemption who need no other Faith but their Earthmother’s Her bounty and resilience, Her power and Her grace She who, so ancient and so scarred, yet carried Life beyond the limits of the flesh, transcending pettiness, and selfishness and greed. Arise, dear Lady, and lead us in this shining dawn! Before you go! Recommended:  Guerrilla Cyclists Solving Urban Transport Problems: UK Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Dedicated to Severn Cullis-Suzuki , daughter of David Suzuki , the first chlid environmental activists, who addressed the United Nations' Environmental Programme's seminal Rio Summit, aged just 12  in 1992. ❣️ NOW… LOOK AT WHAT YOU STARTED, MISSY ❣️ (C) Toni Massari, 28th September 2019 Oh how we love you for your words of courage! You blazed the path we followed, from back then, and our children and grandchildren since. Your words etched in the planet’s very roots were flames that smouldered quietly and yet unquenchably in the crucible whence now Angels arise, treading in your fiery footprints, raising the dust to a storm of righteous rage! {youtube} To Severn Cullis-Suzuki Listen to the Children - Severn Cullis-Suzuki's famous speech on the environment (1992) Recommended:  Environmental Activism Is For Everyone, Not Just Scientists So stand again, beloved Queen of Angels, smile on them, your Host, and open your arms wide their time has come for you to welcome them who echoed you loud call, from long ago. We crowd and stand around you, for your shields, we, your grandparents, parents, uncles, aunts. our aged bodies wielding walking sticks to ward off those who’d harm our blessed children. Rise up again, dear Severn, who like a river flowed, from childhood on to adulthood and motherhood!                                                               Billions await your signal, madam, and those of all the young that march in shining, peaceful light who show the way to humanity’s redemption who need no other Faith but their Earthmother’s Her bounty and resilience, Her power and Her grace She who, so ancient and so scarred, yet carried Life beyond the limits of the flesh, transcending pettiness, and selfishness and greed. Arise, dear Lady, and lead us in this shining dawn! Before you go! Recommended:  Guerrilla Cyclists Solving Urban Transport Problems: UK Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
To Severn Cullis-Suzuki
Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us!
All that’s missing is a back-and-forth of "You shut up!" "No, you shut up! That is reserved for those who doubt the need for panic. The answer is if it is about the climate, we just don't know! If it is about pollution, thats a different story and could be true that it - at the end - will kill us! Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Well, read the amazing chronology of the last 120 years of messages on climate, it is truly mind-boggling: CO2 ppm: 294.8 1895   Geologists Think the World May Be Frozen Up Again, New York Times 1902 Disappearing Glaciers deteriorating slowly, with a persistency that means their final annihilation scientific fact surely disappearing, Los Angeles Times 1912 Prof. Schmidt Warns Us of an Encroaching Ice Age, New York Times CO2 ppm: 304.5 1923 Scientist says Arctic ice will wipe out Canada, Professor Gregory of Yale University, American representative to the Pan-Pacific Science Congress, Chicago Tribune 1923 Discoveries of changes in the sun’s heat and the southward advance of glaciers in recent years give rise to conjectures of the possible advent of a new ice age, Washington Post Recommended:  Global Warming By CO2 Or Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum 1924 MacMillan Reports Signs of New Ice Age, New York Times 1929 Most geologists think the world is growing warmer, and that it will continue to get warmer, Los Angeles Times, in; 'Is another ice age coming?' City Hall, Leiden, Netherlands, 1929. On the night of 11 to 12 February 1929, a security guard discovered that a fire had probably broken out due to the coal heaters that had been fired up because of the cold. The extinguishing work was seriously hampered by the extremely low temperatures of around -15 degrees. The extinguishing water froze when it touched the façade, creating an ice palace. CO2 ppm: 308.3 What is climate change simple definition? Ice ages are prominent examples. Climate change is any significant long-term change in the expected patterns of average weather of a region (or the whole Earth) over a significant period of time. Climate change is about abnormal variations to the climate, and the effects of these variations on other parts of the Earth. 1932 If these things be true, it is evident, therefore that we must be just teetering on an ice age, The Atlantic magazine, This Cold, Cold World 1933 America in Longest Warm Spell Since 1776; Temperature Line Records a 25-Year Rise, New York Times, March 27th, 1933 1933 Wide-spread and persistent tendency toward warmer weather…Is our climate changing? Federal Weather Bureau 'Monthly Weather Review'. 1938 Global warming, caused by man heating the planet with carbon dioxide, is likely to prove beneficial to mankind in several ways, besides the provision of heat and power, Royal Meteorological Society             1938 Experts puzzle over 20 year mercury rise. Chicago is in the front rank of thousands of cities thuout the world which have been affected by a mysterious trend toward warmer climate in the last 20 years Chicago Tribune 1939 Gaffers who claim that winters were harder when they were boys are quite right. Weather men have no doubt that the world at least for the time being is growing warmer, Washington Post CO2 ppm: 312.2 What are the possible effects of climate change? Examples of climate change include increases in global surface temperature (global warming), changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events. 1952 We have learned that the world has been getting warmer in the last half century, New York Times, August 10th, 1962 1954 Winters are getting milder, summers drier. Glaciers are receding, deserts growing, U.S. News and World Report 1954 Climate – 'The Heat May Be Off' – Fortune Magazine 1959 Arctic Findings in Particular Support Theory of Rising Global Temperatures, New York Times In 1959, a young geologist from Ohio in the USA, Paul T Walker, was on Ward Hunt Island in the high Arctic. It’s the closest Canadian land to the north pole, while the nearest tiny community Grise Fjord, is 800km away to the south. While there he set up a small cairn right at the edge of the glacier with a note inside. In 2010 Warwick Vincent and his team from Laval University in Quebec City,were working at the Laval research station.  They discovered the small cairn and the note still inside a bottle inside the cairn.  In 1959, the glacier was only 1.2 metres from the glacier edge. This year the Laval University team measured and found it had retreated to 101.5 metres. For me, it was an incredible thing to hold this in my hands, because these two people, these are very famous names,” said Vincent. A hill on Ward Hunt Island, Nunavut, is named after Walker. CO2 ppm: 324.23 1969 The Arctic pack ice is thinning and that the ocean at the North Pole may become an open sea within a decade or two, New York Times, February 20th, 1969 1969 If I were a gambler, I would take even money that England will not exist in the year 2000, Paul Ehrlich  CO2 ppm: 325.54 1970 Get a good grip on your long johns, cold weather haters, the worst may be yet to come, there’s no relief in sight, Washington Post 1974 Global cooling for the past forty years, Time Magazine 1974 Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age, Washington Post 1974 As for the present cooling trend a number of leading climatologists have concluded that it is very bad news indeed, Fortune magazine, who won a Science Writing Award from the American Institute of Physics for its analysis of the danger 1974 The facts of the present climate change are such that the most optimistic experts would assign near certainty to major crop failure, mass deaths by starvation, and probably anarchy and violence, New York Times Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age 1975 Scientists Ponder Why World’s Climate is Changing; A Major Cooling Widely Considered to Be Inevitable, New York Times 1975 The threat of a new ice age must now stand alongside nuclear war as a likely source of wholesale death and misery for mankind,  Nigel Calder, editor, New Scientist magazine, in an article in International Wildlife Magazine 1976 Even U.S. farms may be hit by cooling trend, U.S. News and World Report CO2 ppm: 340.36 Which is the greenhouse gas? The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Retreat of the Grinnell Glacier 1981 Global Warming, of an almost unprecedented magnitude, New York Times                                                             Climate Change - Warming Warning - 1981                                          Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! 1988 I would like to draw three main conclusions. Number one, the earth is warmer in 1988 than at any time in the history of instrumental measurements. Number two, the global warming is now large enough that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship to the greenhouse effect. And number three, our computer climate simulations indicate that the greenhouse effect is already large enough to begin to effect the probability of extreme events such as summer heat waves Jim Hansen June 1988 testimony before Congress, see His later quote and His superior’s objection for context  Recommended:  Climate Change Natural Man Made: Marching Towards Extinction 1989 On the one hand, as scientists we are ethically bound to the scientific method, in effect promising to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but – which means that we must include all doubts, the caveats, the ifs, ands and buts. On the other hand, we are not just scientists but human beings as well. And like most people we’d like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climate change. To do that we need to get some broad based support, to capture the public’s imagination. That, of course, means getting loads of media coverage. So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts we might have. This “double ethical bind” we frequently find ourselves in cannot be solved by any formula. Each of us has to   decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest. I hope that means being both. – Stephen Schneider, lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Discover Magazine                                                                    Margaret Thatcher on Global Warming                                             Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! CO2 ppm: 354.29 1990 We’ve got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing, in terms of economic policy and environmental policy, Senator Timothy Wirth 1993 Global climate change may alter temperature and rainfall patterns, many scientists fear, with uncertain consequences for agriculture, U.S. News and World Report 1998 No matter if the science (of global warming) is all phony . . . climate change (provides) the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world, Christine Stewart, Canadian Minister of the Environment, Calgary Herald, 1998 CO2 ppm: 371.15 2001 Scientists no longer doubt that global warming is happening, and almost nobody questions the fact that humans are at least partly responsible, Time Magazine 2003 Emphasis on extreme scenarios may have been appropriate at one time, when the public and decision-makers were relatively unaware of the global warming issue, and energy sources such as synfuels, shale oil and tar sands were receiving strong consideration, Jim Hansen, NASA Global Warming activist, Can we defuse The Global Warming Time Bomb 2006 I believe it is appropriate to have an over-representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis, Al Gore, Grist magazine, May 2006 2006 It is not a debate over whether the earth has been warming over the past century. The earth is always warming or cooling, at least a few tenths of a degree, Richard S. Lindzen, the Alfred P. Sloan professor of meteorology at MIT 2006 What we have fundamentally forgotten is simple primary school science. Climate always changes. It is always warming or cooling, it’s never stable. And if it were stable, it would actually be interesting scientifically because it would be the first time for four and a half billion years, Philip Stott, emeritus professor of bio-geography at the University of London 2006 Since 1895, the media has alternated between global cooling and warming scares during four separate and sometimes overlapping time periods. From 1895 until the 1930’s the media peddled a coming ice age. From the late 1920’s until the 1960’s they warned of global warming. From the 1950’s until the 1970’s they warned us again of a coming ice age. This makes modern global warming the fourth estate’s fourth attempt to promote opposing climate change fears during the last 100 years, Senator James Inhofe, Monday, September 25, 2006 2007 I gave a talk recently (on fallacies of global warming) and three members of the Canadian government, the environmental cabinet, came up afterwards and said, ‘We agree with you, but it’s not worth our jobs to say anything.’ So what’s being created is a huge industry with billions of dollars of government money and people’s jobs dependent on it, Dr. Tim Ball, Coast-to-Coast, Feb 6, 2007 2008 Hansen was never muzzled even though he violated NASA’s official agency position on climate forecasting (i.e., we did not know enough to forecast climate change or mankind’s effect on it). Hansen thus embarrassed NASA by coming out with his claims of global warming in 1988 in his testimony before Congress, Dr. John S. Theon, retired Chief of the Climate Processes Research Program atNASA, see above for Hansen quotes 2009 Climate change: melting ice will trigger wave of natural disasters. Scientists at a London conference next week will warn of earthquakes, avalanches and volcanic eruptions as the atmosphere heats up and geology is altered. Even Britain could face being struck by tsunamis – “Not only are the oceans and atmosphere conspiring against us, bringing baking temperatures, more powerful storms and floods, but the crust beneath our feet seems likely to join in too,” – Professor Bill McGuire, director of the Benfield Hazard Research Centre, at University College London, The Guardian, Sep 2009. CO2 ppm: 389.21                                                                               Global Warming Facts                                                   Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! 2010 What Global Warming Looks Like. It was more than 5°C (about 10°F) warmer than climatology in the eastern European region including Moscow. There was an area in eastern Asia that was similarly unusually hot. The eastern part of the United States was unusually warm, although not to the degree of the hot spots in Eurasia. James Hansen, NASA GISS, August 11, 2010. 2011 Where Did Global Warming Go? In Washington, ‘climate change’ has become a lightning rod, it’s a four-letter word,” said Andrew J. Hoffman, director of the University of Michigan’s Erb Institute for Sustainable Development, New York Times, Oct 15, 2011. 2012 Global warming close to becoming irreversible-scientists. This is the critical decade. If we don’t get the curves turned around this decade we will cross those lines, said Will Steffen, executive director of the Australian National University’s climate change institute, speaking at a conference in London. Reuters, Mar 26, 2012 2013 Global-warming ‘proof’ is evaporating.  The 2013 hurricane season just ended as one of the five quietest years since 1960. But don’t expect anyone who pointed to last year’s hurricanes as 'proof' of the need to act against global warming to apologize; the warmists don’t work that way. New York Post, Dec 5, 2013 2014 Climate change: It’s even worse than we thought.  Five years ago, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change painted a gloomy picture of our planet’s future. As climate scientists gather evidence for the next report, due in 2014, Michael Le Page gives seven reasons why things are looking even grimmer, New Scientist  2015 A big year for climate change. Dizzying highs and stunning lows The hottest January on record, to March, when global carbon dioxide levels hit a million-year high, to December, when nearly 200 nations signed an agreement to minimize global warming, The Guardian 2016 Climate trends continue to break records. The disappearance of Arctic ice is already having a huge impact on the ocean’s ecosystem. In the United States Congress, are still a large number of lawmakers who claim that the warming trend is the product of a global scientific hoax, The New York Times 2017 Artic meltdown, heat and fire around the globe. Heavy monsoon rains during the summer of 2017 resulted in unprecedented flooding in Asia. Earth’s third-ever global coral bleaching event, Climatenexus 2018  Papers start to write about major climate change risks as early as 2040, damaged economies, rising sea levels and the possible near future unbearable hot summers in India, The New York Times. 2019 Human disruption of earth's oceans and ice is 'unprecedented'. Students, people in general worldwide mobilize for climate action. Still scientist try to understand ice ages and the real trigger(s) for climate change especially the impact of humans who maybe have permanently broken the cycle of ice ages. Ice ages are driven by a complex, interconnected set of factors, involving Earth's position in the solar system and more local influences, like carbon dioxide levels, LiveScience CO2 ppm: 408.58 Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Natural Man Made: Causes And Facts Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
All that’s missing is a back-and-forth of "You shut up!" "No, you shut up! That is reserved for those who doubt the need for panic. The answer is if it is about the climate, we just don't know! If it is about pollution, thats a different story and could be true that it - at the end - will kill us! Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Well, read the amazing chronology of the last 120 years of messages on climate, it is truly mind-boggling: CO2 ppm: 294.8 1895   Geologists Think the World May Be Frozen Up Again, New York Times 1902 Disappearing Glaciers deteriorating slowly, with a persistency that means their final annihilation scientific fact surely disappearing, Los Angeles Times 1912 Prof. Schmidt Warns Us of an Encroaching Ice Age, New York Times CO2 ppm: 304.5 1923 Scientist says Arctic ice will wipe out Canada, Professor Gregory of Yale University, American representative to the Pan-Pacific Science Congress, Chicago Tribune 1923 Discoveries of changes in the sun’s heat and the southward advance of glaciers in recent years give rise to conjectures of the possible advent of a new ice age, Washington Post Recommended:  Global Warming By CO2 Or Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum 1924 MacMillan Reports Signs of New Ice Age, New York Times 1929 Most geologists think the world is growing warmer, and that it will continue to get warmer, Los Angeles Times, in; 'Is another ice age coming?' City Hall, Leiden, Netherlands, 1929. On the night of 11 to 12 February 1929, a security guard discovered that a fire had probably broken out due to the coal heaters that had been fired up because of the cold. The extinguishing work was seriously hampered by the extremely low temperatures of around -15 degrees. The extinguishing water froze when it touched the façade, creating an ice palace. CO2 ppm: 308.3 What is climate change simple definition? Ice ages are prominent examples. Climate change is any significant long-term change in the expected patterns of average weather of a region (or the whole Earth) over a significant period of time. Climate change is about abnormal variations to the climate, and the effects of these variations on other parts of the Earth. 1932 If these things be true, it is evident, therefore that we must be just teetering on an ice age, The Atlantic magazine, This Cold, Cold World 1933 America in Longest Warm Spell Since 1776; Temperature Line Records a 25-Year Rise, New York Times, March 27th, 1933 1933 Wide-spread and persistent tendency toward warmer weather…Is our climate changing? Federal Weather Bureau 'Monthly Weather Review'. 1938 Global warming, caused by man heating the planet with carbon dioxide, is likely to prove beneficial to mankind in several ways, besides the provision of heat and power, Royal Meteorological Society             1938 Experts puzzle over 20 year mercury rise. Chicago is in the front rank of thousands of cities thuout the world which have been affected by a mysterious trend toward warmer climate in the last 20 years Chicago Tribune 1939 Gaffers who claim that winters were harder when they were boys are quite right. Weather men have no doubt that the world at least for the time being is growing warmer, Washington Post CO2 ppm: 312.2 What are the possible effects of climate change? Examples of climate change include increases in global surface temperature (global warming), changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events. 1952 We have learned that the world has been getting warmer in the last half century, New York Times, August 10th, 1962 1954 Winters are getting milder, summers drier. Glaciers are receding, deserts growing, U.S. News and World Report 1954 Climate – 'The Heat May Be Off' – Fortune Magazine 1959 Arctic Findings in Particular Support Theory of Rising Global Temperatures, New York Times In 1959, a young geologist from Ohio in the USA, Paul T Walker, was on Ward Hunt Island in the high Arctic. It’s the closest Canadian land to the north pole, while the nearest tiny community Grise Fjord, is 800km away to the south. While there he set up a small cairn right at the edge of the glacier with a note inside. In 2010 Warwick Vincent and his team from Laval University in Quebec City,were working at the Laval research station.  They discovered the small cairn and the note still inside a bottle inside the cairn.  In 1959, the glacier was only 1.2 metres from the glacier edge. This year the Laval University team measured and found it had retreated to 101.5 metres. For me, it was an incredible thing to hold this in my hands, because these two people, these are very famous names,” said Vincent. A hill on Ward Hunt Island, Nunavut, is named after Walker. CO2 ppm: 324.23 1969 The Arctic pack ice is thinning and that the ocean at the North Pole may become an open sea within a decade or two, New York Times, February 20th, 1969 1969 If I were a gambler, I would take even money that England will not exist in the year 2000, Paul Ehrlich  CO2 ppm: 325.54 1970 Get a good grip on your long johns, cold weather haters, the worst may be yet to come, there’s no relief in sight, Washington Post 1974 Global cooling for the past forty years, Time Magazine 1974 Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age, Washington Post 1974 As for the present cooling trend a number of leading climatologists have concluded that it is very bad news indeed, Fortune magazine, who won a Science Writing Award from the American Institute of Physics for its analysis of the danger 1974 The facts of the present climate change are such that the most optimistic experts would assign near certainty to major crop failure, mass deaths by starvation, and probably anarchy and violence, New York Times Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age 1975 Scientists Ponder Why World’s Climate is Changing; A Major Cooling Widely Considered to Be Inevitable, New York Times 1975 The threat of a new ice age must now stand alongside nuclear war as a likely source of wholesale death and misery for mankind,  Nigel Calder, editor, New Scientist magazine, in an article in International Wildlife Magazine 1976 Even U.S. farms may be hit by cooling trend, U.S. News and World Report CO2 ppm: 340.36 Which is the greenhouse gas? The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Retreat of the Grinnell Glacier 1981 Global Warming, of an almost unprecedented magnitude, New York Times                                                             Climate Change - Warming Warning - 1981                                          Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! 1988 I would like to draw three main conclusions. Number one, the earth is warmer in 1988 than at any time in the history of instrumental measurements. Number two, the global warming is now large enough that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship to the greenhouse effect. And number three, our computer climate simulations indicate that the greenhouse effect is already large enough to begin to effect the probability of extreme events such as summer heat waves Jim Hansen June 1988 testimony before Congress, see His later quote and His superior’s objection for context  Recommended:  Climate Change Natural Man Made: Marching Towards Extinction 1989 On the one hand, as scientists we are ethically bound to the scientific method, in effect promising to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but – which means that we must include all doubts, the caveats, the ifs, ands and buts. On the other hand, we are not just scientists but human beings as well. And like most people we’d like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climate change. To do that we need to get some broad based support, to capture the public’s imagination. That, of course, means getting loads of media coverage. So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts we might have. This “double ethical bind” we frequently find ourselves in cannot be solved by any formula. Each of us has to   decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest. I hope that means being both. – Stephen Schneider, lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Discover Magazine                                                                    Margaret Thatcher on Global Warming                                             Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! CO2 ppm: 354.29 1990 We’ve got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing, in terms of economic policy and environmental policy, Senator Timothy Wirth 1993 Global climate change may alter temperature and rainfall patterns, many scientists fear, with uncertain consequences for agriculture, U.S. News and World Report 1998 No matter if the science (of global warming) is all phony . . . climate change (provides) the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world, Christine Stewart, Canadian Minister of the Environment, Calgary Herald, 1998 CO2 ppm: 371.15 2001 Scientists no longer doubt that global warming is happening, and almost nobody questions the fact that humans are at least partly responsible, Time Magazine 2003 Emphasis on extreme scenarios may have been appropriate at one time, when the public and decision-makers were relatively unaware of the global warming issue, and energy sources such as synfuels, shale oil and tar sands were receiving strong consideration, Jim Hansen, NASA Global Warming activist, Can we defuse The Global Warming Time Bomb 2006 I believe it is appropriate to have an over-representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis, Al Gore, Grist magazine, May 2006 2006 It is not a debate over whether the earth has been warming over the past century. The earth is always warming or cooling, at least a few tenths of a degree, Richard S. Lindzen, the Alfred P. Sloan professor of meteorology at MIT 2006 What we have fundamentally forgotten is simple primary school science. Climate always changes. It is always warming or cooling, it’s never stable. And if it were stable, it would actually be interesting scientifically because it would be the first time for four and a half billion years, Philip Stott, emeritus professor of bio-geography at the University of London 2006 Since 1895, the media has alternated between global cooling and warming scares during four separate and sometimes overlapping time periods. From 1895 until the 1930’s the media peddled a coming ice age. From the late 1920’s until the 1960’s they warned of global warming. From the 1950’s until the 1970’s they warned us again of a coming ice age. This makes modern global warming the fourth estate’s fourth attempt to promote opposing climate change fears during the last 100 years, Senator James Inhofe, Monday, September 25, 2006 2007 I gave a talk recently (on fallacies of global warming) and three members of the Canadian government, the environmental cabinet, came up afterwards and said, ‘We agree with you, but it’s not worth our jobs to say anything.’ So what’s being created is a huge industry with billions of dollars of government money and people’s jobs dependent on it, Dr. Tim Ball, Coast-to-Coast, Feb 6, 2007 2008 Hansen was never muzzled even though he violated NASA’s official agency position on climate forecasting (i.e., we did not know enough to forecast climate change or mankind’s effect on it). Hansen thus embarrassed NASA by coming out with his claims of global warming in 1988 in his testimony before Congress, Dr. John S. Theon, retired Chief of the Climate Processes Research Program atNASA, see above for Hansen quotes 2009 Climate change: melting ice will trigger wave of natural disasters. Scientists at a London conference next week will warn of earthquakes, avalanches and volcanic eruptions as the atmosphere heats up and geology is altered. Even Britain could face being struck by tsunamis – “Not only are the oceans and atmosphere conspiring against us, bringing baking temperatures, more powerful storms and floods, but the crust beneath our feet seems likely to join in too,” – Professor Bill McGuire, director of the Benfield Hazard Research Centre, at University College London, The Guardian, Sep 2009. CO2 ppm: 389.21                                                                               Global Warming Facts                                                   Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! 2010 What Global Warming Looks Like. It was more than 5°C (about 10°F) warmer than climatology in the eastern European region including Moscow. There was an area in eastern Asia that was similarly unusually hot. The eastern part of the United States was unusually warm, although not to the degree of the hot spots in Eurasia. James Hansen, NASA GISS, August 11, 2010. 2011 Where Did Global Warming Go? In Washington, ‘climate change’ has become a lightning rod, it’s a four-letter word,” said Andrew J. Hoffman, director of the University of Michigan’s Erb Institute for Sustainable Development, New York Times, Oct 15, 2011. 2012 Global warming close to becoming irreversible-scientists. This is the critical decade. If we don’t get the curves turned around this decade we will cross those lines, said Will Steffen, executive director of the Australian National University’s climate change institute, speaking at a conference in London. Reuters, Mar 26, 2012 2013 Global-warming ‘proof’ is evaporating.  The 2013 hurricane season just ended as one of the five quietest years since 1960. But don’t expect anyone who pointed to last year’s hurricanes as 'proof' of the need to act against global warming to apologize; the warmists don’t work that way. New York Post, Dec 5, 2013 2014 Climate change: It’s even worse than we thought.  Five years ago, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change painted a gloomy picture of our planet’s future. As climate scientists gather evidence for the next report, due in 2014, Michael Le Page gives seven reasons why things are looking even grimmer, New Scientist  2015 A big year for climate change. Dizzying highs and stunning lows The hottest January on record, to March, when global carbon dioxide levels hit a million-year high, to December, when nearly 200 nations signed an agreement to minimize global warming, The Guardian 2016 Climate trends continue to break records. The disappearance of Arctic ice is already having a huge impact on the ocean’s ecosystem. In the United States Congress, are still a large number of lawmakers who claim that the warming trend is the product of a global scientific hoax, The New York Times 2017 Artic meltdown, heat and fire around the globe. Heavy monsoon rains during the summer of 2017 resulted in unprecedented flooding in Asia. Earth’s third-ever global coral bleaching event, Climatenexus 2018  Papers start to write about major climate change risks as early as 2040, damaged economies, rising sea levels and the possible near future unbearable hot summers in India, The New York Times. 2019 Human disruption of earth's oceans and ice is 'unprecedented'. Students, people in general worldwide mobilize for climate action. Still scientist try to understand ice ages and the real trigger(s) for climate change especially the impact of humans who maybe have permanently broken the cycle of ice ages. Ice ages are driven by a complex, interconnected set of factors, involving Earth's position in the solar system and more local influences, like carbon dioxide levels, LiveScience CO2 ppm: 408.58 Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Natural Man Made: Causes And Facts Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us!
Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us!
Climate

Climate change! Currently, the most discussed topic in the world. Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. Climate change can also result from ‘external forcing’ and include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Human activities can also influence our climate. Debates, posts and answers on (social) platforms about the role of humanity in the climate change process regularly lead to heated discussions

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