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Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement
Greta Thunberg. We have all seen the images. A young girl sitting in front of the Swedish parliament, boasting a sign ‘Skolstrejk’, or ‘school strike’. Or the images of this very same girl crossing the Atlantic on a climate-neutral yacht. Or her speech at the United Nations, calling out world leaders for not taking action and destroying the world that she will have to grow up in. Meet Greta Thunberg. Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement Then, there’s the ‘anti-Greta’, German climate sceptic (or, as she calls it, ‘realist’) Naomi Seibt. This 18-year-old high school student has quickly grabbed fame with her outspoken criticism of both Greta and everything she stands for. Claiming that Greta never talks about the science, Naomi explains her views with a wisdom beyond her age: views that seem to confirm her world view, a view in which man-made climate change isn’t real. Some are calling the German teen a nationalist, while others see her as a source of inspiration. Naomi Seibt, intervieuwed by FOX NEWS Recommended:  Naomi Seibt And Her Many Opponents On Climate Change Greta And Naomi: Pulling The Strings Of Pliable Spokespersons {youtube}                                                           Greta or Naomi: Climate Alarmism vs Realism   While the climate activists are hailing Saint Greta as their patron, the climate deniers seem to have embraced Naomi as their darling. Both well-spoken, blonde, clever girls who seem non-threatening representatives of a generation most likely to suffer the consequences - or lack thereof - of climate change. Well-educated schoolgirls who appear to have raised their voices out of innocence and genuine concern for where the world is headed. Or this is what they want you to think. Because these girls have one other thing in common: the fact that they are ultimately being controlled by one or several puppet masters. Greta Thunberg on climate strike And no, I am not saying that Greta and Naomi are pliable puppets. They are probably truly invested in the matter and really do speak from the heart. Yet there is no denying that there are some people hiding behind these innocent shields in order to push their own, far less cuddly agenda. Recommended:  Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Greta And Naomi: Young Girl As The Poster Child For Change Let’s look at Greta first. A 17-year-old from Stockholm, Sweden, who grew up in an upper-class family. Her mother is a well-known opera singer, while her father is an actor and descendant of Svante Arrhenius, the scientist who actually ‘discovered’ the greenhouse effect.   Greta Thunberg and her parents Greta claims to have learned about climate change when she was eight years old, instantly feeling drawn to the issue in a somewhat compulsive manner - Greta has Asperger’s syndrome, accounting for some of her quirks and her confrontational nature. Then, she convinced her parents to reduce their carbon footprint - telling them to eat vegan, recycle and give up air travel. Or this is how the story goes. There’s more to it, though. It is not as if Greta woke up one day, thinking that she had to start her ‘school strike’. No. She won a climate change essay contest of Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet, which led to her getting in touch with Bo Thorén from Fossil Free Dalsland, an environmental group fighting climate change. Greta attended some of their meetings, in which Bo suggested that school children could strike for the climate - an idea that she took to heart and stuck by. Yet this definitely does not make the school strike her idea, but an adult’s. Recommended:  Five Minutes To Midnight: Climate Change Action Fighting The Clock Then there’s the Swedish start-up ‘We Don’t Have Time,’ led by a PR-specialist, Ingmar Rentzhog, that has a vested interest in Greta: he claims to accidentally have met her in front of the Swedish parliament, yet this does not appear to be a coincidence - nor was the article in the Aftonbladet newspaper that first mentioned her, a mere hour or so after Rentzhog wrote about her on his Facebook. It is not surprising that rumours go around that he, powered by his finance and banker investors, actually created the fairytale hype surrounding the girl. Ingmar Rentzhog: 'We don't have time'! Naomi Seibt: Climate Change Deniers Darling Then, let’s zoom in on Naomi. She too carries the air of an innocent girl merely fighting for her future. This teenage student from Münster, Germany has sprouted some rather radical ideas and views - including some that could be labelled as anti-Semitic. Yet her girly looks and innocent big eyes seem to somehow soften the impact of her climate change denying message.   Naomi Seibt talking during a CPAC meeting Recommended:  Who’s Greta Thunberg’s Rival On Climate Facts, Naomi Seibt? She has risen to a status that even allowed her to speak at the CPAC, or Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington D.C., alongside President Trump and other notoriously right-wing activists and politicians. She is also employed by the Heartland Institute, a conservative think-tank organisation from the United States known for its hardline and libertarian views. Through her - paid and coached - association with this institute, she gets to speak at events and is decidedly getting her platform. A platform that seemingly thrives on the association with Greta. Naomi Seibt sponserd by The Heartland Institute The Heartland Institute has chosen a smart advocate for her platform. Grown men bullying and talking down a girl like Greta does not go over so well in the media - just look at the outrage Trump caused when he stated Greta had some kind of anger issues and picked on the teen via Twitter. Yet a contemporary that is strikingly alike in background, looks and motivation is a much better pawn - excuse the word - to play this game with. There's Always An Ulterior Motive This is what it comes down to. As genuine and real as girls like Greta and Naomi sound, they are ultimately always backed by someone who has some kind of vested interest in the situation at hand - be it political, financial, or otherwise. These are the people who kickstarted the platform that those girls now happily use, and are the ones footing the bills for their sometimes rather extravagant travel needs - like Greta’s journey across the Atlantic and Naomi’s current parade around conservative conferences.   Sad, but true: there’s always an ulterior motive. This time it just comes packaged like innocent looking girls. Before you go! Recommended:  Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Greta Thunberg. We have all seen the images. A young girl sitting in front of the Swedish parliament, boasting a sign ‘Skolstrejk’, or ‘school strike’. Or the images of this very same girl crossing the Atlantic on a climate-neutral yacht. Or her speech at the United Nations, calling out world leaders for not taking action and destroying the world that she will have to grow up in. Meet Greta Thunberg. Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement Then, there’s the ‘anti-Greta’, German climate sceptic (or, as she calls it, ‘realist’) Naomi Seibt. This 18-year-old high school student has quickly grabbed fame with her outspoken criticism of both Greta and everything she stands for. Claiming that Greta never talks about the science, Naomi explains her views with a wisdom beyond her age: views that seem to confirm her world view, a view in which man-made climate change isn’t real. Some are calling the German teen a nationalist, while others see her as a source of inspiration. Naomi Seibt, intervieuwed by FOX NEWS Recommended:  Naomi Seibt And Her Many Opponents On Climate Change Greta And Naomi: Pulling The Strings Of Pliable Spokespersons {youtube}                                                           Greta or Naomi: Climate Alarmism vs Realism   While the climate activists are hailing Saint Greta as their patron, the climate deniers seem to have embraced Naomi as their darling. Both well-spoken, blonde, clever girls who seem non-threatening representatives of a generation most likely to suffer the consequences - or lack thereof - of climate change. Well-educated schoolgirls who appear to have raised their voices out of innocence and genuine concern for where the world is headed. Or this is what they want you to think. Because these girls have one other thing in common: the fact that they are ultimately being controlled by one or several puppet masters. Greta Thunberg on climate strike And no, I am not saying that Greta and Naomi are pliable puppets. They are probably truly invested in the matter and really do speak from the heart. Yet there is no denying that there are some people hiding behind these innocent shields in order to push their own, far less cuddly agenda. Recommended:  Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Greta And Naomi: Young Girl As The Poster Child For Change Let’s look at Greta first. A 17-year-old from Stockholm, Sweden, who grew up in an upper-class family. Her mother is a well-known opera singer, while her father is an actor and descendant of Svante Arrhenius, the scientist who actually ‘discovered’ the greenhouse effect.   Greta Thunberg and her parents Greta claims to have learned about climate change when she was eight years old, instantly feeling drawn to the issue in a somewhat compulsive manner - Greta has Asperger’s syndrome, accounting for some of her quirks and her confrontational nature. Then, she convinced her parents to reduce their carbon footprint - telling them to eat vegan, recycle and give up air travel. Or this is how the story goes. There’s more to it, though. It is not as if Greta woke up one day, thinking that she had to start her ‘school strike’. No. She won a climate change essay contest of Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet, which led to her getting in touch with Bo Thorén from Fossil Free Dalsland, an environmental group fighting climate change. Greta attended some of their meetings, in which Bo suggested that school children could strike for the climate - an idea that she took to heart and stuck by. Yet this definitely does not make the school strike her idea, but an adult’s. Recommended:  Five Minutes To Midnight: Climate Change Action Fighting The Clock Then there’s the Swedish start-up ‘We Don’t Have Time,’ led by a PR-specialist, Ingmar Rentzhog, that has a vested interest in Greta: he claims to accidentally have met her in front of the Swedish parliament, yet this does not appear to be a coincidence - nor was the article in the Aftonbladet newspaper that first mentioned her, a mere hour or so after Rentzhog wrote about her on his Facebook. It is not surprising that rumours go around that he, powered by his finance and banker investors, actually created the fairytale hype surrounding the girl. Ingmar Rentzhog: 'We don't have time'! Naomi Seibt: Climate Change Deniers Darling Then, let’s zoom in on Naomi. She too carries the air of an innocent girl merely fighting for her future. This teenage student from Münster, Germany has sprouted some rather radical ideas and views - including some that could be labelled as anti-Semitic. Yet her girly looks and innocent big eyes seem to somehow soften the impact of her climate change denying message.   Naomi Seibt talking during a CPAC meeting Recommended:  Who’s Greta Thunberg’s Rival On Climate Facts, Naomi Seibt? She has risen to a status that even allowed her to speak at the CPAC, or Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington D.C., alongside President Trump and other notoriously right-wing activists and politicians. She is also employed by the Heartland Institute, a conservative think-tank organisation from the United States known for its hardline and libertarian views. Through her - paid and coached - association with this institute, she gets to speak at events and is decidedly getting her platform. A platform that seemingly thrives on the association with Greta. Naomi Seibt sponserd by The Heartland Institute The Heartland Institute has chosen a smart advocate for her platform. Grown men bullying and talking down a girl like Greta does not go over so well in the media - just look at the outrage Trump caused when he stated Greta had some kind of anger issues and picked on the teen via Twitter. Yet a contemporary that is strikingly alike in background, looks and motivation is a much better pawn - excuse the word - to play this game with. There's Always An Ulterior Motive This is what it comes down to. As genuine and real as girls like Greta and Naomi sound, they are ultimately always backed by someone who has some kind of vested interest in the situation at hand - be it political, financial, or otherwise. These are the people who kickstarted the platform that those girls now happily use, and are the ones footing the bills for their sometimes rather extravagant travel needs - like Greta’s journey across the Atlantic and Naomi’s current parade around conservative conferences.   Sad, but true: there’s always an ulterior motive. This time it just comes packaged like innocent looking girls. Before you go! Recommended:  Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement
Greta And Naomi: The Poster Girls Of A Climate Movement
Permafrost And Ice Melting: The Danger Of Melting Ice walls
Rise in sea levels: the inherent danger of ice walls breaking. Another article discussing the dangers of our rising sea levels is probably the last thing on your to-read list. After all, the literature on the dangers of each additional millimetre that our oceans and seas rise is abundant. Rising sea levels will irreparably damage coastal ecosystems, alter climate for good and wipe out entire communities that are unlucky enough to find themselves in the deltas that are subject to excessive flooding. Permafrost And Ice Melting: A Danger To Coastal Communities Recent studies have shown that the number of people impacted will be a least thrice the earlier estimates. Provided that no one moves away, there would be some 150 million people living under the water line by 2050 (during high tide). On top of that, 300 million people will live in areas that will see floods on a yearly basis. And this is still under the low-emissions scenario, where we will have taken successful action before then. Photo by: Marjorie Teo, Greenland In a high-emissions scenario, these numbers will be even more dramatic - with 540 million people living under the water line and another 640 million people living in regions subject to flooding. This puts well over 1 billion of us at risk within the next few decades - pretty alarming in and of itself. {youtube}                                           A mysterious 'hole' has reappeared in the middle of Antarctica Antartica Is Melting: Land Ice And Permafrost On The Decline Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Back in 2012, researchers provided a much needed wake-up call in Nature Geoscience magazine. They found that between 1958 and 2010, the average temperature at Antartica’s Byrd Station increased by just shy of 2.5 degrees Celsius. This makes this spot, located in the heart of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, one of the fastest-warming places on the planet. What is permafrost and why is it important? Permafrost is permanently frozen soil, and occurs mostly in high latitudes. In addition, permafrost is structurally important, and its melting has been known to cause erosion, disappearance of lakes, landslides, and ground subsidence. It will also cause changes in plant species composition at high latitudes. Photo by Anna Spratt That is shocking. One of the places where you would definitely not want temperatures to increase too much. Just like we do not like accidentally leaving our fridge open on a hot summer day, we should be careful to leave nature’s fridge open for too long - as it might not just be milk going bad, but rather entire ecosystems. What happens if permafrost melts? It is thought that permafrost thawing could exacerbate global warming by releasing methane and other hydrocarbons, which are powerful greenhouse gases. It also could encourage erosion because permafrost lends stability to barren Arctic slopes. Ice Sheets Melting At An Alarming Rate The Antarctic is particularly important because of its ice sheets covering most of the land. These are key to our ocean’s currents and determinant of much of the earth’s climate. If there’s one thing not going well together, it has to be ice and heat. As such, researchers found that Antarctica lost some 3000 gigaton of ice in the last three decades alone, the melting of which will cause sea levels to rise by about 7.6 millimetres. Recommended:  Antarctic: Our Growing Footprint On This Pristine Continent Photo by: James Eades The rate at which this is happening is very alarming: back in 1992, we “only” lost some 43 gigaton per year, a number that has gone up to 220 gigaton per year over the last five years. This means that the amount of ice that is melting is increasing at a similar pace. This could lead to a equally alarming rise in sea levels, setting in motion all the bad effects as outlined earlier in this article. What is Antarctica known for? Often described as a continent of superlatives, Antarctica is the world's southernmost continent. It is also the world's highest, driest, windiest, coldest, and iciest continent. Antartica Melting From The Inside Out There is, however, another possibility - albeit strictly theoretical at this point. And its consequences could possibility be even worse. Let’s entertain the thought of Antartica melting from the inside out for a second. What if all the ice sheets on the continent are slowly but surely melting, but still being ‘held back’ by a barrier of ice surrounding it? The ice will basically start acting like a barrage for the melted ice behind it. Just like we artificially constructed sand dunes to hold back the sea, mimicking the already existing natural phenomenon, ice walls could do the same for the melting permafrost and ice caps - keeping the melted water ‘inside’, so to speak. Recommended:  Manmade Antarctic Snowstorm: Save Cities From Rising Seas Photo by: This gigantic hole was recently been discovered by an Arctic expedition Antartica As Lava Cake: 'Biblical' Flood Threat One huge caveat? All this pent up water will have to go somewhere, eventually. And science taught us that the increasingly warmer water surrounding the ice wall will cause said wall to melt as well. What this means? Well, basically what happens when a dam bursts. Only then the dam is about the size of Antartica’s perimeter, holding the world’s largest ice reservoir. Even more worryingly, large parts of Antartica do not lie on actual land but float on water. What would happen if the Antarctica melted? If all the ice covering Antarctica , Greenland, and in mountain glaciers around the world were to melt, sea level would rise about 70 meters (230 feet). The ocean would cover all the coastal cities. And land area would shrink significantly. But many cities, such as Denver, would survive Photo by: Mikael Strandberg So if Antartica is melting from the inside out, we could be about to witness the real-life equivalent of a lava cake when prodded from the outside. And instead of the melting ice caps gradually raising sea levels, allowing for us to adjust to the best of our possibilities, we could be facing a potentially life-threatening tsunami of biblical proportions. Antartica Melting: Is The Threat Real? The idea is equally fascinating as it is frightening. A gigantic wave could be building up, fed by the thousands and thousands of square kilometres of ice melting. This theory only leads to more questions. Although Antartica is definitely a key player in anything related to climate change, it remains to be seen to what extent - and how - sea levels will be affected by this icy continent. Is Antarctica only ice? Almost all of Antarctica is covered with ice; less than half a percent of the vast wilderness is ice-free. The continent is divided into two regions, known as East and West Antarctica. East Antarctica makes up two-thirds of the continent, and is about the size of Australia. For one, there is still much debate as to the actual impact that rising temperatures will have on the sea level. On top of that, we have found ourselves on the breaking point - will we or will we not - when it comes to taking real action on global warming. If we manage to cut back our emissions significantly in decades to come, the effect of melting ice will be very different from what it would be if we stay ignorant and celebrate the status quo. Photo by: USGS From a purely logical standpoint, the threat might not seem as excessive as described. After all, there is much debate whether such an ice wall could even exist for any length of time, or whether it is more likely that large chunks of ice are breaking off and floating the oceans freely, melting gradually. The latter seems to be happening today, with no indications that the heart of Antartica is melting while her outer parts are holding strong. Regardless, as with so many things related to climate change, it is a - currently hypothetical - threat that should always be kept in the back of our minds. After all, if our goal is to survive and adapt to changing conditions, the first thing that we ought to do is not to make sure that we keep our feet dry - but rather to ensure that we are not swept away in the surf. Before you go! Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the climate? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Rise in sea levels: the inherent danger of ice walls breaking. Another article discussing the dangers of our rising sea levels is probably the last thing on your to-read list. After all, the literature on the dangers of each additional millimetre that our oceans and seas rise is abundant. Rising sea levels will irreparably damage coastal ecosystems, alter climate for good and wipe out entire communities that are unlucky enough to find themselves in the deltas that are subject to excessive flooding. Permafrost And Ice Melting: A Danger To Coastal Communities Recent studies have shown that the number of people impacted will be a least thrice the earlier estimates. Provided that no one moves away, there would be some 150 million people living under the water line by 2050 (during high tide). On top of that, 300 million people will live in areas that will see floods on a yearly basis. And this is still under the low-emissions scenario, where we will have taken successful action before then. Photo by: Marjorie Teo, Greenland In a high-emissions scenario, these numbers will be even more dramatic - with 540 million people living under the water line and another 640 million people living in regions subject to flooding. This puts well over 1 billion of us at risk within the next few decades - pretty alarming in and of itself. {youtube}                                           A mysterious 'hole' has reappeared in the middle of Antarctica Antartica Is Melting: Land Ice And Permafrost On The Decline Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA Back in 2012, researchers provided a much needed wake-up call in Nature Geoscience magazine. They found that between 1958 and 2010, the average temperature at Antartica’s Byrd Station increased by just shy of 2.5 degrees Celsius. This makes this spot, located in the heart of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, one of the fastest-warming places on the planet. What is permafrost and why is it important? Permafrost is permanently frozen soil, and occurs mostly in high latitudes. In addition, permafrost is structurally important, and its melting has been known to cause erosion, disappearance of lakes, landslides, and ground subsidence. It will also cause changes in plant species composition at high latitudes. Photo by Anna Spratt That is shocking. One of the places where you would definitely not want temperatures to increase too much. Just like we do not like accidentally leaving our fridge open on a hot summer day, we should be careful to leave nature’s fridge open for too long - as it might not just be milk going bad, but rather entire ecosystems. What happens if permafrost melts? It is thought that permafrost thawing could exacerbate global warming by releasing methane and other hydrocarbons, which are powerful greenhouse gases. It also could encourage erosion because permafrost lends stability to barren Arctic slopes. Ice Sheets Melting At An Alarming Rate The Antarctic is particularly important because of its ice sheets covering most of the land. These are key to our ocean’s currents and determinant of much of the earth’s climate. If there’s one thing not going well together, it has to be ice and heat. As such, researchers found that Antarctica lost some 3000 gigaton of ice in the last three decades alone, the melting of which will cause sea levels to rise by about 7.6 millimetres. Recommended:  Antarctic: Our Growing Footprint On This Pristine Continent Photo by: James Eades The rate at which this is happening is very alarming: back in 1992, we “only” lost some 43 gigaton per year, a number that has gone up to 220 gigaton per year over the last five years. This means that the amount of ice that is melting is increasing at a similar pace. This could lead to a equally alarming rise in sea levels, setting in motion all the bad effects as outlined earlier in this article. What is Antarctica known for? Often described as a continent of superlatives, Antarctica is the world's southernmost continent. It is also the world's highest, driest, windiest, coldest, and iciest continent. Antartica Melting From The Inside Out There is, however, another possibility - albeit strictly theoretical at this point. And its consequences could possibility be even worse. Let’s entertain the thought of Antartica melting from the inside out for a second. What if all the ice sheets on the continent are slowly but surely melting, but still being ‘held back’ by a barrier of ice surrounding it? The ice will basically start acting like a barrage for the melted ice behind it. Just like we artificially constructed sand dunes to hold back the sea, mimicking the already existing natural phenomenon, ice walls could do the same for the melting permafrost and ice caps - keeping the melted water ‘inside’, so to speak. Recommended:  Manmade Antarctic Snowstorm: Save Cities From Rising Seas Photo by: This gigantic hole was recently been discovered by an Arctic expedition Antartica As Lava Cake: 'Biblical' Flood Threat One huge caveat? All this pent up water will have to go somewhere, eventually. And science taught us that the increasingly warmer water surrounding the ice wall will cause said wall to melt as well. What this means? Well, basically what happens when a dam bursts. Only then the dam is about the size of Antartica’s perimeter, holding the world’s largest ice reservoir. Even more worryingly, large parts of Antartica do not lie on actual land but float on water. What would happen if the Antarctica melted? If all the ice covering Antarctica , Greenland, and in mountain glaciers around the world were to melt, sea level would rise about 70 meters (230 feet). The ocean would cover all the coastal cities. And land area would shrink significantly. But many cities, such as Denver, would survive Photo by: Mikael Strandberg So if Antartica is melting from the inside out, we could be about to witness the real-life equivalent of a lava cake when prodded from the outside. And instead of the melting ice caps gradually raising sea levels, allowing for us to adjust to the best of our possibilities, we could be facing a potentially life-threatening tsunami of biblical proportions. Antartica Melting: Is The Threat Real? The idea is equally fascinating as it is frightening. A gigantic wave could be building up, fed by the thousands and thousands of square kilometres of ice melting. This theory only leads to more questions. Although Antartica is definitely a key player in anything related to climate change, it remains to be seen to what extent - and how - sea levels will be affected by this icy continent. Is Antarctica only ice? Almost all of Antarctica is covered with ice; less than half a percent of the vast wilderness is ice-free. The continent is divided into two regions, known as East and West Antarctica. East Antarctica makes up two-thirds of the continent, and is about the size of Australia. For one, there is still much debate as to the actual impact that rising temperatures will have on the sea level. On top of that, we have found ourselves on the breaking point - will we or will we not - when it comes to taking real action on global warming. If we manage to cut back our emissions significantly in decades to come, the effect of melting ice will be very different from what it would be if we stay ignorant and celebrate the status quo. Photo by: USGS From a purely logical standpoint, the threat might not seem as excessive as described. After all, there is much debate whether such an ice wall could even exist for any length of time, or whether it is more likely that large chunks of ice are breaking off and floating the oceans freely, melting gradually. The latter seems to be happening today, with no indications that the heart of Antartica is melting while her outer parts are holding strong. Regardless, as with so many things related to climate change, it is a - currently hypothetical - threat that should always be kept in the back of our minds. After all, if our goal is to survive and adapt to changing conditions, the first thing that we ought to do is not to make sure that we keep our feet dry - but rather to ensure that we are not swept away in the surf. Before you go! Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the climate? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Permafrost And Ice Melting: The Danger Of Melting Ice walls
Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t
Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t. Well this a very confusing, conflicting expression which exactly 'covers the load'. Sure there must be a moment when you were reading or watching a documentry about climate change and then especially the influence of humans on it that you thought; 'But there are so many natural contributers to climate change'! Global Cooling Or Warming: In the media global warming is mainly focused on the amount of CO2 humanity has added since the industrial revolution, thus causing the Earth warming up. Is there a reason to 'only' focus on CO2 because it is the 'reason' our Earth is warming up or are there other interests or reasons? Well I, we believe the climate is changing. Nature does the climate changing so humanity. If you are with 7.8 billion people the influnece of a group this big is measurable. The biggest question is; what is the influence from humanity in compare with natural cycles?  I am increasingly surprised that until the 1970s we considered the climate as the result of the action of the great forces of nature (the influence of the sun, the thermostat action of the water, as vapor, liquid and ice, the effects of the heat flows in the mantle and the effect on volcanism, on land and under water, and perhaps even the effect of greenhouses on that thin shell atmosphere). Then suddenly AGW (Anthropogenic Global Warming) came into view and those large forces of nature, which of course continue to work, were left out of consideration. Why did that happen? Photo by Tim Mossholder Index Global Coorling Or Warming: Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Some Thoughts Is It Just About The Balance Sudden change of CO2 levels Natural Why The Eemian Is So Bad For The Theory Of Global Warming A Brief History Of CO2 Primary Forcing Mechanisms Key Parameters For Climate Change: Nature Key Parameters For Climate Change: Humans Why Doesn’t The Temperature Rise At The Same Rate That CO2 Increases? Climate Sensitivity CO2 Lags Temperature CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Politics Global Cooling Or Warming. CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Conclusion   Global Cooling Or Warming: Some Thoughts The article below is just an observation from a 'person' reading newspapers, watching the news, reading some scientific magazines and watching documentries relating to climate change. The first impression is that there are many ideas about the cause and effect of certain processes. For sure there is no consensus about what exactly makes our climate what it is today but the media does make you often think there is one reason and that's the rise of CO2!  Photo by: Callum Shaw There are many questions coming up if it is about Earth's climate: how reliable are the outcomes of research from ice cores? What does it tell about the temperature and amount of CO2 in other parts of the world? Are we too focused on changes in a humans lifetime, or from the moment we started to measure temperatures, CO2 and other parameters which all makes our climate. What is the influence of TV and the internet seeing many kinds of weather/climate related events which maybe amplify our opinion its getting ‘worse than ever before’? Are there political and economical reasons mainly to focus on CO2? Is it done to make the issue of climate change small and understandable for civilians like me or does it fit an ‘other agenda’? CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t There is a lot of evidence humanity is producing a lot of CO2 which 'partly' ends up in our atmosphere. Not a lot off attention is paid to the fact that a lot of CO2 is sucked up less by the still available amount of 'plants' and organisms in oceans. Would it not be wise to stop the pollution of the oceans so it can suck up 'again' more CO2. The point is, we focus 'too much' on producing CO2 instead of also to focus on natural processes and what 'could store CO2 more'. Stopping polution ending up in oceans seams hardly an issue while it could make a hudge difference. Imagen that the amount of phytoplankton was still intact, the oceans could suck up much more CO2. So instead of having 414 ppm nowadays we 'could have' around 360 ppm. Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth   CO2 Matters: Is It Just About Disturbing The Balance? Human CO2 is a tiny percentage of all natural CO2 emissions. The oceans contain 37,400 billion tons (GT) of suspended carbon, land biomass has 2.000-3.000 GT. The atmosphere contains 720 billion tons of CO2 and humans contribute only 6 GT additional load on this balance. The oceans, land and atmosphere exchange CO2 continuously so the additional load by humans is incredibly small. A small shift in the balance between oceans and air would cause CO2 much more severe rise than anything we could produce.   Global Cooling Or Warming: Can CO2 Levels 'Suddenly' Change By Natural Processes The answer is yes. A good example is the Younger Dryas episode. The Younger Dryas episode demonstrates that major climate change (almost as big as the difference between an ice age and modern climate and covering a large region, such as the North Atlantic basin), can occur in a few decades . Very rapid but less persistent changes to conditions outside the range experienced in the last few hundred years have also taken place since the last retreat of the ice. Such changes may result entirely from the internal mechanisms of the atmosphere and oceans, or they may be caused by events such as very large explosive volcanic eruptions. And the other way around, the three abrupt pulses of CO2 during last deglaciation: A new multi-institutional study including Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, shows that the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributed to the end of the last ice age more than 10,000 years ago did not occur gradually, but was characterized by three 'pulses' in which CO2 rose abruptly . Scientists are not sure what caused these abrupt increases, during which levels of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, rose about 10-15 parts per million (ppm) – or about five percent per episode – over a period of one to two centuries . It likely was a combination of factors, they say, including: ocean circulation, changing wind patterns, and terrestrial processes . Scripps geoscientist Jeff Severinghaus said the three episodes, which took place 16,100 years ago, 14,700 years ago, and 11,700 years ago are strongly linked to abrupt climate change events that took place in the Northern Hemisphere. The rate of change during these events is still significantly less than present-day changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Keeling Curve record of atmospheric carbon dioxide, launched by the late Scripps geochemist Charles David Keeling, recorded levels of 315 ppm when it began in 1958. In 2014, monthly average concentrations reached 401 ppm, an increase of more than 85 parts per million in less than 60 years. Now in 2020 it is 416 ppm. The overall rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation was thought to have been triggered by the release of CO2 from the deep ocean, especially the Southern Ocean. But the century-scale events must involve a different mechanism that can act faster, said Severinghaus. One possibility is a major increase in the winds that blow around Antarctica , which are known to bring up CO2 from mid-depths and cause it to outgas into the atmosphere. Recommended:  Climate Change On Earth Caused By Jupiter And Venus Eemian Rapid Climate Change Temperatures similar to those of the most recent 10,000 years have been reached during previous interglacials, which have occurred approximately each 100,000 years over the last 700,000 years in response to features of earth’s orbit. Each of these interglacials was slightly different from the others, at least in part because the orbital parameters do not repeat exactly. The penultimate interglacial, about 125,000 years ago, is known by several names including the Eemian, Sangamonian, and marine isotope stage 5e (with the different terminologies originating in different disciplines or geographic regions and being broadly but not identically equivalent).   Why The Eemian Is So Bad For The Theory Of Global Warming This part is about the high temperatures of the Eemian and the high 65N insolation (The 65th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 65 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Asia and North America). The Eemian was 5C warmer than the Earth currently is with a max CO2 level of 285 ppm and it was really 270-280 for most of the time. But it had a temperature that the theory of global warming associates with almost 2 full doublings of CO2. So imagen the CO2 level for that temperature is 1150 ppm. The Holocene had basically identical pre-industrial CO2 levels, but a temperature that was 5C lower than the Eemian. Let’s try to explain how the Earth was much, much warmer with CO2 levels that are lower than they are today. The reasonable and simple explanation is that 14% higher solar insolation (solar power, solar radiation) is the cause. The problem is that the theory of global warming has discounted 65N insolation as being capable of causing the glacial/interglacial cycle. It is very important to understand the significance of the very warm Eemian. Last Interglacial (relating to a period of milder climate between two glacial periods) orbital focing   {youtube}                             The Milankovitch Cycles can Produce Sudden Climate Transitions such as Modern Climate Change Holocene Rapid Climate Change The Holocene had basically identical pre-industrial CO2 levels, but a temperature that was 5C lower than the Eemian. Let’s try to explain how the Earth was much, much warmer with CO2 levels that are lower than they are today. The relevance of abrupt climate change of the ice age to the modern warm climate or future warmer climates is unclear. However, although glacial and deglacial rapid shifts in temperature were often larger than those of the Holocene (the last roughly 10,000 years), Holocene events were also important with respect to societally relevant climate change. For example, there were large rapid shifts in precipitation (droughts and floods) and in the size and frequency of hurricanes, typhoons, and El Niño/La Niña events. If they recurred, these kinds of changes would have large effects on society. It is not surprising that many past examples of societal collapse involved rapid climate change to some degree. Holocene Droughts The existing temperature records, as described above, make it clear that natural variability alone can generate regional to hemispheric temperature anomalies that are sufficient to affect many aspects of human activity. However, the record of hydrologic change over the last 2,000 years suggests even larger effects: there is ample evidence that decadal, even century-scale, drought can occur with little or no warning. The 4.2-kiloyear BP ( Before Present  means before 1950. The most commonly used convention in radiocarbon dating. 'Present' referring to the year 1950 AD. 1950 Is the date that the calibration curves were established.) aridification (the gradual change of a region from a wetter to a drier climate The onset of sudden aridification in Mesopotamia near 4100 calendar yr BP coincided with a widespread cooling in the North Atlantic) event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene epoch. It defines the beginning of the current Meghalayan age in the Holocene epoch. Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. It has been hypothesised to have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu culture in   the lower Yangtze River area. The drought may also have initiated the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, with some of its population moving southeastward to follow the movement of their desired habitat, as well as the migration of Indo-European-speaking people into India. Holocene Floods Just as the twentieth century instrumental record is too short to understand the full range of drought, it is too short to understand how the frequency of large floods has changed. Data on past hydrological conditions from the upper Mississippi River and from sediments in the Gulf of Mexico record large, abrupt shifts in flood regimes in the Holocene, which may have been linked to major jumps in the location of the lower Mississippi (delta-lobe switching). In the western United States, there is growing evidence that flood regimes distinctly different from today, and also episodic in time, were the norm rather than the exception. The frequency of large floods in the Lower Colorado River Basin, for example, appears to have varied widely over the last 5,000 years, with increased frequency from about 5,000-4,000 years ago, then lower frequency until about 2,000 years ago, and some abrupt shifts up, down, and back up thereafter. Those flood-frequency fluctuations and substantial fluctuations elsewhere around the world appear to be linked to climate shifts but in poorly understood ways. Clearly, a predictive understanding of megadroughts and large floods must await further research.   Global Cooling Or Warming: A Brief History Of The Earth's CO2 Climate change has been described as one of the biggest problems faced by humankind. This gas has played a crucial role in shaping the Earth's climate. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been present in the atmosphere since the Earth condensed from a ball of hot gases following its formation from the explosion of a huge star about five billion years ago. At that time the atmosphere was mainly composed of nitrogen, CO2 and water vapour, which seeped through cracks in the solid surface. A very similar composition emerges from volcanic eruptions today. Photo by: Iswanto Arif As the planet cooled further some of the water vapour condensed out to form oceans and they dissolved a portion of the CO2 but it was still present in the atmosphere in large amounts. The first life forms to evolve on Earth were microbes which could survive in this primordial atmosphere but about 2.5 billion years ago, plants developed the ability to photosynthesise, creating glucose and oxygen from CO2 and water in the presence of light from the Sun. This had a transformative impact on the atmosphere: as life developed, CO2 was consumed so that by around 20 million years ago its concentration was down to below 300 molecules in every one million molecules of air (or 300 parts per million - ppm). Life on Earth has evolved under these conditions - note that humans did not appear until about 200,000 years. Concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere were as high as 4,000 parts per million (ppm, on a molar basis) during the Cambrian period about 500 million years ago to as low as 180 ppm during the Quaternary glaciation of the last two million years. Reconstructed temperature records for the last 420 million years indicate that atmospheric CO2 concentrations peaked at ~2000 ppm during te Devonian (∼400 Myrs ago (million years)) period, and again in the Triassic (220–200 Myrs ago) period. Fossilized crinoids, marine invertebrates that lived during the Permian Period, found in western Australia. Scientists say the Great Dying, which wiped out 96 percent of all life in the oceans, was caused by global warming, which deprived the oceans of oxygen. Global annual mean CO2 concentration has increased by more than 45% since the start of the Industrial Revolution, from 280 ppm during the 10,000 years up to the mid-18th century to 415 ppm as of May 2019. The present concentration is the highest for 14 million years. The increase has been attributed to human activity and natural processes. This increase of CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere has produced the current episode of global warming. Between 30% and 40% of the CO2 released by humans into the atmosphere dissolves into the oceans, wherein it forms carbonic acid and effects changes in the oceanic pH balance. CO2 plays an important role in climate because it is one of the atmospheric 'greenhouse' gases (GHGs) which keep the Earth's surface about 33 degrees warmer than the -18C temperature it would be at were they not present. Photo by: University of Cambridge. Liverworts are small green plants that don’t have roots, stems, leaves or flowers. They belong to a group of plants called Bryophytes, which also includes mosses and hornworts. Bryophytes diverged from other plant lineages early in the evolution of plants and are thought to be similar to some of the earliest diverging land plant lineages. Liverworts are found all over the world and are often seen growing as a weed in the cracks of paving or soil of potted plants. Marchantia polymorpha, which is also known as the common liverwort or umbrella liverwort, was used in this research.  They do this by being fairly transparent to the Sun's rays, allowing them through to warm the surface, but then absorbing the radiant heat that the surface emits, so trapping it and enhancing the warming. In the present climate the most effective GHGs are water vapour, which is responsible for about two-thirds of the total warming, and CO2 which accounts for about one quarter. Other gases, including methane, make up the remainder. The atmospheric concentration of water vapour is less than 1% and, with CO2 making up only a few molecules in every ten thousand of air, it may be surprising that they can have such a significant impact on the surface temperature. They are able to do this, however, because the structure of their molecules makes them especially effective at absorbing heat radiation while the major atmospheric gases, nitrogen and oxygen, are essentially transparent to it. The greenhouse effect means that as the atmospheric loading of GHGs increases the surface temperature of the Earth warms. Most significantly, the concentration of CO2 has been rising exponentially (at a rate of about 0.17% per year) since the industrial revolution, due mainly to the combustion of fossil fuels but also to large-scale tropical deforestation which depletes the climate system's capacity for photosynthesis. In 2015, it passed 400ppm, more than 40% higher than its pre-industrial value of 280ppm and a level that has not existed on Earth for several million years. While the basic science of how GHGs warm the Earth is very well understood, there are complications. The climate system responds in various ways which both enhance and ameliorate the effects of these gases. For example, a warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapour (before it condenses out in clouds or rain) and because water vapour is a GHG, this increases the temperature rise. Another example: as the oceans warm they are less able to hold CO2 so release it, again with the result the initial warming is enhanced. Photo by: Sebastian Pena Lambarri The global temperature record over the past century does not show the same smooth increase presented by CO2 measurements because the climate is influenced by other factors than GHGs, arising from both natural and human sources. Some particles released into the atmosphere by industrial activities reflect sunshine back to space, tending to cool the planet. Similarly, large volcanic eruptions can eject small particles into the higher atmosphere, where they remain for up to about two years reducing the sunlight reaching the surface, and temporary dips in global temperature have indeed been measured following major volcanic events. Changes in the energy emitted by the Sun also affect surface temperature, though measurements of the solar output show this effect to be small on human timescales. Another important consideration in interpreting global temperatures is that the climate is inherently complex. Energy moves between the atmosphere and oceans in natural fluctuations - an example being El Niño events. This means that we cannot expect an immediate direct relationship between any influencing factor and surface temperature. All these factors complicate the picture. Notably, during the ice ages which have occurred roughly every 100,000 years over at least the past half million, drops in global temperature of perhaps 5C have been accompanied by reductions in CO2 concentration to less than 200ppm. The ice ages, and associated warmer interglacial periods, are brought about by changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun which take place on these long timescales. The cooling in response to a decline in solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface results in a greater uptake of CO2 by the oceans and so further cooling due to a weakened greenhouse effect. This is an entirely natural phenomenon and it is worth noting that such amplification of temperature fluctuations will occur in response to any initiating factor regardless of its source and including human-produced greenhouse gases. The effects of increasing CO2 are not limited to an increase in air temperature. As the oceans warm they are expanding so producing a rise in sea level, this being exacerbated by the melting of some of the ice present on land near the poles and in glaciers. The warmer atmosphere holds more water vapour resulting in increased occurrences of heavy rainfall and flooding while changes in weather patterns are intensifying droughts in other regions.   Global Cooling Or Warming: Primary Forcing Mechanism The Natural Climate Pulse of Earth Introduction The earth's climate pulse cycles are governed by cycles of the Primary Forcing Mechanism (PFM). These cycles range from daily (ocean tides) and more importantly every 6 months, 4 years, 9 years, 18 years, 72 years, 230 years, 1200 years and 130 thousand years.  Earth is currently coming off a 230 year global warming cycle and dipping into a 120 year global cooling cycle .  They come approximately every 230 years and we have have had 5 during the past 1000 years.  The last one ended in the year 1800 and was followed by dramatic cooling and a year of no summer in 1816. Photo by: Anton Foltin. rare snowfall in Arizona During early stages of each global cooling cycle, historically strong volcanic activity usually occurs, resulting in unusually cold summer weather, worldwide crop failures, famine and disease. This scenario is not merely a coincidence, it happened in global cooling cycles with the volcano Eldgja in 934 AD, Ringitoto in 1350, Huaynaputina in 1600, Tambora in 1815, and will likely occur again during the upcoming dramatic global cooling cycle that will begin soon. Ever since planet Earth was created about 4.5 billion years ago, it has been exposed to natural processes and forcing mechanisms within the solar system and earth. During the course of millions of years, the interaction of these processes has implemented a natural climate and planetary rhythm.  These rhythms include but are not limited to:  day and night, the four annual seasons and weather events during the particular season, short-term climate fluctuations and oscillations within the seasons, and long-term climate change cycles such as glacial periods which occur approximately every 120 thousand years. The gravitational cycles of the moon and sun cause the seasonal tilts of the earth's axis and the 4 seasons.  The strong gravitational pull of the moon causes a bulge to form in the center of the 5 oceans.  As the earth makes a complete rotation on its axis daily, the moon rises and falls in the sky.  This causes dramatic changes to the gravitational pull, with increases and decreases occurring during the daily cycle.  This causes a gravitational pulse which in turn causes an interactive plunging action on the ocean's bulge, thus producing the twice daily ocean tides. The gravitational tides are also noticed in the earth's atmosphere, and in lower depths of the ocean. Photo by: Dan Grinwis ​The daily rotation of the earth provides the twice daily tides, and the 27.5 day elliptical path of the moon around the earth provides a monthly and bi-monthly gravitational pulse.  The cycles then extend out in time as the elliptical path of the earth around the sun, and the moon around the earth cyclical change from one month to the next, every 6 months, 4 years, 9 years, 18 years and beyond.  The earths 130 thousand year elliptical path is well documented in science and is proven to be the cause for the earth's inter-glacial (warm) as the earth swings in closer to the sun, and glacial periods (cold)  that occur every 130 thousand years as the earth swings further away from the sun.  The current warm inter-glacial period peaked about 7 thousand years ago, and the peak of the next glacial period will be 70 to 110 thousand years from now. ​The Primary Forcing Mechanism (PFM) for climate change is the combination of the elliptical paths of the moon and earth, changes in solar radiation and changes in the gravitational pulses and electromagnetic pulses. The PFM cycles control the Earth's 'atural Climate Pulse', and it is this Natural Pulse that controls weather and climate cycles here on earth.   ​The earth's climate is very complex and very cyclical due to the PFM (Primary Forcing Mechanism) Natural Climate Pulse interacting with the oceans, atmosphere and inner/outer cores of earth. The high and low tides of the oceans alternate approximately every 6 hours, and ocean tides and some currents change with the PFM cycles.   Above the surface of the Earth is the atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and other gases which move fluidly around the planet.  The flow of these atmospheric gases are caused by the rotation of the earth, heating of the atmosphere and ground by the sun, proximity of mountain ranges and water bodies such as oceans, and forcing mechanisms such as gravitational tides caused by the PFM cycles    ​Earth's temperature changes seasonally due to the seasonal tilt of the earth, with longer term cycles due to the PFM Natural Pulse cycles every 10-years, 230 years and 130 thousand years. Carbon dioxide concentrations are a naturally occurring cycle connected to the short-term global warming cycles that occur approximately every 230 years, and the longer term 130 thousand year glacial and inter-glacial cycles. The eBook written by Mr. Dilley of GWO (avalable on the Natural Pulse Page) illustrates that earth's current temperatueres and carbon dioxide levels are perfectly normal for global warming cycle that was occurring up to the year 2012 (now beginning to slip into global cooling for the next 150 years). ​GWO’s nineteen (19) years of ongoing research uses a combination of Meteorology, Oceanography, Climatology, Geology and Astronomy along with extensive historical weather and climate data to develop techniques for climate prediction. The most significant discovery was that of the Primary Forcing Mechanism (PFM) which is highly correlated to short-term climate cycles. The combination resulted in the development of prediction models formulated from a subset of  the scientifically proven "Milankovitch" cycles of the  earth, moon and sun.     Global Cooling Or Warming: What Are The Key Parameters: Natural Below you can find a list of parameters what made earth climate to change from the moment our Earth had a atmosphere but before the apperance of humanity: Milanković-Parameters: Orbital eccentricity Axial tilt (obliquity) Axial precession Clouds In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Water or various other chemicals may compose the droplets and crystals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds, which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. Snow & Ice: The Albedo Effect Ice–albedo feedback is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers, and sea ice alters the albedo and surface temperature of a planet. Ice is very reflective, therefore some of the solar energy is reflected back to space. Ice–albedo feedback plays an important role in global climate change. For instance at higher latitudes, we see warmer temperatures melt the ice sheets. However, if warm temperatures decrease the ice cover and the area is replaced by water or land the albedo would decrease. This increases the amount of solar energy absorbed, leading to more warming. The effect has mostly been discussed in terms of the recent trend of declining Arctic sea ice. The change in albedo acts to reinforce the initial alteration in ice area leading to more warming. Warming tends to decrease ice cover and hence decrease the albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed and leading to more warming. By: The Conversation In the geologically recent past, the ice-albedo positive feedback has played a major role in the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene (~2.6 Ma to ~10 Ma (mega-annum)) ice sheets. Inversely, cooler temperatures increase ice, which increases albedo, leading to more cooling. Vulcanoes Large-scale volcanic activity may last only a few days, but the massive outpouring of gases and ash can influence climate patterns for years. Sulfuric gases convert to sulfate aerosols, sub-micron droplets containing about 75 percent sulfuric acid. Following eruptions, these aerosol particles can linger as long as three to four years in the stratosphere. Major eruptions alter the Earth's radiative balance because volcanic aerosol clouds absorb terrestrial radiation, and scatter a significant amount of the incoming solar radiation, an effect known as "radiative forcing" that can last from two to three years following a volcanic eruption. "Volcanic eruptions cause short-term climate changes and contribute to natural climate variability," says Georgiy Stenchikov, a research professor with the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University. "Exploring effects of volcanic eruption allows us to better understand important physical mechanisms in the climate system that are initiated by volcanic forcing." Recommended:  Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Nature: Plants & Animals Air Pressure: Arctic oscillation (AO) Is a weather phenomenon at the Arctic poles north of 20 degrees latitude. It is an important mode of climate variability for the Northern Hemisphere. Antarctic oscillation (AAO) The southern hemisphere analogue is called the Antarctic oscillation or Southern Annular Mode (SAM). The index varies over time with no particular periodicity, and is characterized by non-seasonal sea-level pressure anomalies of one sign in the Arctic, balanced by anomalies of opposite sign centered at about 37–45N North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) Is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Through fluctuations in the strength of the Icelandic low and the Azores high, it controls the strength and direction of westerly winds and location of storm tracks across the North Atlantic.It is part of the Arctic oscillation, and varies over time with no particular periodicity Pacific-North American pattern (PNA) Is a climatological term for a large-scale weather pattern with two modes, denoted positive and negative, and which relates the atmospheric circulation pattern over the North Pacific Ocean with the one over the North American continent. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña. The Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño is accompanied by high air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific and La Niña with low air surface pressure there. The two periods last several months each and typically occur every few years with varying intensity per period. Oceans & Sea surface temperature: Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Trends of the SST Elevation  (altitude) Latitude In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator Proximity of large bodies of water Proximity to Water bodies: Large bodies of water such as oceans, seas, and large lakes affect the climate of an area. Water heats and cools more slowly than land. Therefore, in the summer, the coastal regions will stay cooler and in winter warmer. A more moderate climate with a smaller temperature range is created. Ocean currents An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling (two separate water parcels mix to form a third which sinks below both parentsand temperature and salinity differences. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements. Proximity of mountain ranges (topography) A mountain's height above sea level is called its elevation with its highest point called a summit or peak. A mountain range is a group or chain of mountains located close together. Since neighboring mountains often share the same geological origins, mountain ranges have similar form, size and age. Photo by: Simon Fitall.  Lac Blanc, Chamonix, France Prevailing and seasonal winds The prevailing wind in a region of the Earth's surface is a surface wind that blows predominantly from a particular direction. The dominant winds are the trends in direction of wind with the highest speed over a particular point on the Earth's surface. A region's prevailing and dominant winds are the result of global patterns of movement in the Earth's atmosphere. In general, winds are predominantly easterly at low latitudes globally. In the mid-latitudes, westerly winds are dominant, and their strength is largely determined by the polar cyclone. In areas where winds tend to be light, the sea breeze/land breeze cycle is the most important cause of the prevailing wind; in areas which have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes dominate the wind pattern. Highly elevated surfaces can induce a thermal low, which then augments the environmental wind flow Shape of the land (known as 'relief' or 'topography') Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. Distance from the equator At the equator, the distance is 68,703 miles (110,57 kilometers). At the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees north and south), the distance is 68,94 miles (110,95 kilometers). At each of the poles, the distance is 69,417 miles (111,70 kilometers). Changes appear to be happening faster near the poles than in many other places. In this article we will look at some of these factors in more detail. Distance from the sea (Continentality) The sea affects the climate of a place. Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas. Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea.  The centre of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures.  In the summer, temperatures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the land mass. Ocean currents Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures. The diagram below shows the ocean currents of the world (view original source map). The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current in the North Atlantic flowing from the Gulf of Mexico, northeast along the U.S coast, and from there to the British Isles. The Gulf of Mexico has higher air temperatures than Britain as it is closer to the equator.  This means that the air coming from the Gulf of Mexico to Britain is also warm.  However, the air is also quite moist as it travels over the Atlantic ocean.  This is one reason why Britain often receives wet weather. The Gulf Stream keeps the west coast of Europe free from ice in the winter and, in the summer, warmer than other places of a similar latitude.   Global Cooling Or Warming: What Are The Key Parameters: Humans Below you can find a list of parameters what made earth climate to change from the moment our Earth had an atmosphere and humanity appeared. We cannot forget the influence of humans on our climate.  Early on in human history our effect on the climate would have been quite small. However, as populations increased and trees were cut down in large numbers, so our influence on the climate increased. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. A reduction in trees will therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Agricultural Revolution: There have been several periods of history called "agricultural revolutions," but the term typically refers to 10,000 years BCE, when humans first learned how to create stationary, farming-based socities. The oldest form of human civilization is that of hunter-gatherer tribes, where every member of the tribe has to contribute to finding food. This changed with the agricultural revolution, which allowed people to grow a surplus of food, whether that be in the form of planting crops or breeding livestock. This eventually led to the industrial revolution, when humans began growing fossil fuels and putting out greenhouse gasses at an unprecedented rate. Some greenhouse gasses are contributed by animals themselves, such as carbon dioxide from their breath or methane from their flatulence. Agricultural development also leads to clearing of land to use for farms, which continuously decreases the amount of trees that can absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has had a huge effect on climate. The invention of the motor engine and the increased burning of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas - more on that later) in the atmosphere.  The number of trees being cut down has also increased, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide that is taken up by forests. Aerosols The importance of atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide for climate is well known and well publicised. However the tiny particles that are present in the atmosphere, or aerosols, also play crucial roles in weather and climate. Atmospheric aerosols can be either solid or liquid, with diameters of a few nanometers to tens of microns. There are two broad classes of aerosols. Primary aerosols are generated or emitted as solid particles, for example Saharan dust, sea salt or soot. Secondary aerosols are formed in the atmosphere by chemical reactions, for example ammonium sulphate aerosols are formed from the gases sulphur dioxide and ammonia, whilst organic aerosols are formed by chemical reactions acting on chemicals such as isoprene which is emitted by vegetation. Some aerosols have mainly natural origins (dust, sea salt, volcanic ash and volcanic sulphates), whilst others result at least partly from human activities (some soot, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate). Aerosols are often mixed together, and can also be described by their size, eg. PM10 is particles with diameter less than 10 micron. Once in the atmosphere, aerosols can have a variety of impacts. Aerosols reflect and absorb radiation from the sun. Thus a large concentration of most aerosol types will tend to scatter sunlight back to space, preventing the direct beam reaching the Earth's surface. This can lead to a cooling of the earth's surface, a change in the fluxes of latent heat and sensible heat, and a change in the distribution of heating in the atmosphere. Whilst the direct beam is prevented from reaching the surface, more scattered light is available and this affects photosynthesis. High aerosol concentrations can improve plant productivity, until other effects such as temperature or plant physiological issues become dominant. Aerosols are also responsible for clouds, and rainfall. Cloud droplets require an initial "seed" to start the condensation of water - this is provided by aerosols. Changes in aerosol can therefore lead to changes in cloud properties. For example, an increase in aerosol concentration in a cloudy region might mean more seeds for the water to condense on, therefore the available water is spread over a larger number of droplets and each individual droplet is smaller. Smaller droplets reflect more light, and this "indirect effect" of aerosol on cloud can lead to a cooling of the Earth's surface.   Why Doesn’t The Temperature Rise At The Same Rate That CO2 Increases? The amount of CO2 is increasing all the time - we just passed a landmark 414 parts per million concentration of atmospheric CO2, up from around 280ppm before the industrial revolution. That’s a 42.8% increase. A tiny amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, like methane and water vapour, keep the Earth’s surface 30°Celsius (54°F) warmer than it would be without them. We have added 47% more CO2 but that doesn't mean the temperature will go up by 47% too. There are several reasons why. Doubling the amount of CO2 does not double the greenhouse effect. The way the climate reacts is also complex, and it is difficult to separate the effects of natural changes from man-made ones over short periods of time. As the amount of man-made CO2 goes up, temperatures do not rise at the same rate. In fact, although estimates vary - climate sensitivity is a hot topic in climate science IPCC report AR4 described the likely range as between 2 and 4.5 degrees C, for double the amount of CO2 compared to pre-industrial levels. So far, the average global temperature has gone up by about 0.8 degrees C (1.4 F). According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)…the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8°Celsius (1.4°Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade. The speed of the increase is worth noting too. Unfortunately, as this quaote from NASA demonstrates, antropogenic climate change is happening very quickly compared to changes that occured in the past. As the Earth moved out of ice ages over the past million years, the global temperature rose a total of 4 to 7 degrees Celsius over about 5,000 years. In the past century alone, the temperature has climbed 0.7 degrees Celsius, roughly ten times faster than the average rate of ice-age-recovery warming. Small increases in temperature can be hard to measure over short periods, because they can be masked by natural variation. For example, cycles of warming and cooling in the oceans cause temperature changes, but they are hard to separate from small changes in temperature caused by CO2 emissions which occur at the same time. Tiny particle emissions from burning coal or wood are also being researched, because they may be having a cooling effect. Scientists like to measure changes over long periods so that the effects of short natural variations can be distinguished from the effects of man-made CO2. The rate of surface warming has slowed in the past decade. Yet the physical properties of CO2 and other greenhouse gases cannot change. The same energy they were re-radiating back to Earth during previous decades must be evident now, subject only to changes in the amount of energy arriving from the sun - and we know that has changed very little. But if that’s true, where is this heat going? The answer is into the deep oceans. The way heat moves in the deep oceans is not well understood. Improvements in measurement techniques have allowed scientists to more accurately gauge the amount of energy the oceans are absorbing. The Earth’s climate is a complex system, acting in ways we can’t always predict. The energy that man-made CO2 is adding to the climate is not currently showing up as surface warming, because most of the heat is going into the oceans. Currently, the heat is moving downwards from the ocean surface to deeper waters. The surface gets cooler, humidity reduces (water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas), and air temperatures go down. The rate at which surface temperatures go up is not proportional to the rate of CO2 emissions, but to the total amount of atmospheric CO2 added since the start of the industrial revolution. Only by looking at long-term trends - 30 years is the standard period in climate science - can we measure surface temperature increases accurately, and distinguish them from short-term natural variation.    Climate Sensitivity Climate sensitivity is a measurement of how much the Earth will warm for a given increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. More specifically, it is the average change in the Earth's surface temperature in response to changes in radiative forcing, the difference between incoming and outgoing energy on Earth.  Natural temperature variability (black dots) compared to simulations of variability from climate models with higher climate sensitivity (magenta) and lower climate sensitivity (green). Each line represents the results from one model. Climate sensitivity is a key measure in climate science, but its magnitude is not very well known. If climate sensitivity turns out to be on the high side of what scientists estimate, it will be more difficult to achieve the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to below 2 °C (3.6 °F).   CO2 Lags Temperature Science must have asked if the sequence - CO2 increases, temperature increases – has been confirmed by empirical evidence? Some scientists did that and found the empirical evidence showed it was not true. Why isn’t this central to all debate about anthropogenic global warming? The most important assumption behind the hypothesis that human activities are causing global warming is that an increase in global atmospheric CO2 will cause an increase in the average annual global temperature. The assumption became almost the total focus of the IPCC because of the definition of climate change given them by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As I recall, nobody at the time challenged the assumption that an increase in CO2 caused an increase in global temperature. Rather, the challenges focused on how the definition allowed the IPCC to downplay the much greater volume and importance of water vapor as a greenhouse gas. It allowed the IPCC to effectively overlook it because while humans produce water vapor, the amount is insignificant relative to the total atmospheric volume. In 1999 the first significant long term Antarctic ice core record appeared. Earlier cores were in the record, but as I recall, the one by Petit, Raynaud, and Lorius were presented as the best representation of temperature, CO2, and deuterium over 420,000-year core drilled to 3623 meters. I recall Lorius warning people not to rush to judgment. One of his concerns was the size of the graph depicting such a long record. Lorius reconfirmed this position in a 2007 article. “…our (East Antarctica, Dome C) ice core shows no indication that greenhouse gases have played a key role in such a coupling (with radiative forcing)” The question is how did the interpretation become that, the Antarctic ice core record confirmed that a CO2 increase causes a temperature increase. It could be the nature of the graph as Lorius said. The Lorius warning didn’t prevent people automatically assuming it confirmed the CO2 preceding temperature increase relationship. However, Nova concluded after expanding and more closely examining the data that, the bottom line is that rising temperatures cause carbon levels to rise. Carbon may still influence temperatures, but these ice cores are neutral on that. If both factors caused each other to rise significantly, positive feedback would become exponential. We’d see a runaway greenhouse effect. It hasn’t happened. Some other factor is more important than carbon dioxide, or carbon’s role is minor. How about considering carbon dioxide’s role is non-existent? Fortunately, after the 1999 paper was released, a few people didn’t accept everything at face value and began to test the data. By 2003 Caillon et al., (including Jouzel) produced “Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes Across Termination III.” Here the concern was more with the “gas age-ice age” difference. This speaks to the problem that it takes decades for the gas in the bubble to become enclosed or trapped. In a 2006 paper, the authors state; gas is trapped in polar ice at depths of ~50–120 m and is therefore significantly younger than the ice in which it is embedded. The age difference is not well constrained for slowly accumulating ice on the East Antarctic Plateau, introducing a significant uncertainty into chronologies of the oldest deep ice cores. In the case of slowly accumulating East Antarctic ice cores, this difference is very large, up to 7 kyr during glacial periods, and the timing of climate changes recorded in the two phases will not be accurate unless the gas age–ice age difference can be well constrained. This means the only thing we can conclude agrees with Nova that temperature increases before CO2. It is important to note that more precise correlation between temperature and CO2 is made difficult by the application of a 70-year smoothing average to the raw data. The impact of this smoothing on the elimination of data that would help resolve the relationship and lag time. It is seen in the 2000-year comparison of different measures of atmospheric CO2. It is reasonable to say that virtually all potential diagnoses are eliminated by the removal of annual variation, but especially the sequence of events. Notice that the overall atmospheric average of CO2 is different, approximately 260 ppm to 300 ppm. This is a difference that the IPCC claim took us from about 50% CO2 control of global temperature in 1950 to 95% + today. Amazingly, despite many decades of climate science, there has never been a study focused on how long it takes to feel the warming from a particular emission of carbon dioxide, taking carbon-climate uncertainties into consideration.  In a recent letter, Ricke and Caldeira (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 124002) estimated that the timing between an emission and the maximum temperature response is a decade on average. In their analysis, they took into account uncertainties about the carbon cycle, the rate of ocean heat uptake and the climate sensitivity but did not consider one important uncertainty: the size of the emission. Using simulations with an Earth System Model we show that the time lag between a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission pulse and the maximum warming increases for larger pulses. Our results suggest that as CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, the full warming effect of an emission may not be felt for several decades, if not centuries. In a 'plain language' summary by Nic Lewis on Judith Curry’s website of a paper released by a group from the UK Met Office under lead author Andrews we learn, The simulations show that the models’ effective climate sensitivity is substantially lower when driven by an observationally-based estimate of the evolution of SST (sea surface temperature) and sea-ice over the historical period than when responding to long-term CO2 forcing. This finding underlies the authors’ conclusion that climate sensitivity estimates based on observed historical warming are too low. Climate sensitivity is the effect on global temperature of a change in forcing, in this case, the forcing is an increase in CO2. This accepts the assumption that a CO2 increase causes a temperature increase. The Andrews et al., although done using a model, shows that when the authors used empirical data the CO2 increase was “substantially lower.” Don’t forget, this is for just two variables, sea-ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (SST). Is it possible that with many more empirical values the climate sensitivity would go to zero? That is the empirical evidence based on studies and decrease in sensitivity over the last few years The issue of CO2 climate sensitivity is central to the entire history of scientific examination. Academics, including those in the natural sciences, love to use argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to authority) to bolster their studies. I am not saying there is no greenhouse effect. I am saying that the empirical evidence shows that an increase in CO2 does not cause an increase in temperature. Further, it appears that the entire greenhouse effect is reasonably explained by water vapor. Besides variation in water vapor is just one variable in a complex array of variables that cause climate change, which can cause global warming or global cooling.      CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Politics Thatcher Margaret Thatcher biography: The visionary scientist who saw the climate change challenge ahead  The climate deniers' greatest success during the early 2000s was the apparent conversion of Margaret Thatcher - when she abandoned the climate cause she so forcefully and eloquently championed as the British prime minister. Thatcher published her autobiography Statecraft in 2002, shortly before she stepped out of the limelight due to her failing health. The autobiography included a long passage in which she renounced her former beliefs and even revised the meaning of her original 1990 address. In her 1990 speech, Thatcher praised the creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), called for precautionary action, and argued that economic growth must benefit “future as well as present generations everywhere.” Economic Growth But, her autobiography states: “By the end of my time as Prime Minister I was also becoming seriously concerned about the anti-capitalist arguments which the campaigners against global warming were deploying. “So in a speech to scientists in 1990 I observed: whatever international action we agree upon to deal with environmental problems, we must enable all our economies to grow and develop because without growth you cannot generate the wealth required to pay for the protection of the environment.” The Iron Lady's complete and dramatic U-turn meant that her free market admirers could reclaim her legacy and erase from history her arguments that economic growth must be environmentally sustainable while the public seemed to have mostly forgotten that one of the earliest champions of legally binding international agreements was, in fact, a staunch Conservative and economic Liberal. Environmental Enemy The cause of this volte-face was very evidently the belief that environmentalism was simply the old enemy of Socialism in a new guise, as presented by free market economists Friedrich von Hayek and Antony Fisher, and the think tanks they inspired. “The doomsters’ favourite subject today is climate change,” she wrote. “Clearly no plan to alter climate could be considered on anything but a global scale, it provides a marvellous excuse for worldwide, supra-national socialism.” She attacked former US vice president Al Gore directly and argued that “Kyoto was an anti-growth, anti-capitalist, anti-American project which no American leader alert to his country’s national interests could have supported.” Free Market Inspiration Thatcher, in her notes, expressed gratitude for the fact that “the issues have been clearly analysed and debated by scholars in the United States.” She informed her readers that her revised position on climate change was based on reading Julian Morris’s Climate Change: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom published by her old friends at the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), Richard Lindzen’s Global Warming: The Origin and Nature of the Alleged Scientific Consensus from the Koch- and Exxon-funded free market Cato Institute and Fred Singer’s Climate Policy: From Rio to Kyoto: A Political Issue for 2000 and Beyond put out by the right wing Centre for the New Europe. All three men were members of free market think tanks and were funding recipients from the fossil fuel industry. And so the former prime minister, in turning to scepticism, relied almost entirely on publications put out by free market lobby groups, rather than relying on the scientific literature. Successfully neutralised Her new denial of the science rested on a pamphlet from the Reason Foundation published in December 1997 and titled A Plain English Guide to Climate Science. The guide claimed that: “It is widely acknowledged that the potential temperature changes predicted by global warming theory do not pose a direct threat to human life. Human beings, and a myriad of other organisms, exist quite comfortably in areas with temperature ranges more extreme than those predicted by global warming models.” The Foundation received $70,000 the following year from ExxonMobil to “assess public policy alternatives on issues with direct bearing on the company's business operations and interests.” And so, the political consensus – that the science of climate change had alerted the world to the need for urgent and dramatic improvements to the clean production of energy – had been broken, and one of the earliest and keenest advocates had been successfully neutralised by the sceptics. Thatcher’s legacy would simply be the rapid and controversial implementation of the free market in Britain, which would reverberate through the economies of the world and have serious ecological implications. Reagan, IPCC Photo by: The Irish Times 1984 The United States Environmental Protection Agency and State Department wanted an international convention to agree restrictions on greenhouse gases, and the conservative Reagan Administration was concerned about unrestrained influence from independent scientists or from United Nations bodies including UNEP and the WMO. The U.S. government was the main force in forming the IPCC as an autonomous intergovernmental body in which scientists took part both as experts on the science and as official representatives of their governments, to produce reports which had the firm backing of all the leading scientists worldwide researching the topic, and which then had to gain consensus agreement from every one of the participating governments. In this way, it was formed as a hybrid between a scientific body and an intergovernmental political organisation   Global Cooling Or Warming. CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Conclusion The above written is a collection of events past, present which all make up for our climate, our present climate. Natural and man-made parameters are mentioned and sure there are many more. They all interact, amplify and weaken each other in cycles, almost cycles and absolute randomness. There are past events which show that climate changes can happen rapidly and present in combination what humanity throws to nature it ‘could’ result in our present climate. There have been high CO2 levels in the past with lower temperatures and the other way round. So why the focus on CO2. It is easy to describe and understandable for ‘many’. Besides it is easy the measure. To understand our climate and all the processes which are involved is already too difficult to understand for scientists let alone for ‘you and me’. Photo By: Scott Rodgerson Of course there will be a moment in the future that our fossils fuels are coming to an end or getting too expensive because of its scarcity. So somewhere in time there had to be a decision made to let humanity be convinced to start with reorganizing our society and start looking for alternatives. So what an easy and for all understandable phenomenon 'CO2 rise' is to start this shift, this transition. So, yes I am still increasingly surprised that until the 1970s we considered the climate as the result of the action of the great forces of nature (the influence of the sun, the thermostat action of the water, as vapor, liquid and ice, the effects of the heat flows in the mantle and the effect on volcanism, on land and under water, and perhaps even the effect of greenhouses on that thin shell atmosphere). Then suddenly AGW came into view and those large forces of nature, which of course continue to work, were left out of consideration. Why did that happen? I cannot give scientific but political and activist reasons. Who helps me out of the dream? Reason for me to get an earlier analysis from the old box. I thought it was still current. The proposition that the climate changes as a result of human activities due to the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases that enhance the natural greenhouse effect seems to have become dogma over time. And all of that would have all kinds of disastrous consequences. Even more important is that by 'only pointing to CO2' which humanity pumps into the atmosphere the idea got procliamed that humanity was also in charge to limit greenhouse gasses and therefore could change the climate in our benefit. Never gets mentioned the feedback processes and the many other events which makes that certain effects wil take ten or hundreds of years to fade out. Also politicians make twist and turns depending on what they expect from economical growth, the fossil fuel industry and the wish to deal with independent scientists. The other way around the influence from large industries and the fossil fuel industry via lobbyists on politicians and scientists. We will never know the exact reason and motivation why the message about climate change is brought as it is. One thing is for sure that the message is incomplete and driven by economic, political interests and to give you and me the idea in a 'makeable world'. About one thing we can all agree; humanity has to pollute less, produce 'cleaner', make the income gap much smaller, spend less on war(mongering) and get the influence from  businesses on political decision making less. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change: The Ultimate Culprit For The Insect Die-Off Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. 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Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t. Well this a very confusing, conflicting expression which exactly 'covers the load'. Sure there must be a moment when you were reading or watching a documentry about climate change and then especially the influence of humans on it that you thought; 'But there are so many natural contributers to climate change'! Global Cooling Or Warming: In the media global warming is mainly focused on the amount of CO2 humanity has added since the industrial revolution, thus causing the Earth warming up. Is there a reason to 'only' focus on CO2 because it is the 'reason' our Earth is warming up or are there other interests or reasons? Well I, we believe the climate is changing. Nature does the climate changing so humanity. If you are with 7.8 billion people the influnece of a group this big is measurable. The biggest question is; what is the influence from humanity in compare with natural cycles?  I am increasingly surprised that until the 1970s we considered the climate as the result of the action of the great forces of nature (the influence of the sun, the thermostat action of the water, as vapor, liquid and ice, the effects of the heat flows in the mantle and the effect on volcanism, on land and under water, and perhaps even the effect of greenhouses on that thin shell atmosphere). Then suddenly AGW (Anthropogenic Global Warming) came into view and those large forces of nature, which of course continue to work, were left out of consideration. Why did that happen? Photo by Tim Mossholder Index Global Coorling Or Warming: Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Some Thoughts Is It Just About The Balance Sudden change of CO2 levels Natural Why The Eemian Is So Bad For The Theory Of Global Warming A Brief History Of CO2 Primary Forcing Mechanisms Key Parameters For Climate Change: Nature Key Parameters For Climate Change: Humans Why Doesn’t The Temperature Rise At The Same Rate That CO2 Increases? Climate Sensitivity CO2 Lags Temperature CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Politics Global Cooling Or Warming. CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Conclusion   Global Cooling Or Warming: Some Thoughts The article below is just an observation from a 'person' reading newspapers, watching the news, reading some scientific magazines and watching documentries relating to climate change. The first impression is that there are many ideas about the cause and effect of certain processes. For sure there is no consensus about what exactly makes our climate what it is today but the media does make you often think there is one reason and that's the rise of CO2!  Photo by: Callum Shaw There are many questions coming up if it is about Earth's climate: how reliable are the outcomes of research from ice cores? What does it tell about the temperature and amount of CO2 in other parts of the world? Are we too focused on changes in a humans lifetime, or from the moment we started to measure temperatures, CO2 and other parameters which all makes our climate. What is the influence of TV and the internet seeing many kinds of weather/climate related events which maybe amplify our opinion its getting ‘worse than ever before’? Are there political and economical reasons mainly to focus on CO2? Is it done to make the issue of climate change small and understandable for civilians like me or does it fit an ‘other agenda’? CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t There is a lot of evidence humanity is producing a lot of CO2 which 'partly' ends up in our atmosphere. Not a lot off attention is paid to the fact that a lot of CO2 is sucked up less by the still available amount of 'plants' and organisms in oceans. Would it not be wise to stop the pollution of the oceans so it can suck up 'again' more CO2. The point is, we focus 'too much' on producing CO2 instead of also to focus on natural processes and what 'could store CO2 more'. Stopping polution ending up in oceans seams hardly an issue while it could make a hudge difference. Imagen that the amount of phytoplankton was still intact, the oceans could suck up much more CO2. So instead of having 414 ppm nowadays we 'could have' around 360 ppm. Recommended:  Breaking: Did You Know, All You Read About CO2 Rise Is Half The Truth   CO2 Matters: Is It Just About Disturbing The Balance? Human CO2 is a tiny percentage of all natural CO2 emissions. The oceans contain 37,400 billion tons (GT) of suspended carbon, land biomass has 2.000-3.000 GT. The atmosphere contains 720 billion tons of CO2 and humans contribute only 6 GT additional load on this balance. The oceans, land and atmosphere exchange CO2 continuously so the additional load by humans is incredibly small. A small shift in the balance between oceans and air would cause CO2 much more severe rise than anything we could produce.   Global Cooling Or Warming: Can CO2 Levels 'Suddenly' Change By Natural Processes The answer is yes. A good example is the Younger Dryas episode. The Younger Dryas episode demonstrates that major climate change (almost as big as the difference between an ice age and modern climate and covering a large region, such as the North Atlantic basin), can occur in a few decades . Very rapid but less persistent changes to conditions outside the range experienced in the last few hundred years have also taken place since the last retreat of the ice. Such changes may result entirely from the internal mechanisms of the atmosphere and oceans, or they may be caused by events such as very large explosive volcanic eruptions. And the other way around, the three abrupt pulses of CO2 during last deglaciation: A new multi-institutional study including Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, shows that the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributed to the end of the last ice age more than 10,000 years ago did not occur gradually, but was characterized by three 'pulses' in which CO2 rose abruptly . Scientists are not sure what caused these abrupt increases, during which levels of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, rose about 10-15 parts per million (ppm) – or about five percent per episode – over a period of one to two centuries . It likely was a combination of factors, they say, including: ocean circulation, changing wind patterns, and terrestrial processes . Scripps geoscientist Jeff Severinghaus said the three episodes, which took place 16,100 years ago, 14,700 years ago, and 11,700 years ago are strongly linked to abrupt climate change events that took place in the Northern Hemisphere. The rate of change during these events is still significantly less than present-day changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Keeling Curve record of atmospheric carbon dioxide, launched by the late Scripps geochemist Charles David Keeling, recorded levels of 315 ppm when it began in 1958. In 2014, monthly average concentrations reached 401 ppm, an increase of more than 85 parts per million in less than 60 years. Now in 2020 it is 416 ppm. The overall rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation was thought to have been triggered by the release of CO2 from the deep ocean, especially the Southern Ocean. But the century-scale events must involve a different mechanism that can act faster, said Severinghaus. One possibility is a major increase in the winds that blow around Antarctica , which are known to bring up CO2 from mid-depths and cause it to outgas into the atmosphere. Recommended:  Climate Change On Earth Caused By Jupiter And Venus Eemian Rapid Climate Change Temperatures similar to those of the most recent 10,000 years have been reached during previous interglacials, which have occurred approximately each 100,000 years over the last 700,000 years in response to features of earth’s orbit. Each of these interglacials was slightly different from the others, at least in part because the orbital parameters do not repeat exactly. The penultimate interglacial, about 125,000 years ago, is known by several names including the Eemian, Sangamonian, and marine isotope stage 5e (with the different terminologies originating in different disciplines or geographic regions and being broadly but not identically equivalent).   Why The Eemian Is So Bad For The Theory Of Global Warming This part is about the high temperatures of the Eemian and the high 65N insolation (The 65th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 65 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Asia and North America). The Eemian was 5C warmer than the Earth currently is with a max CO2 level of 285 ppm and it was really 270-280 for most of the time. But it had a temperature that the theory of global warming associates with almost 2 full doublings of CO2. So imagen the CO2 level for that temperature is 1150 ppm. The Holocene had basically identical pre-industrial CO2 levels, but a temperature that was 5C lower than the Eemian. Let’s try to explain how the Earth was much, much warmer with CO2 levels that are lower than they are today. The reasonable and simple explanation is that 14% higher solar insolation (solar power, solar radiation) is the cause. The problem is that the theory of global warming has discounted 65N insolation as being capable of causing the glacial/interglacial cycle. It is very important to understand the significance of the very warm Eemian. Last Interglacial (relating to a period of milder climate between two glacial periods) orbital focing   {youtube}                             The Milankovitch Cycles can Produce Sudden Climate Transitions such as Modern Climate Change Holocene Rapid Climate Change The Holocene had basically identical pre-industrial CO2 levels, but a temperature that was 5C lower than the Eemian. Let’s try to explain how the Earth was much, much warmer with CO2 levels that are lower than they are today. The relevance of abrupt climate change of the ice age to the modern warm climate or future warmer climates is unclear. However, although glacial and deglacial rapid shifts in temperature were often larger than those of the Holocene (the last roughly 10,000 years), Holocene events were also important with respect to societally relevant climate change. For example, there were large rapid shifts in precipitation (droughts and floods) and in the size and frequency of hurricanes, typhoons, and El Niño/La Niña events. If they recurred, these kinds of changes would have large effects on society. It is not surprising that many past examples of societal collapse involved rapid climate change to some degree. Holocene Droughts The existing temperature records, as described above, make it clear that natural variability alone can generate regional to hemispheric temperature anomalies that are sufficient to affect many aspects of human activity. However, the record of hydrologic change over the last 2,000 years suggests even larger effects: there is ample evidence that decadal, even century-scale, drought can occur with little or no warning. The 4.2-kiloyear BP ( Before Present  means before 1950. The most commonly used convention in radiocarbon dating. 'Present' referring to the year 1950 AD. 1950 Is the date that the calibration curves were established.) aridification (the gradual change of a region from a wetter to a drier climate The onset of sudden aridification in Mesopotamia near 4100 calendar yr BP coincided with a widespread cooling in the North Atlantic) event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene epoch. It defines the beginning of the current Meghalayan age in the Holocene epoch. Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. It has been hypothesised to have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu culture in   the lower Yangtze River area. The drought may also have initiated the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, with some of its population moving southeastward to follow the movement of their desired habitat, as well as the migration of Indo-European-speaking people into India. Holocene Floods Just as the twentieth century instrumental record is too short to understand the full range of drought, it is too short to understand how the frequency of large floods has changed. Data on past hydrological conditions from the upper Mississippi River and from sediments in the Gulf of Mexico record large, abrupt shifts in flood regimes in the Holocene, which may have been linked to major jumps in the location of the lower Mississippi (delta-lobe switching). In the western United States, there is growing evidence that flood regimes distinctly different from today, and also episodic in time, were the norm rather than the exception. The frequency of large floods in the Lower Colorado River Basin, for example, appears to have varied widely over the last 5,000 years, with increased frequency from about 5,000-4,000 years ago, then lower frequency until about 2,000 years ago, and some abrupt shifts up, down, and back up thereafter. Those flood-frequency fluctuations and substantial fluctuations elsewhere around the world appear to be linked to climate shifts but in poorly understood ways. Clearly, a predictive understanding of megadroughts and large floods must await further research.   Global Cooling Or Warming: A Brief History Of The Earth's CO2 Climate change has been described as one of the biggest problems faced by humankind. This gas has played a crucial role in shaping the Earth's climate. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been present in the atmosphere since the Earth condensed from a ball of hot gases following its formation from the explosion of a huge star about five billion years ago. At that time the atmosphere was mainly composed of nitrogen, CO2 and water vapour, which seeped through cracks in the solid surface. A very similar composition emerges from volcanic eruptions today. Photo by: Iswanto Arif As the planet cooled further some of the water vapour condensed out to form oceans and they dissolved a portion of the CO2 but it was still present in the atmosphere in large amounts. The first life forms to evolve on Earth were microbes which could survive in this primordial atmosphere but about 2.5 billion years ago, plants developed the ability to photosynthesise, creating glucose and oxygen from CO2 and water in the presence of light from the Sun. This had a transformative impact on the atmosphere: as life developed, CO2 was consumed so that by around 20 million years ago its concentration was down to below 300 molecules in every one million molecules of air (or 300 parts per million - ppm). Life on Earth has evolved under these conditions - note that humans did not appear until about 200,000 years. Concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere were as high as 4,000 parts per million (ppm, on a molar basis) during the Cambrian period about 500 million years ago to as low as 180 ppm during the Quaternary glaciation of the last two million years. Reconstructed temperature records for the last 420 million years indicate that atmospheric CO2 concentrations peaked at ~2000 ppm during te Devonian (∼400 Myrs ago (million years)) period, and again in the Triassic (220–200 Myrs ago) period. Fossilized crinoids, marine invertebrates that lived during the Permian Period, found in western Australia. Scientists say the Great Dying, which wiped out 96 percent of all life in the oceans, was caused by global warming, which deprived the oceans of oxygen. Global annual mean CO2 concentration has increased by more than 45% since the start of the Industrial Revolution, from 280 ppm during the 10,000 years up to the mid-18th century to 415 ppm as of May 2019. The present concentration is the highest for 14 million years. The increase has been attributed to human activity and natural processes. This increase of CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere has produced the current episode of global warming. Between 30% and 40% of the CO2 released by humans into the atmosphere dissolves into the oceans, wherein it forms carbonic acid and effects changes in the oceanic pH balance. CO2 plays an important role in climate because it is one of the atmospheric 'greenhouse' gases (GHGs) which keep the Earth's surface about 33 degrees warmer than the -18C temperature it would be at were they not present. Photo by: University of Cambridge. Liverworts are small green plants that don’t have roots, stems, leaves or flowers. They belong to a group of plants called Bryophytes, which also includes mosses and hornworts. Bryophytes diverged from other plant lineages early in the evolution of plants and are thought to be similar to some of the earliest diverging land plant lineages. Liverworts are found all over the world and are often seen growing as a weed in the cracks of paving or soil of potted plants. Marchantia polymorpha, which is also known as the common liverwort or umbrella liverwort, was used in this research.  They do this by being fairly transparent to the Sun's rays, allowing them through to warm the surface, but then absorbing the radiant heat that the surface emits, so trapping it and enhancing the warming. In the present climate the most effective GHGs are water vapour, which is responsible for about two-thirds of the total warming, and CO2 which accounts for about one quarter. Other gases, including methane, make up the remainder. The atmospheric concentration of water vapour is less than 1% and, with CO2 making up only a few molecules in every ten thousand of air, it may be surprising that they can have such a significant impact on the surface temperature. They are able to do this, however, because the structure of their molecules makes them especially effective at absorbing heat radiation while the major atmospheric gases, nitrogen and oxygen, are essentially transparent to it. The greenhouse effect means that as the atmospheric loading of GHGs increases the surface temperature of the Earth warms. Most significantly, the concentration of CO2 has been rising exponentially (at a rate of about 0.17% per year) since the industrial revolution, due mainly to the combustion of fossil fuels but also to large-scale tropical deforestation which depletes the climate system's capacity for photosynthesis. In 2015, it passed 400ppm, more than 40% higher than its pre-industrial value of 280ppm and a level that has not existed on Earth for several million years. While the basic science of how GHGs warm the Earth is very well understood, there are complications. The climate system responds in various ways which both enhance and ameliorate the effects of these gases. For example, a warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapour (before it condenses out in clouds or rain) and because water vapour is a GHG, this increases the temperature rise. Another example: as the oceans warm they are less able to hold CO2 so release it, again with the result the initial warming is enhanced. Photo by: Sebastian Pena Lambarri The global temperature record over the past century does not show the same smooth increase presented by CO2 measurements because the climate is influenced by other factors than GHGs, arising from both natural and human sources. Some particles released into the atmosphere by industrial activities reflect sunshine back to space, tending to cool the planet. Similarly, large volcanic eruptions can eject small particles into the higher atmosphere, where they remain for up to about two years reducing the sunlight reaching the surface, and temporary dips in global temperature have indeed been measured following major volcanic events. Changes in the energy emitted by the Sun also affect surface temperature, though measurements of the solar output show this effect to be small on human timescales. Another important consideration in interpreting global temperatures is that the climate is inherently complex. Energy moves between the atmosphere and oceans in natural fluctuations - an example being El Niño events. This means that we cannot expect an immediate direct relationship between any influencing factor and surface temperature. All these factors complicate the picture. Notably, during the ice ages which have occurred roughly every 100,000 years over at least the past half million, drops in global temperature of perhaps 5C have been accompanied by reductions in CO2 concentration to less than 200ppm. The ice ages, and associated warmer interglacial periods, are brought about by changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun which take place on these long timescales. The cooling in response to a decline in solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface results in a greater uptake of CO2 by the oceans and so further cooling due to a weakened greenhouse effect. This is an entirely natural phenomenon and it is worth noting that such amplification of temperature fluctuations will occur in response to any initiating factor regardless of its source and including human-produced greenhouse gases. The effects of increasing CO2 are not limited to an increase in air temperature. As the oceans warm they are expanding so producing a rise in sea level, this being exacerbated by the melting of some of the ice present on land near the poles and in glaciers. The warmer atmosphere holds more water vapour resulting in increased occurrences of heavy rainfall and flooding while changes in weather patterns are intensifying droughts in other regions.   Global Cooling Or Warming: Primary Forcing Mechanism The Natural Climate Pulse of Earth Introduction The earth's climate pulse cycles are governed by cycles of the Primary Forcing Mechanism (PFM). These cycles range from daily (ocean tides) and more importantly every 6 months, 4 years, 9 years, 18 years, 72 years, 230 years, 1200 years and 130 thousand years.  Earth is currently coming off a 230 year global warming cycle and dipping into a 120 year global cooling cycle .  They come approximately every 230 years and we have have had 5 during the past 1000 years.  The last one ended in the year 1800 and was followed by dramatic cooling and a year of no summer in 1816. Photo by: Anton Foltin. rare snowfall in Arizona During early stages of each global cooling cycle, historically strong volcanic activity usually occurs, resulting in unusually cold summer weather, worldwide crop failures, famine and disease. This scenario is not merely a coincidence, it happened in global cooling cycles with the volcano Eldgja in 934 AD, Ringitoto in 1350, Huaynaputina in 1600, Tambora in 1815, and will likely occur again during the upcoming dramatic global cooling cycle that will begin soon. Ever since planet Earth was created about 4.5 billion years ago, it has been exposed to natural processes and forcing mechanisms within the solar system and earth. During the course of millions of years, the interaction of these processes has implemented a natural climate and planetary rhythm.  These rhythms include but are not limited to:  day and night, the four annual seasons and weather events during the particular season, short-term climate fluctuations and oscillations within the seasons, and long-term climate change cycles such as glacial periods which occur approximately every 120 thousand years. The gravitational cycles of the moon and sun cause the seasonal tilts of the earth's axis and the 4 seasons.  The strong gravitational pull of the moon causes a bulge to form in the center of the 5 oceans.  As the earth makes a complete rotation on its axis daily, the moon rises and falls in the sky.  This causes dramatic changes to the gravitational pull, with increases and decreases occurring during the daily cycle.  This causes a gravitational pulse which in turn causes an interactive plunging action on the ocean's bulge, thus producing the twice daily ocean tides. The gravitational tides are also noticed in the earth's atmosphere, and in lower depths of the ocean. Photo by: Dan Grinwis ​The daily rotation of the earth provides the twice daily tides, and the 27.5 day elliptical path of the moon around the earth provides a monthly and bi-monthly gravitational pulse.  The cycles then extend out in time as the elliptical path of the earth around the sun, and the moon around the earth cyclical change from one month to the next, every 6 months, 4 years, 9 years, 18 years and beyond.  The earths 130 thousand year elliptical path is well documented in science and is proven to be the cause for the earth's inter-glacial (warm) as the earth swings in closer to the sun, and glacial periods (cold)  that occur every 130 thousand years as the earth swings further away from the sun.  The current warm inter-glacial period peaked about 7 thousand years ago, and the peak of the next glacial period will be 70 to 110 thousand years from now. ​The Primary Forcing Mechanism (PFM) for climate change is the combination of the elliptical paths of the moon and earth, changes in solar radiation and changes in the gravitational pulses and electromagnetic pulses. The PFM cycles control the Earth's 'atural Climate Pulse', and it is this Natural Pulse that controls weather and climate cycles here on earth.   ​The earth's climate is very complex and very cyclical due to the PFM (Primary Forcing Mechanism) Natural Climate Pulse interacting with the oceans, atmosphere and inner/outer cores of earth. The high and low tides of the oceans alternate approximately every 6 hours, and ocean tides and some currents change with the PFM cycles.   Above the surface of the Earth is the atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and other gases which move fluidly around the planet.  The flow of these atmospheric gases are caused by the rotation of the earth, heating of the atmosphere and ground by the sun, proximity of mountain ranges and water bodies such as oceans, and forcing mechanisms such as gravitational tides caused by the PFM cycles    ​Earth's temperature changes seasonally due to the seasonal tilt of the earth, with longer term cycles due to the PFM Natural Pulse cycles every 10-years, 230 years and 130 thousand years. Carbon dioxide concentrations are a naturally occurring cycle connected to the short-term global warming cycles that occur approximately every 230 years, and the longer term 130 thousand year glacial and inter-glacial cycles. The eBook written by Mr. Dilley of GWO (avalable on the Natural Pulse Page) illustrates that earth's current temperatueres and carbon dioxide levels are perfectly normal for global warming cycle that was occurring up to the year 2012 (now beginning to slip into global cooling for the next 150 years). ​GWO’s nineteen (19) years of ongoing research uses a combination of Meteorology, Oceanography, Climatology, Geology and Astronomy along with extensive historical weather and climate data to develop techniques for climate prediction. The most significant discovery was that of the Primary Forcing Mechanism (PFM) which is highly correlated to short-term climate cycles. The combination resulted in the development of prediction models formulated from a subset of  the scientifically proven "Milankovitch" cycles of the  earth, moon and sun.     Global Cooling Or Warming: What Are The Key Parameters: Natural Below you can find a list of parameters what made earth climate to change from the moment our Earth had a atmosphere but before the apperance of humanity: Milanković-Parameters: Orbital eccentricity Axial tilt (obliquity) Axial precession Clouds In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Water or various other chemicals may compose the droplets and crystals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds, which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. Snow & Ice: The Albedo Effect Ice–albedo feedback is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers, and sea ice alters the albedo and surface temperature of a planet. Ice is very reflective, therefore some of the solar energy is reflected back to space. Ice–albedo feedback plays an important role in global climate change. For instance at higher latitudes, we see warmer temperatures melt the ice sheets. However, if warm temperatures decrease the ice cover and the area is replaced by water or land the albedo would decrease. This increases the amount of solar energy absorbed, leading to more warming. The effect has mostly been discussed in terms of the recent trend of declining Arctic sea ice. The change in albedo acts to reinforce the initial alteration in ice area leading to more warming. Warming tends to decrease ice cover and hence decrease the albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed and leading to more warming. By: The Conversation In the geologically recent past, the ice-albedo positive feedback has played a major role in the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene (~2.6 Ma to ~10 Ma (mega-annum)) ice sheets. Inversely, cooler temperatures increase ice, which increases albedo, leading to more cooling. Vulcanoes Large-scale volcanic activity may last only a few days, but the massive outpouring of gases and ash can influence climate patterns for years. Sulfuric gases convert to sulfate aerosols, sub-micron droplets containing about 75 percent sulfuric acid. Following eruptions, these aerosol particles can linger as long as three to four years in the stratosphere. Major eruptions alter the Earth's radiative balance because volcanic aerosol clouds absorb terrestrial radiation, and scatter a significant amount of the incoming solar radiation, an effect known as "radiative forcing" that can last from two to three years following a volcanic eruption. "Volcanic eruptions cause short-term climate changes and contribute to natural climate variability," says Georgiy Stenchikov, a research professor with the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University. "Exploring effects of volcanic eruption allows us to better understand important physical mechanisms in the climate system that are initiated by volcanic forcing." Recommended:  Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Nature: Plants & Animals Air Pressure: Arctic oscillation (AO) Is a weather phenomenon at the Arctic poles north of 20 degrees latitude. It is an important mode of climate variability for the Northern Hemisphere. Antarctic oscillation (AAO) The southern hemisphere analogue is called the Antarctic oscillation or Southern Annular Mode (SAM). The index varies over time with no particular periodicity, and is characterized by non-seasonal sea-level pressure anomalies of one sign in the Arctic, balanced by anomalies of opposite sign centered at about 37–45N North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) Is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Through fluctuations in the strength of the Icelandic low and the Azores high, it controls the strength and direction of westerly winds and location of storm tracks across the North Atlantic.It is part of the Arctic oscillation, and varies over time with no particular periodicity Pacific-North American pattern (PNA) Is a climatological term for a large-scale weather pattern with two modes, denoted positive and negative, and which relates the atmospheric circulation pattern over the North Pacific Ocean with the one over the North American continent. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña. The Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño is accompanied by high air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific and La Niña with low air surface pressure there. The two periods last several months each and typically occur every few years with varying intensity per period. Oceans & Sea surface temperature: Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Trends of the SST Elevation  (altitude) Latitude In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator Proximity of large bodies of water Proximity to Water bodies: Large bodies of water such as oceans, seas, and large lakes affect the climate of an area. Water heats and cools more slowly than land. Therefore, in the summer, the coastal regions will stay cooler and in winter warmer. A more moderate climate with a smaller temperature range is created. Ocean currents An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling (two separate water parcels mix to form a third which sinks below both parentsand temperature and salinity differences. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements. Proximity of mountain ranges (topography) A mountain's height above sea level is called its elevation with its highest point called a summit or peak. A mountain range is a group or chain of mountains located close together. Since neighboring mountains often share the same geological origins, mountain ranges have similar form, size and age. Photo by: Simon Fitall.  Lac Blanc, Chamonix, France Prevailing and seasonal winds The prevailing wind in a region of the Earth's surface is a surface wind that blows predominantly from a particular direction. The dominant winds are the trends in direction of wind with the highest speed over a particular point on the Earth's surface. A region's prevailing and dominant winds are the result of global patterns of movement in the Earth's atmosphere. In general, winds are predominantly easterly at low latitudes globally. In the mid-latitudes, westerly winds are dominant, and their strength is largely determined by the polar cyclone. In areas where winds tend to be light, the sea breeze/land breeze cycle is the most important cause of the prevailing wind; in areas which have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes dominate the wind pattern. Highly elevated surfaces can induce a thermal low, which then augments the environmental wind flow Shape of the land (known as 'relief' or 'topography') Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. Distance from the equator At the equator, the distance is 68,703 miles (110,57 kilometers). At the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees north and south), the distance is 68,94 miles (110,95 kilometers). At each of the poles, the distance is 69,417 miles (111,70 kilometers). Changes appear to be happening faster near the poles than in many other places. In this article we will look at some of these factors in more detail. Distance from the sea (Continentality) The sea affects the climate of a place. Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas. Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea.  The centre of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures.  In the summer, temperatures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the land mass. Ocean currents Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures. The diagram below shows the ocean currents of the world (view original source map). The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current in the North Atlantic flowing from the Gulf of Mexico, northeast along the U.S coast, and from there to the British Isles. The Gulf of Mexico has higher air temperatures than Britain as it is closer to the equator.  This means that the air coming from the Gulf of Mexico to Britain is also warm.  However, the air is also quite moist as it travels over the Atlantic ocean.  This is one reason why Britain often receives wet weather. The Gulf Stream keeps the west coast of Europe free from ice in the winter and, in the summer, warmer than other places of a similar latitude.   Global Cooling Or Warming: What Are The Key Parameters: Humans Below you can find a list of parameters what made earth climate to change from the moment our Earth had an atmosphere and humanity appeared. We cannot forget the influence of humans on our climate.  Early on in human history our effect on the climate would have been quite small. However, as populations increased and trees were cut down in large numbers, so our influence on the climate increased. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. A reduction in trees will therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Agricultural Revolution: There have been several periods of history called "agricultural revolutions," but the term typically refers to 10,000 years BCE, when humans first learned how to create stationary, farming-based socities. The oldest form of human civilization is that of hunter-gatherer tribes, where every member of the tribe has to contribute to finding food. This changed with the agricultural revolution, which allowed people to grow a surplus of food, whether that be in the form of planting crops or breeding livestock. This eventually led to the industrial revolution, when humans began growing fossil fuels and putting out greenhouse gasses at an unprecedented rate. Some greenhouse gasses are contributed by animals themselves, such as carbon dioxide from their breath or methane from their flatulence. Agricultural development also leads to clearing of land to use for farms, which continuously decreases the amount of trees that can absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has had a huge effect on climate. The invention of the motor engine and the increased burning of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas - more on that later) in the atmosphere.  The number of trees being cut down has also increased, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide that is taken up by forests. Aerosols The importance of atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide for climate is well known and well publicised. However the tiny particles that are present in the atmosphere, or aerosols, also play crucial roles in weather and climate. Atmospheric aerosols can be either solid or liquid, with diameters of a few nanometers to tens of microns. There are two broad classes of aerosols. Primary aerosols are generated or emitted as solid particles, for example Saharan dust, sea salt or soot. Secondary aerosols are formed in the atmosphere by chemical reactions, for example ammonium sulphate aerosols are formed from the gases sulphur dioxide and ammonia, whilst organic aerosols are formed by chemical reactions acting on chemicals such as isoprene which is emitted by vegetation. Some aerosols have mainly natural origins (dust, sea salt, volcanic ash and volcanic sulphates), whilst others result at least partly from human activities (some soot, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate). Aerosols are often mixed together, and can also be described by their size, eg. PM10 is particles with diameter less than 10 micron. Once in the atmosphere, aerosols can have a variety of impacts. Aerosols reflect and absorb radiation from the sun. Thus a large concentration of most aerosol types will tend to scatter sunlight back to space, preventing the direct beam reaching the Earth's surface. This can lead to a cooling of the earth's surface, a change in the fluxes of latent heat and sensible heat, and a change in the distribution of heating in the atmosphere. Whilst the direct beam is prevented from reaching the surface, more scattered light is available and this affects photosynthesis. High aerosol concentrations can improve plant productivity, until other effects such as temperature or plant physiological issues become dominant. Aerosols are also responsible for clouds, and rainfall. Cloud droplets require an initial "seed" to start the condensation of water - this is provided by aerosols. Changes in aerosol can therefore lead to changes in cloud properties. For example, an increase in aerosol concentration in a cloudy region might mean more seeds for the water to condense on, therefore the available water is spread over a larger number of droplets and each individual droplet is smaller. Smaller droplets reflect more light, and this "indirect effect" of aerosol on cloud can lead to a cooling of the Earth's surface.   Why Doesn’t The Temperature Rise At The Same Rate That CO2 Increases? The amount of CO2 is increasing all the time - we just passed a landmark 414 parts per million concentration of atmospheric CO2, up from around 280ppm before the industrial revolution. That’s a 42.8% increase. A tiny amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, like methane and water vapour, keep the Earth’s surface 30°Celsius (54°F) warmer than it would be without them. We have added 47% more CO2 but that doesn't mean the temperature will go up by 47% too. There are several reasons why. Doubling the amount of CO2 does not double the greenhouse effect. The way the climate reacts is also complex, and it is difficult to separate the effects of natural changes from man-made ones over short periods of time. As the amount of man-made CO2 goes up, temperatures do not rise at the same rate. In fact, although estimates vary - climate sensitivity is a hot topic in climate science IPCC report AR4 described the likely range as between 2 and 4.5 degrees C, for double the amount of CO2 compared to pre-industrial levels. So far, the average global temperature has gone up by about 0.8 degrees C (1.4 F). According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)…the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8°Celsius (1.4°Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade. The speed of the increase is worth noting too. Unfortunately, as this quaote from NASA demonstrates, antropogenic climate change is happening very quickly compared to changes that occured in the past. As the Earth moved out of ice ages over the past million years, the global temperature rose a total of 4 to 7 degrees Celsius over about 5,000 years. In the past century alone, the temperature has climbed 0.7 degrees Celsius, roughly ten times faster than the average rate of ice-age-recovery warming. Small increases in temperature can be hard to measure over short periods, because they can be masked by natural variation. For example, cycles of warming and cooling in the oceans cause temperature changes, but they are hard to separate from small changes in temperature caused by CO2 emissions which occur at the same time. Tiny particle emissions from burning coal or wood are also being researched, because they may be having a cooling effect. Scientists like to measure changes over long periods so that the effects of short natural variations can be distinguished from the effects of man-made CO2. The rate of surface warming has slowed in the past decade. Yet the physical properties of CO2 and other greenhouse gases cannot change. The same energy they were re-radiating back to Earth during previous decades must be evident now, subject only to changes in the amount of energy arriving from the sun - and we know that has changed very little. But if that’s true, where is this heat going? The answer is into the deep oceans. The way heat moves in the deep oceans is not well understood. Improvements in measurement techniques have allowed scientists to more accurately gauge the amount of energy the oceans are absorbing. The Earth’s climate is a complex system, acting in ways we can’t always predict. The energy that man-made CO2 is adding to the climate is not currently showing up as surface warming, because most of the heat is going into the oceans. Currently, the heat is moving downwards from the ocean surface to deeper waters. The surface gets cooler, humidity reduces (water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas), and air temperatures go down. The rate at which surface temperatures go up is not proportional to the rate of CO2 emissions, but to the total amount of atmospheric CO2 added since the start of the industrial revolution. Only by looking at long-term trends - 30 years is the standard period in climate science - can we measure surface temperature increases accurately, and distinguish them from short-term natural variation.    Climate Sensitivity Climate sensitivity is a measurement of how much the Earth will warm for a given increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. More specifically, it is the average change in the Earth's surface temperature in response to changes in radiative forcing, the difference between incoming and outgoing energy on Earth.  Natural temperature variability (black dots) compared to simulations of variability from climate models with higher climate sensitivity (magenta) and lower climate sensitivity (green). Each line represents the results from one model. Climate sensitivity is a key measure in climate science, but its magnitude is not very well known. If climate sensitivity turns out to be on the high side of what scientists estimate, it will be more difficult to achieve the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to below 2 °C (3.6 °F).   CO2 Lags Temperature Science must have asked if the sequence - CO2 increases, temperature increases – has been confirmed by empirical evidence? Some scientists did that and found the empirical evidence showed it was not true. Why isn’t this central to all debate about anthropogenic global warming? The most important assumption behind the hypothesis that human activities are causing global warming is that an increase in global atmospheric CO2 will cause an increase in the average annual global temperature. The assumption became almost the total focus of the IPCC because of the definition of climate change given them by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As I recall, nobody at the time challenged the assumption that an increase in CO2 caused an increase in global temperature. Rather, the challenges focused on how the definition allowed the IPCC to downplay the much greater volume and importance of water vapor as a greenhouse gas. It allowed the IPCC to effectively overlook it because while humans produce water vapor, the amount is insignificant relative to the total atmospheric volume. In 1999 the first significant long term Antarctic ice core record appeared. Earlier cores were in the record, but as I recall, the one by Petit, Raynaud, and Lorius were presented as the best representation of temperature, CO2, and deuterium over 420,000-year core drilled to 3623 meters. I recall Lorius warning people not to rush to judgment. One of his concerns was the size of the graph depicting such a long record. Lorius reconfirmed this position in a 2007 article. “…our (East Antarctica, Dome C) ice core shows no indication that greenhouse gases have played a key role in such a coupling (with radiative forcing)” The question is how did the interpretation become that, the Antarctic ice core record confirmed that a CO2 increase causes a temperature increase. It could be the nature of the graph as Lorius said. The Lorius warning didn’t prevent people automatically assuming it confirmed the CO2 preceding temperature increase relationship. However, Nova concluded after expanding and more closely examining the data that, the bottom line is that rising temperatures cause carbon levels to rise. Carbon may still influence temperatures, but these ice cores are neutral on that. If both factors caused each other to rise significantly, positive feedback would become exponential. We’d see a runaway greenhouse effect. It hasn’t happened. Some other factor is more important than carbon dioxide, or carbon’s role is minor. How about considering carbon dioxide’s role is non-existent? Fortunately, after the 1999 paper was released, a few people didn’t accept everything at face value and began to test the data. By 2003 Caillon et al., (including Jouzel) produced “Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes Across Termination III.” Here the concern was more with the “gas age-ice age” difference. This speaks to the problem that it takes decades for the gas in the bubble to become enclosed or trapped. In a 2006 paper, the authors state; gas is trapped in polar ice at depths of ~50–120 m and is therefore significantly younger than the ice in which it is embedded. The age difference is not well constrained for slowly accumulating ice on the East Antarctic Plateau, introducing a significant uncertainty into chronologies of the oldest deep ice cores. In the case of slowly accumulating East Antarctic ice cores, this difference is very large, up to 7 kyr during glacial periods, and the timing of climate changes recorded in the two phases will not be accurate unless the gas age–ice age difference can be well constrained. This means the only thing we can conclude agrees with Nova that temperature increases before CO2. It is important to note that more precise correlation between temperature and CO2 is made difficult by the application of a 70-year smoothing average to the raw data. The impact of this smoothing on the elimination of data that would help resolve the relationship and lag time. It is seen in the 2000-year comparison of different measures of atmospheric CO2. It is reasonable to say that virtually all potential diagnoses are eliminated by the removal of annual variation, but especially the sequence of events. Notice that the overall atmospheric average of CO2 is different, approximately 260 ppm to 300 ppm. This is a difference that the IPCC claim took us from about 50% CO2 control of global temperature in 1950 to 95% + today. Amazingly, despite many decades of climate science, there has never been a study focused on how long it takes to feel the warming from a particular emission of carbon dioxide, taking carbon-climate uncertainties into consideration.  In a recent letter, Ricke and Caldeira (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 124002) estimated that the timing between an emission and the maximum temperature response is a decade on average. In their analysis, they took into account uncertainties about the carbon cycle, the rate of ocean heat uptake and the climate sensitivity but did not consider one important uncertainty: the size of the emission. Using simulations with an Earth System Model we show that the time lag between a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission pulse and the maximum warming increases for larger pulses. Our results suggest that as CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, the full warming effect of an emission may not be felt for several decades, if not centuries. In a 'plain language' summary by Nic Lewis on Judith Curry’s website of a paper released by a group from the UK Met Office under lead author Andrews we learn, The simulations show that the models’ effective climate sensitivity is substantially lower when driven by an observationally-based estimate of the evolution of SST (sea surface temperature) and sea-ice over the historical period than when responding to long-term CO2 forcing. This finding underlies the authors’ conclusion that climate sensitivity estimates based on observed historical warming are too low. Climate sensitivity is the effect on global temperature of a change in forcing, in this case, the forcing is an increase in CO2. This accepts the assumption that a CO2 increase causes a temperature increase. The Andrews et al., although done using a model, shows that when the authors used empirical data the CO2 increase was “substantially lower.” Don’t forget, this is for just two variables, sea-ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (SST). Is it possible that with many more empirical values the climate sensitivity would go to zero? That is the empirical evidence based on studies and decrease in sensitivity over the last few years The issue of CO2 climate sensitivity is central to the entire history of scientific examination. Academics, including those in the natural sciences, love to use argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to authority) to bolster their studies. I am not saying there is no greenhouse effect. I am saying that the empirical evidence shows that an increase in CO2 does not cause an increase in temperature. Further, it appears that the entire greenhouse effect is reasonably explained by water vapor. Besides variation in water vapor is just one variable in a complex array of variables that cause climate change, which can cause global warming or global cooling.      CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Politics Thatcher Margaret Thatcher biography: The visionary scientist who saw the climate change challenge ahead  The climate deniers' greatest success during the early 2000s was the apparent conversion of Margaret Thatcher - when she abandoned the climate cause she so forcefully and eloquently championed as the British prime minister. Thatcher published her autobiography Statecraft in 2002, shortly before she stepped out of the limelight due to her failing health. The autobiography included a long passage in which she renounced her former beliefs and even revised the meaning of her original 1990 address. In her 1990 speech, Thatcher praised the creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), called for precautionary action, and argued that economic growth must benefit “future as well as present generations everywhere.” Economic Growth But, her autobiography states: “By the end of my time as Prime Minister I was also becoming seriously concerned about the anti-capitalist arguments which the campaigners against global warming were deploying. “So in a speech to scientists in 1990 I observed: whatever international action we agree upon to deal with environmental problems, we must enable all our economies to grow and develop because without growth you cannot generate the wealth required to pay for the protection of the environment.” The Iron Lady's complete and dramatic U-turn meant that her free market admirers could reclaim her legacy and erase from history her arguments that economic growth must be environmentally sustainable while the public seemed to have mostly forgotten that one of the earliest champions of legally binding international agreements was, in fact, a staunch Conservative and economic Liberal. Environmental Enemy The cause of this volte-face was very evidently the belief that environmentalism was simply the old enemy of Socialism in a new guise, as presented by free market economists Friedrich von Hayek and Antony Fisher, and the think tanks they inspired. “The doomsters’ favourite subject today is climate change,” she wrote. “Clearly no plan to alter climate could be considered on anything but a global scale, it provides a marvellous excuse for worldwide, supra-national socialism.” She attacked former US vice president Al Gore directly and argued that “Kyoto was an anti-growth, anti-capitalist, anti-American project which no American leader alert to his country’s national interests could have supported.” Free Market Inspiration Thatcher, in her notes, expressed gratitude for the fact that “the issues have been clearly analysed and debated by scholars in the United States.” She informed her readers that her revised position on climate change was based on reading Julian Morris’s Climate Change: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom published by her old friends at the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), Richard Lindzen’s Global Warming: The Origin and Nature of the Alleged Scientific Consensus from the Koch- and Exxon-funded free market Cato Institute and Fred Singer’s Climate Policy: From Rio to Kyoto: A Political Issue for 2000 and Beyond put out by the right wing Centre for the New Europe. All three men were members of free market think tanks and were funding recipients from the fossil fuel industry. And so the former prime minister, in turning to scepticism, relied almost entirely on publications put out by free market lobby groups, rather than relying on the scientific literature. Successfully neutralised Her new denial of the science rested on a pamphlet from the Reason Foundation published in December 1997 and titled A Plain English Guide to Climate Science. The guide claimed that: “It is widely acknowledged that the potential temperature changes predicted by global warming theory do not pose a direct threat to human life. Human beings, and a myriad of other organisms, exist quite comfortably in areas with temperature ranges more extreme than those predicted by global warming models.” The Foundation received $70,000 the following year from ExxonMobil to “assess public policy alternatives on issues with direct bearing on the company's business operations and interests.” And so, the political consensus – that the science of climate change had alerted the world to the need for urgent and dramatic improvements to the clean production of energy – had been broken, and one of the earliest and keenest advocates had been successfully neutralised by the sceptics. Thatcher’s legacy would simply be the rapid and controversial implementation of the free market in Britain, which would reverberate through the economies of the world and have serious ecological implications. Reagan, IPCC Photo by: The Irish Times 1984 The United States Environmental Protection Agency and State Department wanted an international convention to agree restrictions on greenhouse gases, and the conservative Reagan Administration was concerned about unrestrained influence from independent scientists or from United Nations bodies including UNEP and the WMO. The U.S. government was the main force in forming the IPCC as an autonomous intergovernmental body in which scientists took part both as experts on the science and as official representatives of their governments, to produce reports which had the firm backing of all the leading scientists worldwide researching the topic, and which then had to gain consensus agreement from every one of the participating governments. In this way, it was formed as a hybrid between a scientific body and an intergovernmental political organisation   Global Cooling Or Warming. CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t: Conclusion The above written is a collection of events past, present which all make up for our climate, our present climate. Natural and man-made parameters are mentioned and sure there are many more. They all interact, amplify and weaken each other in cycles, almost cycles and absolute randomness. There are past events which show that climate changes can happen rapidly and present in combination what humanity throws to nature it ‘could’ result in our present climate. There have been high CO2 levels in the past with lower temperatures and the other way round. So why the focus on CO2. It is easy to describe and understandable for ‘many’. Besides it is easy the measure. To understand our climate and all the processes which are involved is already too difficult to understand for scientists let alone for ‘you and me’. Photo By: Scott Rodgerson Of course there will be a moment in the future that our fossils fuels are coming to an end or getting too expensive because of its scarcity. So somewhere in time there had to be a decision made to let humanity be convinced to start with reorganizing our society and start looking for alternatives. So what an easy and for all understandable phenomenon 'CO2 rise' is to start this shift, this transition. So, yes I am still increasingly surprised that until the 1970s we considered the climate as the result of the action of the great forces of nature (the influence of the sun, the thermostat action of the water, as vapor, liquid and ice, the effects of the heat flows in the mantle and the effect on volcanism, on land and under water, and perhaps even the effect of greenhouses on that thin shell atmosphere). Then suddenly AGW came into view and those large forces of nature, which of course continue to work, were left out of consideration. Why did that happen? I cannot give scientific but political and activist reasons. Who helps me out of the dream? Reason for me to get an earlier analysis from the old box. I thought it was still current. The proposition that the climate changes as a result of human activities due to the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases that enhance the natural greenhouse effect seems to have become dogma over time. And all of that would have all kinds of disastrous consequences. Even more important is that by 'only pointing to CO2' which humanity pumps into the atmosphere the idea got procliamed that humanity was also in charge to limit greenhouse gasses and therefore could change the climate in our benefit. Never gets mentioned the feedback processes and the many other events which makes that certain effects wil take ten or hundreds of years to fade out. Also politicians make twist and turns depending on what they expect from economical growth, the fossil fuel industry and the wish to deal with independent scientists. The other way around the influence from large industries and the fossil fuel industry via lobbyists on politicians and scientists. We will never know the exact reason and motivation why the message about climate change is brought as it is. One thing is for sure that the message is incomplete and driven by economic, political interests and to give you and me the idea in a 'makeable world'. About one thing we can all agree; humanity has to pollute less, produce 'cleaner', make the income gap much smaller, spend less on war(mongering) and get the influence from  businesses on political decision making less. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change: The Ultimate Culprit For The Insect Die-Off Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the climate? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t
Global Cooling Or Warming: CO2 Matters Because It Doesn’t
CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters
Scientists discover evidence that sea-evel rises because of the current atmospheric carbon dioxide. In a Mallorcan cave, they found 4-million-year-old geologic evidence giving them new insight into magnitude global sea-level rise. Sea Rise: 16 Meters An international team is studying the evidence, which is preserved in the coastal cave in Mallorca. The evidence illustrates that three million years ago, the Earth was two to three degree Celsius warmer than the pre-industrial ear. Sea level was 16 meters higher than at this moment. Their findings foresee important implications and understandings about the current-day sea level rise. With these new findings, they can predict the rapidity of sea-level rise in a warming climate. {youtube}                                                  CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters                                                                   The State of Sea Level Rise (2019)   CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise The sea level is rising as a result of the ice caps which are melting, such as those of Greenland and Antarctica. But how much and how fast the sea level will rise during global warming is a question that scientists have tried to answer. Reconstructing the ice sheet and the changes in sea level in recent periods, when the climate was naturally warmer than it is today, offers a global laboratory experiment to study this question. This is according to USF PhD student Oana Dumitru, the principal author, who has done much of her data work at UNM under the direction of Asmerom and Polyak. "Limiting models of sea-level rise due to increased global warming depends to a large extent on actual sea level measurements in the past," says Polyak. "This study provides sea-level measurements very robustly during the Pliocene. "We can use the knowledge we have gained from past warm periods to fine-tune ice sheet models which are then used to predict the future response of the ice sheet to current global warming," says Bogdan Onac, professor at the USF Department of Geosciences. Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Changes Can Be Seen In Artà Cave, Mallorca The project centralises on cave deposits known as phreatic overgrowths on speleothems. Every time ancient caves were flooded by rising sea levels, you could see the phreatic excesses at the interface. "Changes in sea level in Artà Cave can be caused by the melting and growth of the ice sheets or by the elevation or subsidence of the island itself," says Columbia University Assistant Professor Jacky Austermann, a member of the research team. She used numerical and statistical models to carefully analyse how much increase or decrease may have occurred since the Pliocene and subtracted it from the height of the formations studied. Artà Cave, Mallorca "Given current melting patterns, this degree of sea-level rise would most likely be caused by a meltdown of both Greenland and the Western Antarctic Ice Sheets," said Dumitru. The writers also measured sea level at 23.5 meters higher than about four million years ago during the Pliocene Climate Optimum, when global average temperatures were up to four °C higher than pre-industrial levels."This is a possible scenario if no active and aggressive reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is undertaken," said Asmerom. We need to do something, to diminish sea level rise. These aragonite crystals formed 4.39 million years ago inside an overgrowth on a cave feature in the Theater Room in Spain’s Artà Caves. The locations and ages of such growths helps researchers track past sea levels Recommended:  Climate Change Natural Man Made: Causes And Facts CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea: What Can We Do? Global warmth is unstoppable, but if we emit less CO2 worldwide, it will slow down. We can make some changes in our home. Avoid food waste. We waste a lot of food, and it is not necessary. You did not have to buy the food that disappears into your trash can unused. After all, you did not need it. By purchasing food wisely, storing it well and cooking it to size, you can prevent food from being wasted. You can save up to 210 kilos of CO2 per person per year. Also, if you eat less meat that will help as well. Travel by train instead of plane or car to your holiday destination. Read more about global warmth and CO2-emission to see how you can help the Earth. Recommended:  A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Scientists discover evidence that sea-evel rises because of the current atmospheric carbon dioxide. In a Mallorcan cave, they found 4-million-year-old geologic evidence giving them new insight into magnitude global sea-level rise. Sea Rise: 16 Meters An international team is studying the evidence, which is preserved in the coastal cave in Mallorca. The evidence illustrates that three million years ago, the Earth was two to three degree Celsius warmer than the pre-industrial ear. Sea level was 16 meters higher than at this moment. Their findings foresee important implications and understandings about the current-day sea level rise. With these new findings, they can predict the rapidity of sea-level rise in a warming climate. {youtube}                                                  CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters                                                                   The State of Sea Level Rise (2019)   CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise The sea level is rising as a result of the ice caps which are melting, such as those of Greenland and Antarctica. But how much and how fast the sea level will rise during global warming is a question that scientists have tried to answer. Reconstructing the ice sheet and the changes in sea level in recent periods, when the climate was naturally warmer than it is today, offers a global laboratory experiment to study this question. This is according to USF PhD student Oana Dumitru, the principal author, who has done much of her data work at UNM under the direction of Asmerom and Polyak. "Limiting models of sea-level rise due to increased global warming depends to a large extent on actual sea level measurements in the past," says Polyak. "This study provides sea-level measurements very robustly during the Pliocene. "We can use the knowledge we have gained from past warm periods to fine-tune ice sheet models which are then used to predict the future response of the ice sheet to current global warming," says Bogdan Onac, professor at the USF Department of Geosciences. Recommended:  Delay Climate Change With Submarines Which Produce Icebergs Changes Can Be Seen In Artà Cave, Mallorca The project centralises on cave deposits known as phreatic overgrowths on speleothems. Every time ancient caves were flooded by rising sea levels, you could see the phreatic excesses at the interface. "Changes in sea level in Artà Cave can be caused by the melting and growth of the ice sheets or by the elevation or subsidence of the island itself," says Columbia University Assistant Professor Jacky Austermann, a member of the research team. She used numerical and statistical models to carefully analyse how much increase or decrease may have occurred since the Pliocene and subtracted it from the height of the formations studied. Artà Cave, Mallorca "Given current melting patterns, this degree of sea-level rise would most likely be caused by a meltdown of both Greenland and the Western Antarctic Ice Sheets," said Dumitru. The writers also measured sea level at 23.5 meters higher than about four million years ago during the Pliocene Climate Optimum, when global average temperatures were up to four °C higher than pre-industrial levels."This is a possible scenario if no active and aggressive reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is undertaken," said Asmerom. We need to do something, to diminish sea level rise. These aragonite crystals formed 4.39 million years ago inside an overgrowth on a cave feature in the Theater Room in Spain’s Artà Caves. The locations and ages of such growths helps researchers track past sea levels Recommended:  Climate Change Natural Man Made: Causes And Facts CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea: What Can We Do? Global warmth is unstoppable, but if we emit less CO2 worldwide, it will slow down. We can make some changes in our home. Avoid food waste. We waste a lot of food, and it is not necessary. You did not have to buy the food that disappears into your trash can unused. After all, you did not need it. By purchasing food wisely, storing it well and cooking it to size, you can prevent food from being wasted. You can save up to 210 kilos of CO2 per person per year. Also, if you eat less meat that will help as well. Travel by train instead of plane or car to your holiday destination. Read more about global warmth and CO2-emission to see how you can help the Earth. Recommended:  A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about climate change? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters
CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable The WHO has declared the Covid-19 outbreak to be a pandemic. Recommended:  Coronavirus Images From Around The Globe 01-4-2020: 42.334+ People died in China, 859.338+ people are proven infected worldwide. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission.                                       Click on: What happens to your body when you get coronavirus . Video Strongly Recommended : Coronavirus: Your Daily Update To Stay Informed {youtube}                                           Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                                  Coronavirus: 'Get prepared as soon as you can', says Italian doctor , 15-03-2020                                                            What happens to your body when you get coronavirus WHO Declared Public Health Emergency The WHO have declared a public health emergency because of the spread of the COVID-19, Coronavirus outside of China, describing it as an 'unprecedented outbreak'.  Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Coronavirus Symptons Flu And Climate Change Tips & Tricks To Avoid Colds And Flu A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing Recommended:  Pandemic and Ecological Reset: The World Green Again NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. A 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Replicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. Recommended:   Insane: Temporary Global Temperature Rise By The Coronavirus The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China Coronavirus: Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind the outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate."   Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: While a person with the virus can show no outward symptoms, early signs can include a fever, diarrhea, a dry cough, shortness of breath and general body aches Some patients also report feeling tired and confused More serious cases of the virus can lead to a high fever, kidney failure and pneumonia While the disease is being treated as an 'imminent threat', some of the symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those seem in other respiratory conditions - such as the flu or the common cold Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: Advice If you have recently travelled to a high-risk area - or if you've been in contact with somebody who has - and you develop symptoms, you should contact your doctor by telephone for advice You should not go to the doctor or to hospital, as if you have the virus, you may risk spreading it to others If you have recently travelled to Wuhan you should go in self-quarantine for 14 days and call  your doctor and/ or local authorities to report your recent stay Wash your hands often What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province          Coronavirus? How do you catch it? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. Coronavirus. How long does the virus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS Coronavirus: How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus COVID-19 Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan.   Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain.    Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable The WHO has declared the Covid-19 outbreak to be a pandemic. Recommended:  Coronavirus Images From Around The Globe 01-4-2020: 42.334+ People died in China, 859.338+ people are proven infected worldwide. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission.                                       Click on: What happens to your body when you get coronavirus . Video Strongly Recommended : Coronavirus: Your Daily Update To Stay Informed {youtube}                                           Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                                  Coronavirus: 'Get prepared as soon as you can', says Italian doctor , 15-03-2020                                                            What happens to your body when you get coronavirus WHO Declared Public Health Emergency The WHO have declared a public health emergency because of the spread of the COVID-19, Coronavirus outside of China, describing it as an 'unprecedented outbreak'.  Jump quickly to subject by clicking on: Coronavirus Symptons Flu And Climate Change Tips & Tricks To Avoid Colds And Flu A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing Recommended:  Pandemic and Ecological Reset: The World Green Again NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. A 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Replicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. Recommended:   Insane: Temporary Global Temperature Rise By The Coronavirus The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China Coronavirus: Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind the outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate."   Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: While a person with the virus can show no outward symptoms, early signs can include a fever, diarrhea, a dry cough, shortness of breath and general body aches Some patients also report feeling tired and confused More serious cases of the virus can lead to a high fever, kidney failure and pneumonia While the disease is being treated as an 'imminent threat', some of the symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those seem in other respiratory conditions - such as the flu or the common cold Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptons: Advice If you have recently travelled to a high-risk area - or if you've been in contact with somebody who has - and you develop symptoms, you should contact your doctor by telephone for advice You should not go to the doctor or to hospital, as if you have the virus, you may risk spreading it to others If you have recently travelled to Wuhan you should go in self-quarantine for 14 days and call  your doctor and/ or local authorities to report your recent stay Wash your hands often What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province          Coronavirus? How do you catch it? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. Coronavirus. How long does the virus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS Coronavirus: How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus COVID-19 Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan.   Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain.    Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
Coronavirus, COVID-19 Symptoms Flu And Global Climate Change
Climate

Climate change! Currently, the most discussed topic in the world. Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. Climate change can also result from ‘external forcing’ and include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Human activities can also influence our climate. Debates, posts and answers on (social) platforms about the role of humanity in the climate change process regularly lead to heated discussions

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