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Tiny House From Denmark On Wheels: The Wide Path Camper
The Wide Path mobile tiny house offers instant shelter from the weather, a comfortable bed for up to 2 people, and a convertible space for 4 adults to dine-in, relax, and camp in style. The Wide Path Campers are not only mini RV's, but a mobile house-party easily deployed in urban, suburban, and natural spaces. A Mobile Tiny House From Denmark: The Wide Path Camper Wide Path Campers are durable, collapsible, lightweight, and surprisingly spacious. The campers unique shape and hardshell exterior provide a cozy secure feeling inside and a safe place to store your belongings. With a Wide Path Camper you can enjoy the freedom of taking your bicycle cargo camping trailer, shelter, solar energy source, and social space with you wherever you pedal. Recommended:  Pin-Up House: A Way Of Living In Pink Recommended:  The Vintage Teardrop: Camping With A Nod To The Past Ever dreamed of your own private space in the wilderness, rather than a hotel room or an apartment? Do you ever get the urge to push on as you cycle, but are limited to how far you can go due to pre-booked accommodation at scheduled stop-off points? Then maybe (and it is a big maybe) you need a Bicycle Camper from Wide Path Camper in your life! For a mere euro 4.000,00 you can hit the road on two wheels with your own lightweight caravan right behind you. Weighing in at just 40kg (just over 6 stone to you imperialists), the Wide Path Camper can sleep two fully-grown adults with a 97x200cm bed and has 300L of storage space.  {youtube}                                                                          Wide Path Camper 2020                                            Tiny House From Denmark On Wheels: The Wide Path Camper Plus, when on the road, the camper can be collapsed down to just 1.5m in length and takes only three minutes to prepare for a nights rest. During the day, you can even switch up the bed for a kitchen table to enjoy your lunch. Optional extras for the caravan include bronze tinted windows, sun cover, an ethanol kitchen stove and even solar panels. So, are you up for the ultimate summer cycling adventure? Recommended:  Urban Mobility: The 15 Friendliest Bike Cities In the World Before you go! Recommended:  Bicycles Without Battery: We Just Forgot They Are Cleanest Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your cycling adventures? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
The Wide Path mobile tiny house offers instant shelter from the weather, a comfortable bed for up to 2 people, and a convertible space for 4 adults to dine-in, relax, and camp in style. The Wide Path Campers are not only mini RV's, but a mobile house-party easily deployed in urban, suburban, and natural spaces. A Mobile Tiny House From Denmark: The Wide Path Camper Wide Path Campers are durable, collapsible, lightweight, and surprisingly spacious. The campers unique shape and hardshell exterior provide a cozy secure feeling inside and a safe place to store your belongings. With a Wide Path Camper you can enjoy the freedom of taking your bicycle cargo camping trailer, shelter, solar energy source, and social space with you wherever you pedal. Recommended:  Pin-Up House: A Way Of Living In Pink Recommended:  The Vintage Teardrop: Camping With A Nod To The Past Ever dreamed of your own private space in the wilderness, rather than a hotel room or an apartment? Do you ever get the urge to push on as you cycle, but are limited to how far you can go due to pre-booked accommodation at scheduled stop-off points? Then maybe (and it is a big maybe) you need a Bicycle Camper from Wide Path Camper in your life! For a mere euro 4.000,00 you can hit the road on two wheels with your own lightweight caravan right behind you. Weighing in at just 40kg (just over 6 stone to you imperialists), the Wide Path Camper can sleep two fully-grown adults with a 97x200cm bed and has 300L of storage space.  {youtube}                                                                          Wide Path Camper 2020                                            Tiny House From Denmark On Wheels: The Wide Path Camper Plus, when on the road, the camper can be collapsed down to just 1.5m in length and takes only three minutes to prepare for a nights rest. During the day, you can even switch up the bed for a kitchen table to enjoy your lunch. Optional extras for the caravan include bronze tinted windows, sun cover, an ethanol kitchen stove and even solar panels. So, are you up for the ultimate summer cycling adventure? Recommended:  Urban Mobility: The 15 Friendliest Bike Cities In the World Before you go! Recommended:  Bicycles Without Battery: We Just Forgot They Are Cleanest Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your cycling adventures? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Tiny House From Denmark On Wheels: The Wide Path Camper
Tiny House From Denmark On Wheels: The Wide Path Camper
Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis
A coronavirus that originated in Wuhan, China, has killed 132 people, 6000 people are proven infected with the coronavirus and from aabout 10.000 people it is expected they carry the Coronavirus (Wednesday, 29-01-2020). The Coronavirus is a zoonotic disease, meaning it jumps from animals to humans.  The Coronivirus: What Was The Intermediate Host The SARS coronavirus, which killed 774 people in the early 2000s, jumped from bats to civets to people. The Wuhan coronavirus is also thought to have originated in bats, which may have passed the disease to snakes, which then passed it to humans. Snakes Could Be the Original Source of the New Coronavirus Outbreak in China. A study of the virus’s genetic sequence suggests similarities to that seen in snakes, but is it? SARS and MERS: The Bat, The Masked Palm Civet And Camels Both SARS and MERS are classified as zoonotic viral diseases, meaning the first patients who were infected acquired these viruses directly from animals. This was possible because while in the animal host, the virus had acquired a series of genetic mutations that allowed it to infect and multiply inside humans. How do docters test for SARS? Lab tests to detect SARS virus include a blood test, a nasal swab or a sample from your stool or urine, or growing the virus in culture. Now these viruses can be transmitted from person to person. Field studies have revealed that the original source of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is the bat, and that the masked palm civets (a mammal native to Asia and Africa) and camels, respectively, served as intermediate hosts between bats and humans. How do you test for MERS? Molecular Tests Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays are molecular tests that can be used to detect viral RNA in clinical samples. ... Most state laboratories in the United States are approved to test for MERS-CoV by using an rRT-PCR assay developed by CDC. From Bats To Snakes: The Wuhan Market In the case of this 2019 coronavirus outbreak, reports state that most of the first group of patients hospitalized were workers or customers at a local seafood wholesale market which also sold processed meats and live consumable animals including: poultry, donkeys, sheep, pigs, camels, foxes, badgers, bamboo rats, hedgehogs and reptiles. However, since no one has ever reported finding a coronavirus infecting aquatic animals, it is plausible that the coronavirus may have originated from other animals sold in that market. The hypothesis that the 2019-nCoV jumped from an animal at the market is strongly supported by a new publication in the Journal of Medical Virology. The scientists conducted an analysis and compared the genetic sequences of 2019-nCoV and all other known coronaviruses. Chinese Ferret Badger The study of the genetic code of 2019-nCoV reveals that the new virus is most closely related to two bat SARS-like coronavirus samples from China, initially suggesting that, like SARS and MERS, the bat might also be the origin of 2019-nCoV. The authors further found that the DNA coding sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, which forms the ‘crown’ of the virus particle that recognizes the receptor on a host cell, indicates that the bat virus might have mutated before infecting people. But when the researchers performed a more detailed bioinformatics analysis of the sequence of 2019-nCoV, it suggests that this coronavirus might come from snakes. Recommended:  Coronavirus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Coronavirus: Protein Codes From Snakes The researchers used an analysis of the protein codes favoured by the new coronavirus and compared it to the protein codes from coronaviruses found in different animal hosts, like birds, snakes, marmots, hedgehogs, manis, bats and humans. Surprisingly, they found that the protein codes in the 2019-nCoV are most similar to those used in snakes. What does a gene code for a protein? The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. ... The type of RNA that contains the information for making a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.                                                   Snakes Hunt Bats In A Cave | Planet Earth | BBC Earth Snakes often hunt for bats in wild . Reports indicate that snakes were sold in the local seafood market in Wuhan, raising the possibility that the 2019-nCoV might have jumped from the host species—bats—to snakes and then to humans at the beginning of this coronavirus outbreak. However, how the virus could adapt to both the cold-blooded and warm-blooded hosts remains a mystery. Researchers must verify the origin of the virus through laboratory experiments. Searching for the 2019-nCoV sequence in snakes would be the first thing to do. However, since the outbreak, the seafood market has been disinfected and shut down, which makes it challenging to trace the new virus’ source animal. Sampling DNA from animals sold at the market and from wild snakes and bats is needed to confirm the origin of the virus. Nonetheless, the reported findings will also provide insights for developing prevention and treatment protocols. Recommended:  Coronavirus: Bill Gates, 65 Million Death In A Simulation Coronavirus And Sars: Passed From Animals To Humans In a Wet Market The coronavirus spreading in China and the SARS outbreak of 2003 have two things in common: Both are from the coronavirus family and both were passed from animals to humans in a wet market. Poorly regulated live-animal markets mixed with illegal wildlife trade offer a unique opportunity for viruses to spill over from wildlife hosts into the human population. In the case of SARS, and probably this coronavirus outbreak too, bats were the original hosts. They then infected other animals via their poop or saliva, and the unwitting intermediaries transmitted the virus to humans. What does zoonotic mean? Zoonosis is another name for a zoonotic disease. This type of disease passes from an animal or insect to a human. Some don't make the animal sick but will sicken a human. Zoonotic diseases range from minor short-term illness to a major life-changing illness. Certain ones can even cause death. Chinese 'wet market'.  Bats & Birds: Reservoir Species For Viruses Bats and birds are considered reservoir species for viruses with pandemic potential according Bart Haagmans, a virologist at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands. In the past 45 years, at least three other pandemics (besides SARS) have been traced back to bats. The creatures were the original source of Ebola, which has killed 13,500 people in multiple outbreaks since 1976: Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, better known as MERS, which can be found in 28 countries The Nipah virus, which has a 78% fatality rate The coronavirus might have jumped from bats to snakes to people Not all coronaviruses are deadly, the ones endemic to humans, like the common cold, are often considered inconsequential. The coronaviruses that pose a pandemic risk, however, are those that hang out in animals. Because these viruses have not been circulating in humans before, specific immunity to these viruses is absent in humans. Coronavirus: Wuhan The coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan has so far killed (Wednesday, the 29th of January 2020) 132 people and infected more than 6.000 with the Coronaviris and 10.000 expected to carry the Coronavirus. Experts haven’t yet confirmed the animal species that enabled it to spread to people, but they have some guesses. Scientists in China compared the genetic code of the Wuhan coronavirus to other coronaviruses and found it to be most similar to two bat coronavirus samples. Coronaviris via The Chinese Cobra? There’s an indication that it’s a bat virus said Vincent Munster, a scientist at Rocky Mountain Laboratories. According to a group of scientists who edit the Journal of Medical Virology, the intermediary species in this case could be the Chinese cobra. How do Coronaviruses spread? Coronaviruses primarily spread through close contact with another individual, in particular through coughing and sneezing on somebody else who is within a range of about 3 to 6 feet from that person. If an infected person sneezes or coughs onto a surface a countertop, for example  and another person touches that surface and then rubs his or her eyes or nose, for example, the latter may get sick. That’s because further genetic analysis showed that the genetic building blocks of the Wuhan coronavirus closely resembled that of snakes. So the researchers think a population of bats could have infected snakes, which passed the virus to humans as they were being sold at the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market in Wuhan. But the only way to be sure about where the virus came from is to take DNA samples from animals sold at that market and from wild snakes and bats in the area. Why Bats Pose Such A Threat Bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than other mammals, according to a 2017 study. Experts think that’s because bats can fly across large geographical ranges, transporting diseases as they go. That makes them an ideal host.  Bats pass along viruses in their poop: If they drop feces onto a piece of fruit that a different animal then eats, the creature can become a carrier. We know a fair amount of viruses on the World Health Organization’s Blueprint list of priority diseases have either a direct or indirect link with bats,” Munster said. (The list includes the SARS and MERS viruses.) Last March, a study even predicted that bats could be the source of a new coronavirus outbreak in China. It is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China. That’s because: The majority of coronaviruses – those that circulate both in humans and in animals – can be found in China Plus, the study authors said, most of the bat hosts of these coronaviruses live near humans in China, potentially transmitting viruses to humans and livestock The bat population from which the SARS virus originated, for example, lived in a cave just over 1 kilometre, or about half a mile, from the nearest village Similarly, a 2017 study warned that the risk of spill over into people and emergence of a disease similar to SARS is possible. The authors identified at least 300 separate strains of coronaviruses still circulating in bats. How SARS, MERS And Ebola Jumped From Bats To People Here are five viruses that most likely came from bats, and how the outbreaks compare. Researchers traced SARS to a population of horseshoe bats in China’s Yunnan province. Humans caught it from weasel-like mammals called masked palm civets at a wet market in Guangdong From 2002 to 2003, SARS killed 774 people across 29 countries and infected more than 8,000. Patients experienced fevers, headaches, and a type of deadly pneumonia that could cause respiratory failure MERS, similarly, passed from bats to dromedary camels in the Middle East. That coronavirus circulated in the camel population undetected for decades before jumping to humans in 2012. So far, 858 people have died in 28 countries from the illness, which comes with fever, cough, and shortness of breath In Southeast Asia, fruit bats were the original hosts of the deadly Nipah virus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998 and then again in India in 2001. The bats passed it to farmed pigs, which gave it to people. Patients experienced headaches and vomiting; many slipped into a coma and died Fruit bats in Africa have played a major role in Ebola outbreaks since 1976. The worst Ebola outbreak in history, however, came from a population of long-fingered bats. More than 11,000 people were killed from 2013 to 2016. Fruit Bat How To Prevent Zoonotic Diseases Like The Coronavirus From Spilling Over To People? At wet markets, the close proximity of shoppers to stall vendors and live and dead animals creates a prime breeding ground for zoonotic diseases. For cultural reasons in the region, people want to see the specific animals they’re buying be slaughtered in front of them, so they know they’re receiving the products they paid for,” according to Emily Langdon, an infectious disease specialist at University of Chicago Medicine. That means there’s a lot of skinning of dead animals in front of shoppers and, as a result, aerosolizing of all sorts of things. The most likely virus that might cause a new pandemic would be a coronavirus. We’re in an age of epidemics because: of globalization of encroachment on wild environments Human Health And Climate Change Climate change produced many harmful effects on human health in Central China. The cardiovascu-lar mortalities increased year by year in Wuhan from 1998 to 2008. And the morbidity was highest in winter and lowest in summer. The increasing frequency and intensity of summer heat waves resulted in the increased risk of summer cardiovascular, respiratory system diseases and heat stroke. The regional precipitation became uneven in Central China, which caused more floods and increased risk of infectious diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and conjunctivitis. The incidence of intestinal infectious diseases increased from 66.04% to 80.97% in Hubei during 1991–1997. Climate Change Helped Snails Survive The Winter Season  Behavioural risks that leads to the emergence of bat coronaviruses in humans Bat borne coronaviruses have caused several emerging infectious disease outbreaks of global significance, including SARS. Novel SARS-related coronaviruses have been discovered in bat populations in Southern China, some of which have the capacity to infect human cells Human-animal interactions are thought to be critical for the emergence of bat coronaviruses, however the specific interactions linked to animal-to-human spill over remain unknown. Coronaviris: New Findings This study found serological evidence for bat-borne coronavirus transmission to people. Direct contact with bats was not identified as a risk factor. However, self-reported severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and/or influenza-like illness (ILI) was linked to human interaction with other wildlife and livestock, suggesting that there may be other zoonotic exposures leading to clinical illness in these populations. Vendors wait for customers as dogs are kept in a cage at Dashichang dog market ahead of a local dog meat festival in Yulin, Guangxi Autonomous Region Human interaction with animals has been implicated as a primary risk factor for several high impact zoonoses, including many bat-origin viral diseases. However the animal-to-human spill over events that lead to emerging diseases are rarely observed or clinically examined, and the link between specific interactions and spill over risk is poorly understood. To investigate this phenomenon, researchers conducted biological-behavioural surveillance among rural residents in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong districts of Southern China, where we have identified a number of SARS-related coronaviruses in bats. Serum samples were tested for four bat-borne coronaviruses using newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Survey data were used to characterize associations between human-animal contact and bat coronavirus spill over risk. Coronavirus From Animals To Humans A total of 1,596 residents were enrolled in the study from 2015 to 2017 Nine participants (0.6%) tested positive for bat coronaviruses . 265 (17%) participants reported severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and/or influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms in the past year, which were associated with poultry, carnivore, rodent/shrew, or bat contact, with variability by family income and district of residence. This study provides serological evidence of bat coronavirus spill over in rural communities in Southern China. The low seroprevalence observed in this study suggests that bat coronavirus spill over is a rare event. Nonetheless, this study highlights associations between human-animal interaction and zoonotic spill over risk. These findings can be used to support targeted biological behavioural surveillance in high-risk geographic areas in order to reduce the risk of zoonotic disease emergence. Interaction Between Humans And Animals A health Risk? In the highly biodiverse southern region of China, interactions among humans, wildlife, and livestock are likely to be common, and are hypothesized to be a risk factor in the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Human-animal interactions may pose a particular public health threat in rural communities where frequent contact with animals occurs and where disease prevention measures are likely less well-developed. What is a hypothesis? In science, a hypothesis is an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. Outside science, a theory or guess can also be called a hypothesis. A hypothesis is something more than a wild guess but less than a well-established theory. Although human-animal interactions are thought to be associated with zoonotic disease emergence, few studies have addressed the nature of specific interactions that occur between animals (particularly wild animals) and humans that lead to pathogen spill over. Bats (order Chiroptera) are reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs) that have caused disease outbreaks in human and livestock populations Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the causative agent of the SARS outbreak affecting 32 countries in 2002-3, infecting 8,096 people and causing 774 deaths Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has caused 823 deaths from 2,374 human cases in 27 countries by the end of February 2019, and is thought to have originally spilled over from bats into camels , in which is it now endemic Severe acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) which emerged in the pig population of Southern China and caused the deaths of more than 20,000 piglets in 2017 and 2018 A large diversity of coronaviruses, including SARS-related Coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), has been discovered in bats, and phylogenetic and pathogenesis studies of these suggest a high capacity for transmission across species barriers. However, few studies have analysed bat-to-human spill over events in non-outbreak conditions, likely due to the rarity of these events and difficulties in identifying at-risk populations or target geographies. Additionally, the symptoms of novel bat coronavirus infection in the human population may not be clinically recognized at the time of emergence as a result of a lack of adequate surveillance or confusion with other diseases. This represents a significant biosafety risk considering the large and increasing number of coronaviruses discovered in bats and the wide distribution of bat populations in rural regions such as Southern China. We report on a study designed to characterize the bat coronavirus spill over potential associated with presumed high-risk human behaviour in rural communities of Southern China. Human Populations Close To bats And Wildlife A cross-sectional study was done in the districts of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong, China, which are known for their high levels of wildlife biodiversity, active wildlife trade activity, and historic zoonotic disease emergence events. Eight study sites were selected in areas where we have previously reported diverse coronaviruses in bat populations roosting close (within 5 km) to human dwellings. The study targeted human populations that are highly exposed to bats and other wildlife, including people who visit or work around bat caves, work in local live animal markets, raise animals, or are involved in wildlife trade (e.g., wild animal harvest, trade, transportation, and preparation), as identified by previous exploratory ethnographic interviews. Recruitment and sampling We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 400 participants from each of the three districts (Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong), for a total sample size of over 1,200 participants. A snowball sampling method was used because the population size at selected sites and the people who were highly exposed to wild animals were difficult to elucidate. Results From October 2015 to July 2017, a total of 1,596 residents from eight sites in Yunnan (n=761), Guangxi (n=412), and Guangdong (n=423) provinces were enrolled in this study. Of these, 1,585 participants completed the questionnaires and 11 participants withdrew from the questionnaire interview due to scheduling reasons. After the interviews, 1,497 participants provided biological samples for lab analysis. Demographics More female (62%) than male (38%) community members participated in this study. Most participants were adults over 45 years old (69%) and had been living in the community for more than 5 years (97%) with their family members (95%). A majority (86%) relied on a comparatively low family annual per capita income less than 10,000 RMB which is below the national mean for per capita disposable income of rural households from 2015 to 2017 (11,422 - 13,432 RMB). Most participants (98%) had not received a college education and were making a living in crop production (76%). 9% of participants frequently traveled outside the county as migrant laborers. Some participants were working in sectors where frequent human-animal contact occurs, such as the animal production business (1.7%), wild animal trade (0.5%), slaughterhouses or abattoirs (0.5%), protected nature reserve rangers (0.4%) or in wildlife restaurants (0.3%). It was common for participants to have multiple part-time jobs as income sources (Table 1) Animal contact and exposure to bat Coronaviruses Serological testing of serum samples from 1,497 local residents revealed that 9 individuals (0.6%) in four study sites were positive for bat coronaviruses, indicating exposure at some point in their life to bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV or other coronaviruses that are phylogenetically closely related to these. All individuals who tested positive (male=6, female=3) were over 45 years old, and most (n=8) were making a living from crop production. None of those participants reported any symptoms in the 12 months preceding the interview. Due to the low rate of sero-positivity, we did not obtain robust results from the statistical comparisons of animal-contact behaviour by coronavirus outcome. Among the 1,585 participants who responded, 265 (17%) reported experiencing SARI (n = 73) and/or ILI (n = 227) symptoms in the last year. Some demographic variables were associated with self-reported SARI and/or ILI symptoms as either independent or interactive terms. For example, respondents aged 41 to 60 and residents of Yunnan province were less likely to report symptoms. Slaughtering poultry was positively associated with the outcome only in Guangxi residents, whereas the association was negative in Guangdong residents. Family income also showed interactions, with family income less than 10,000 RMB being positively associated with the outcome in respondents who raised poultry but negatively associated in respondents who cooked or handled poultry. Gender was not found to be salient in either direction. Attitudes towards zoonotic diseases emergence When asked about animals and disease transmission, more than half of the study participants believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals at wet markets. Of those worried about disease emergence, 46% purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months. Among all participants who purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months 32%), some  39% took protection measures or strategies such as washing hands, purchasing live animals less often 30%, or purchasing meat at supermarkets instead of live animal markets. Very few participants considered wearing a mask 1% or gloves  1%) while visiting the markets. Discussion Used was a novel human surveillance approach to integrate serological and behavioural data to characterize associations between human-animal contact and zoonotic disease spill over risk in Southern China. This study provides the first serological evidence of bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV transmission to people and highlights potential spill over pathways through animal contact. Given the high diversity and recombination rate of bat coronaviruses , and close relationship of SARSr-CoVs to SARS-CoV, it is possible that exposure to these coronaviruses may lead to disease emergence in human populations. Continuous surveillance of both human and bat populations, as well as further pathogenesis studies of these viruses, are important to determine the extent of the disease risk.Contact with animals was prevalent among the survey population. Raising poultry and having rodents/shrews in the house were the most common types of contact. It’s important to note that the questionnaire used broad classification of the type of animals for these exposures due to the presumed variability in respondent’s capacity to identify species or genera of wildlife. It is likely that the most significant exposure we identified (to carnivores) reflects animals as diverse as civets, porcupines, ferret badgers and taxas that respondents recognized as non-rodent and non-shrew. This study also assessed health risks from human interaction activities for each study participant in the survey based on their travel history and the health history of people who they lived with. The goal was to minimize the possibility that illness was caused by human-to-human transmission of pathogens causing ILI and/or SARI symptoms. researchers did not find evidence supporting a direct relationship between bat contact and bat coronavirus sero-positivity in the human population . However, there is frequent contact with domestic animals in these communities and it is known that other bat-borne viruses have been transmitted to humans via livestock (e.g. henipavirses and filoviruses). It is possible that these findings reflect other indirect exposures to bat CoVs, and future surveillance may benefit from including a wide range of livestock and peri-domestic animals in viral and serological studies to identify potential spill over pathways. While the majority of survey respondents believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals at wet markets, many did not take measures to protect themselves from exposure. Further work on what drives these local attitudes to risk may help in developing risk-mitigation behaviour change programs. A number of affordable and readily adaptable measures could be targeted to these at-risk populations, including the use of gloves and masks while killing or butchering animals, and handwashing. The low levels of sero-positivity found in the study could reflect a number of factors: the rarity of spill over and bat-to-human transmission, as has been reported for other virus-host systems the use of a snowball technique for sample selection that could have biased the population sampled the limited diversity of CoVs that this study tested for the possibility that these infections cause high mortality rates and therefore the number of survivors and number of seropositive people is low, although this seems unlikely because the mortality rate from SARS was >10% during an outbreak that included hospital exposure and therefore likely high infectious doses that antibodies to these viruses wane rapidly in humans. The latter hypothesis is supported by findings that antibodies to SARS decline rapidly (2–3 years) after illness. Expanding this approach to a larger population, using a longitudinal (repeated sampling) approach, and targeting people who are in the higher-risk categories identified here may provide a larger number of sero-positives and more critical information on the driving factors of viral spill over. However, despite the small sample sizes, this study suggests that there are a substantial number of people in rural Southern China who are exposed to bat-borne viruses, and that exposure likely occurs through the daily or normal practices of rural communities, rather than specific high-risk behaviours (e.g. wild animal hunting). Considering the proven potential of some SARSr-CoVs currently circulating in bats in southern China, to infect human cells, cause clinical signs in humanized mouse models, and lead to infections that cannot be treated with monoclonal therapies effective against SARS-CoV this represents a clear and present danger to our biosafety and public health. Further studies to determine the relationship between SARSr-CoV and HKU10-CoV exposure and illness in people may help elucidate this risk and provide critical mitigation strategies. What About the Bats? Bat populations in China appear to have decreased considerably in the last 30 years. China has a rich bat fauna, with 100 species described and taxonomic research on bats has increased in the last 2 decades. Four reasons may have been responsible: Extensive pesticide use has resulted in bioaccumulation in bats, reducing their survival Many old buildings were demolished during urbanization, reducing the availability of suitable roost sites People often include bats in their diet, and bats are served in restaurants. We make recommendations for improving bat conservation in China. Education programmes about bat conservation should be provided for adults and schoolchildren, and laws for protecting bats need to be enacted and enforced. The roosting sites of bats should be protected comprehensively, and pesticide use should be regulated Cave exploitation for tourism has changed the atmosphere and temperature in caves,disturbing bats directly The flow of visitors causes fluctuations in carbon dioxide content and temperature, and cave topography and dimensions affect the accumulation and diffusion of the gas, disturbing bats directly for example, the maximum CO2 content increased from 1,000 to 7,000 ppm in the chamber in Baiyun Cave, Hebei, after c. 3,000 people visited for 5 hours, and the temperature increased from 16.8 to 19.6. The effects of disturbance on bats and other cave fauna have seldom been studied in China. Lighting schemes have been installed for visitors without any consideration of the effects on bats and other cave animals, paths have been constructed, and gates at cave entrances for managing visitors are often unsuitable for flying bats to negotiate. The population of fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti in Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province, for example, decreased from c. 5,000 to 2,000 after cave tourism was implemented in 1993. Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province Based on surveys of bats in China, combined with enquiries to local people, we estimate that the bat population may have decreased by 60% in the last 30 years. Bats provide important ecosystem services, pollinating plants, dispersing seeds and controlling pests. However many people in China regard bats as vermin because some species feed on economically important fruits, such as longan and litchi. Bats are also regarded as nefarious animals because they fly in the dark. Before the emergence of the SARS virus many restaurants in Guangzhou and other cities in south China offered bats, and live bats were also sold in markets. In some remote villages our surveys have repeatedly revealed that local people capture wild bats to eat, to meet their protein requirements. We have also found bamboo wattles, used to kill bats, in caves. There are additional factors causing decreases of bat populations in China. Many forests were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) and vast steel-making and iron-smelting facilities were established, resulting in the loss of many roosting sites and foraging areas. Recently, many small paper mills have been built, resulting in the clear-cutting of forests and their replacement with the fast growing eucalypts that are preferred by the mills. We have found that many limestone hills excavated to make cement have lost their bat-roosting caves. No bat species are included in the lists of wildlife under special state protection (1989 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife), and no nature reserves protect bat species or their roost sites. The 2019-nCoV outbreak is another reminder that people should limit the consumption of wild animals to prevent zoonotic infections. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the change in wildlife? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
A coronavirus that originated in Wuhan, China, has killed 132 people, 6000 people are proven infected with the coronavirus and from aabout 10.000 people it is expected they carry the Coronavirus (Wednesday, 29-01-2020). The Coronavirus is a zoonotic disease, meaning it jumps from animals to humans.  The Coronivirus: What Was The Intermediate Host The SARS coronavirus, which killed 774 people in the early 2000s, jumped from bats to civets to people. The Wuhan coronavirus is also thought to have originated in bats, which may have passed the disease to snakes, which then passed it to humans. Snakes Could Be the Original Source of the New Coronavirus Outbreak in China. A study of the virus’s genetic sequence suggests similarities to that seen in snakes, but is it? SARS and MERS: The Bat, The Masked Palm Civet And Camels Both SARS and MERS are classified as zoonotic viral diseases, meaning the first patients who were infected acquired these viruses directly from animals. This was possible because while in the animal host, the virus had acquired a series of genetic mutations that allowed it to infect and multiply inside humans. How do docters test for SARS? Lab tests to detect SARS virus include a blood test, a nasal swab or a sample from your stool or urine, or growing the virus in culture. Now these viruses can be transmitted from person to person. Field studies have revealed that the original source of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is the bat, and that the masked palm civets (a mammal native to Asia and Africa) and camels, respectively, served as intermediate hosts between bats and humans. How do you test for MERS? Molecular Tests Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays are molecular tests that can be used to detect viral RNA in clinical samples. ... Most state laboratories in the United States are approved to test for MERS-CoV by using an rRT-PCR assay developed by CDC. From Bats To Snakes: The Wuhan Market In the case of this 2019 coronavirus outbreak, reports state that most of the first group of patients hospitalized were workers or customers at a local seafood wholesale market which also sold processed meats and live consumable animals including: poultry, donkeys, sheep, pigs, camels, foxes, badgers, bamboo rats, hedgehogs and reptiles. However, since no one has ever reported finding a coronavirus infecting aquatic animals, it is plausible that the coronavirus may have originated from other animals sold in that market. The hypothesis that the 2019-nCoV jumped from an animal at the market is strongly supported by a new publication in the Journal of Medical Virology. The scientists conducted an analysis and compared the genetic sequences of 2019-nCoV and all other known coronaviruses. Chinese Ferret Badger The study of the genetic code of 2019-nCoV reveals that the new virus is most closely related to two bat SARS-like coronavirus samples from China, initially suggesting that, like SARS and MERS, the bat might also be the origin of 2019-nCoV. The authors further found that the DNA coding sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, which forms the ‘crown’ of the virus particle that recognizes the receptor on a host cell, indicates that the bat virus might have mutated before infecting people. But when the researchers performed a more detailed bioinformatics analysis of the sequence of 2019-nCoV, it suggests that this coronavirus might come from snakes. Recommended:  Coronavirus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection? Coronavirus: Protein Codes From Snakes The researchers used an analysis of the protein codes favoured by the new coronavirus and compared it to the protein codes from coronaviruses found in different animal hosts, like birds, snakes, marmots, hedgehogs, manis, bats and humans. Surprisingly, they found that the protein codes in the 2019-nCoV are most similar to those used in snakes. What does a gene code for a protein? The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. ... The type of RNA that contains the information for making a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.                                                   Snakes Hunt Bats In A Cave | Planet Earth | BBC Earth Snakes often hunt for bats in wild . Reports indicate that snakes were sold in the local seafood market in Wuhan, raising the possibility that the 2019-nCoV might have jumped from the host species—bats—to snakes and then to humans at the beginning of this coronavirus outbreak. However, how the virus could adapt to both the cold-blooded and warm-blooded hosts remains a mystery. Researchers must verify the origin of the virus through laboratory experiments. Searching for the 2019-nCoV sequence in snakes would be the first thing to do. However, since the outbreak, the seafood market has been disinfected and shut down, which makes it challenging to trace the new virus’ source animal. Sampling DNA from animals sold at the market and from wild snakes and bats is needed to confirm the origin of the virus. Nonetheless, the reported findings will also provide insights for developing prevention and treatment protocols. Recommended:  Coronavirus: Bill Gates, 65 Million Death In A Simulation Coronavirus And Sars: Passed From Animals To Humans In a Wet Market The coronavirus spreading in China and the SARS outbreak of 2003 have two things in common: Both are from the coronavirus family and both were passed from animals to humans in a wet market. Poorly regulated live-animal markets mixed with illegal wildlife trade offer a unique opportunity for viruses to spill over from wildlife hosts into the human population. In the case of SARS, and probably this coronavirus outbreak too, bats were the original hosts. They then infected other animals via their poop or saliva, and the unwitting intermediaries transmitted the virus to humans. What does zoonotic mean? Zoonosis is another name for a zoonotic disease. This type of disease passes from an animal or insect to a human. Some don't make the animal sick but will sicken a human. Zoonotic diseases range from minor short-term illness to a major life-changing illness. Certain ones can even cause death. Chinese 'wet market'.  Bats & Birds: Reservoir Species For Viruses Bats and birds are considered reservoir species for viruses with pandemic potential according Bart Haagmans, a virologist at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands. In the past 45 years, at least three other pandemics (besides SARS) have been traced back to bats. The creatures were the original source of Ebola, which has killed 13,500 people in multiple outbreaks since 1976: Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, better known as MERS, which can be found in 28 countries The Nipah virus, which has a 78% fatality rate The coronavirus might have jumped from bats to snakes to people Not all coronaviruses are deadly, the ones endemic to humans, like the common cold, are often considered inconsequential. The coronaviruses that pose a pandemic risk, however, are those that hang out in animals. Because these viruses have not been circulating in humans before, specific immunity to these viruses is absent in humans. Coronavirus: Wuhan The coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan has so far killed (Wednesday, the 29th of January 2020) 132 people and infected more than 6.000 with the Coronaviris and 10.000 expected to carry the Coronavirus. Experts haven’t yet confirmed the animal species that enabled it to spread to people, but they have some guesses. Scientists in China compared the genetic code of the Wuhan coronavirus to other coronaviruses and found it to be most similar to two bat coronavirus samples. Coronaviris via The Chinese Cobra? There’s an indication that it’s a bat virus said Vincent Munster, a scientist at Rocky Mountain Laboratories. According to a group of scientists who edit the Journal of Medical Virology, the intermediary species in this case could be the Chinese cobra. How do Coronaviruses spread? Coronaviruses primarily spread through close contact with another individual, in particular through coughing and sneezing on somebody else who is within a range of about 3 to 6 feet from that person. If an infected person sneezes or coughs onto a surface a countertop, for example  and another person touches that surface and then rubs his or her eyes or nose, for example, the latter may get sick. That’s because further genetic analysis showed that the genetic building blocks of the Wuhan coronavirus closely resembled that of snakes. So the researchers think a population of bats could have infected snakes, which passed the virus to humans as they were being sold at the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market in Wuhan. But the only way to be sure about where the virus came from is to take DNA samples from animals sold at that market and from wild snakes and bats in the area. Why Bats Pose Such A Threat Bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than other mammals, according to a 2017 study. Experts think that’s because bats can fly across large geographical ranges, transporting diseases as they go. That makes them an ideal host.  Bats pass along viruses in their poop: If they drop feces onto a piece of fruit that a different animal then eats, the creature can become a carrier. We know a fair amount of viruses on the World Health Organization’s Blueprint list of priority diseases have either a direct or indirect link with bats,” Munster said. (The list includes the SARS and MERS viruses.) Last March, a study even predicted that bats could be the source of a new coronavirus outbreak in China. It is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China. That’s because: The majority of coronaviruses – those that circulate both in humans and in animals – can be found in China Plus, the study authors said, most of the bat hosts of these coronaviruses live near humans in China, potentially transmitting viruses to humans and livestock The bat population from which the SARS virus originated, for example, lived in a cave just over 1 kilometre, or about half a mile, from the nearest village Similarly, a 2017 study warned that the risk of spill over into people and emergence of a disease similar to SARS is possible. The authors identified at least 300 separate strains of coronaviruses still circulating in bats. How SARS, MERS And Ebola Jumped From Bats To People Here are five viruses that most likely came from bats, and how the outbreaks compare. Researchers traced SARS to a population of horseshoe bats in China’s Yunnan province. Humans caught it from weasel-like mammals called masked palm civets at a wet market in Guangdong From 2002 to 2003, SARS killed 774 people across 29 countries and infected more than 8,000. Patients experienced fevers, headaches, and a type of deadly pneumonia that could cause respiratory failure MERS, similarly, passed from bats to dromedary camels in the Middle East. That coronavirus circulated in the camel population undetected for decades before jumping to humans in 2012. So far, 858 people have died in 28 countries from the illness, which comes with fever, cough, and shortness of breath In Southeast Asia, fruit bats were the original hosts of the deadly Nipah virus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998 and then again in India in 2001. The bats passed it to farmed pigs, which gave it to people. Patients experienced headaches and vomiting; many slipped into a coma and died Fruit bats in Africa have played a major role in Ebola outbreaks since 1976. The worst Ebola outbreak in history, however, came from a population of long-fingered bats. More than 11,000 people were killed from 2013 to 2016. Fruit Bat How To Prevent Zoonotic Diseases Like The Coronavirus From Spilling Over To People? At wet markets, the close proximity of shoppers to stall vendors and live and dead animals creates a prime breeding ground for zoonotic diseases. For cultural reasons in the region, people want to see the specific animals they’re buying be slaughtered in front of them, so they know they’re receiving the products they paid for,” according to Emily Langdon, an infectious disease specialist at University of Chicago Medicine. That means there’s a lot of skinning of dead animals in front of shoppers and, as a result, aerosolizing of all sorts of things. The most likely virus that might cause a new pandemic would be a coronavirus. We’re in an age of epidemics because: of globalization of encroachment on wild environments Human Health And Climate Change Climate change produced many harmful effects on human health in Central China. The cardiovascu-lar mortalities increased year by year in Wuhan from 1998 to 2008. And the morbidity was highest in winter and lowest in summer. The increasing frequency and intensity of summer heat waves resulted in the increased risk of summer cardiovascular, respiratory system diseases and heat stroke. The regional precipitation became uneven in Central China, which caused more floods and increased risk of infectious diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and conjunctivitis. The incidence of intestinal infectious diseases increased from 66.04% to 80.97% in Hubei during 1991–1997. Climate Change Helped Snails Survive The Winter Season  Behavioural risks that leads to the emergence of bat coronaviruses in humans Bat borne coronaviruses have caused several emerging infectious disease outbreaks of global significance, including SARS. Novel SARS-related coronaviruses have been discovered in bat populations in Southern China, some of which have the capacity to infect human cells Human-animal interactions are thought to be critical for the emergence of bat coronaviruses, however the specific interactions linked to animal-to-human spill over remain unknown. Coronaviris: New Findings This study found serological evidence for bat-borne coronavirus transmission to people. Direct contact with bats was not identified as a risk factor. However, self-reported severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and/or influenza-like illness (ILI) was linked to human interaction with other wildlife and livestock, suggesting that there may be other zoonotic exposures leading to clinical illness in these populations. Vendors wait for customers as dogs are kept in a cage at Dashichang dog market ahead of a local dog meat festival in Yulin, Guangxi Autonomous Region Human interaction with animals has been implicated as a primary risk factor for several high impact zoonoses, including many bat-origin viral diseases. However the animal-to-human spill over events that lead to emerging diseases are rarely observed or clinically examined, and the link between specific interactions and spill over risk is poorly understood. To investigate this phenomenon, researchers conducted biological-behavioural surveillance among rural residents in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong districts of Southern China, where we have identified a number of SARS-related coronaviruses in bats. Serum samples were tested for four bat-borne coronaviruses using newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Survey data were used to characterize associations between human-animal contact and bat coronavirus spill over risk. Coronavirus From Animals To Humans A total of 1,596 residents were enrolled in the study from 2015 to 2017 Nine participants (0.6%) tested positive for bat coronaviruses . 265 (17%) participants reported severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and/or influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms in the past year, which were associated with poultry, carnivore, rodent/shrew, or bat contact, with variability by family income and district of residence. This study provides serological evidence of bat coronavirus spill over in rural communities in Southern China. The low seroprevalence observed in this study suggests that bat coronavirus spill over is a rare event. Nonetheless, this study highlights associations between human-animal interaction and zoonotic spill over risk. These findings can be used to support targeted biological behavioural surveillance in high-risk geographic areas in order to reduce the risk of zoonotic disease emergence. Interaction Between Humans And Animals A health Risk? In the highly biodiverse southern region of China, interactions among humans, wildlife, and livestock are likely to be common, and are hypothesized to be a risk factor in the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Human-animal interactions may pose a particular public health threat in rural communities where frequent contact with animals occurs and where disease prevention measures are likely less well-developed. What is a hypothesis? In science, a hypothesis is an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. Outside science, a theory or guess can also be called a hypothesis. A hypothesis is something more than a wild guess but less than a well-established theory. Although human-animal interactions are thought to be associated with zoonotic disease emergence, few studies have addressed the nature of specific interactions that occur between animals (particularly wild animals) and humans that lead to pathogen spill over. Bats (order Chiroptera) are reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs) that have caused disease outbreaks in human and livestock populations Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the causative agent of the SARS outbreak affecting 32 countries in 2002-3, infecting 8,096 people and causing 774 deaths Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has caused 823 deaths from 2,374 human cases in 27 countries by the end of February 2019, and is thought to have originally spilled over from bats into camels , in which is it now endemic Severe acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) which emerged in the pig population of Southern China and caused the deaths of more than 20,000 piglets in 2017 and 2018 A large diversity of coronaviruses, including SARS-related Coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), has been discovered in bats, and phylogenetic and pathogenesis studies of these suggest a high capacity for transmission across species barriers. However, few studies have analysed bat-to-human spill over events in non-outbreak conditions, likely due to the rarity of these events and difficulties in identifying at-risk populations or target geographies. Additionally, the symptoms of novel bat coronavirus infection in the human population may not be clinically recognized at the time of emergence as a result of a lack of adequate surveillance or confusion with other diseases. This represents a significant biosafety risk considering the large and increasing number of coronaviruses discovered in bats and the wide distribution of bat populations in rural regions such as Southern China. We report on a study designed to characterize the bat coronavirus spill over potential associated with presumed high-risk human behaviour in rural communities of Southern China. Human Populations Close To bats And Wildlife A cross-sectional study was done in the districts of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong, China, which are known for their high levels of wildlife biodiversity, active wildlife trade activity, and historic zoonotic disease emergence events. Eight study sites were selected in areas where we have previously reported diverse coronaviruses in bat populations roosting close (within 5 km) to human dwellings. The study targeted human populations that are highly exposed to bats and other wildlife, including people who visit or work around bat caves, work in local live animal markets, raise animals, or are involved in wildlife trade (e.g., wild animal harvest, trade, transportation, and preparation), as identified by previous exploratory ethnographic interviews. Recruitment and sampling We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 400 participants from each of the three districts (Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong), for a total sample size of over 1,200 participants. A snowball sampling method was used because the population size at selected sites and the people who were highly exposed to wild animals were difficult to elucidate. Results From October 2015 to July 2017, a total of 1,596 residents from eight sites in Yunnan (n=761), Guangxi (n=412), and Guangdong (n=423) provinces were enrolled in this study. Of these, 1,585 participants completed the questionnaires and 11 participants withdrew from the questionnaire interview due to scheduling reasons. After the interviews, 1,497 participants provided biological samples for lab analysis. Demographics More female (62%) than male (38%) community members participated in this study. Most participants were adults over 45 years old (69%) and had been living in the community for more than 5 years (97%) with their family members (95%). A majority (86%) relied on a comparatively low family annual per capita income less than 10,000 RMB which is below the national mean for per capita disposable income of rural households from 2015 to 2017 (11,422 - 13,432 RMB). Most participants (98%) had not received a college education and were making a living in crop production (76%). 9% of participants frequently traveled outside the county as migrant laborers. Some participants were working in sectors where frequent human-animal contact occurs, such as the animal production business (1.7%), wild animal trade (0.5%), slaughterhouses or abattoirs (0.5%), protected nature reserve rangers (0.4%) or in wildlife restaurants (0.3%). It was common for participants to have multiple part-time jobs as income sources (Table 1) Animal contact and exposure to bat Coronaviruses Serological testing of serum samples from 1,497 local residents revealed that 9 individuals (0.6%) in four study sites were positive for bat coronaviruses, indicating exposure at some point in their life to bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV or other coronaviruses that are phylogenetically closely related to these. All individuals who tested positive (male=6, female=3) were over 45 years old, and most (n=8) were making a living from crop production. None of those participants reported any symptoms in the 12 months preceding the interview. Due to the low rate of sero-positivity, we did not obtain robust results from the statistical comparisons of animal-contact behaviour by coronavirus outcome. Among the 1,585 participants who responded, 265 (17%) reported experiencing SARI (n = 73) and/or ILI (n = 227) symptoms in the last year. Some demographic variables were associated with self-reported SARI and/or ILI symptoms as either independent or interactive terms. For example, respondents aged 41 to 60 and residents of Yunnan province were less likely to report symptoms. Slaughtering poultry was positively associated with the outcome only in Guangxi residents, whereas the association was negative in Guangdong residents. Family income also showed interactions, with family income less than 10,000 RMB being positively associated with the outcome in respondents who raised poultry but negatively associated in respondents who cooked or handled poultry. Gender was not found to be salient in either direction. Attitudes towards zoonotic diseases emergence When asked about animals and disease transmission, more than half of the study participants believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals at wet markets. Of those worried about disease emergence, 46% purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months. Among all participants who purchased animals from wet markets in the past 12 months 32%), some  39% took protection measures or strategies such as washing hands, purchasing live animals less often 30%, or purchasing meat at supermarkets instead of live animal markets. Very few participants considered wearing a mask 1% or gloves  1%) while visiting the markets. Discussion Used was a novel human surveillance approach to integrate serological and behavioural data to characterize associations between human-animal contact and zoonotic disease spill over risk in Southern China. This study provides the first serological evidence of bat-borne SARSr-CoVs and HKU10-CoV transmission to people and highlights potential spill over pathways through animal contact. Given the high diversity and recombination rate of bat coronaviruses , and close relationship of SARSr-CoVs to SARS-CoV, it is possible that exposure to these coronaviruses may lead to disease emergence in human populations. Continuous surveillance of both human and bat populations, as well as further pathogenesis studies of these viruses, are important to determine the extent of the disease risk.Contact with animals was prevalent among the survey population. Raising poultry and having rodents/shrews in the house were the most common types of contact. It’s important to note that the questionnaire used broad classification of the type of animals for these exposures due to the presumed variability in respondent’s capacity to identify species or genera of wildlife. It is likely that the most significant exposure we identified (to carnivores) reflects animals as diverse as civets, porcupines, ferret badgers and taxas that respondents recognized as non-rodent and non-shrew. This study also assessed health risks from human interaction activities for each study participant in the survey based on their travel history and the health history of people who they lived with. The goal was to minimize the possibility that illness was caused by human-to-human transmission of pathogens causing ILI and/or SARI symptoms. researchers did not find evidence supporting a direct relationship between bat contact and bat coronavirus sero-positivity in the human population . However, there is frequent contact with domestic animals in these communities and it is known that other bat-borne viruses have been transmitted to humans via livestock (e.g. henipavirses and filoviruses). It is possible that these findings reflect other indirect exposures to bat CoVs, and future surveillance may benefit from including a wide range of livestock and peri-domestic animals in viral and serological studies to identify potential spill over pathways. While the majority of survey respondents believed that animals could spread disease and were worried about disease emergence from animals at wet markets, many did not take measures to protect themselves from exposure. Further work on what drives these local attitudes to risk may help in developing risk-mitigation behaviour change programs. A number of affordable and readily adaptable measures could be targeted to these at-risk populations, including the use of gloves and masks while killing or butchering animals, and handwashing. The low levels of sero-positivity found in the study could reflect a number of factors: the rarity of spill over and bat-to-human transmission, as has been reported for other virus-host systems the use of a snowball technique for sample selection that could have biased the population sampled the limited diversity of CoVs that this study tested for the possibility that these infections cause high mortality rates and therefore the number of survivors and number of seropositive people is low, although this seems unlikely because the mortality rate from SARS was >10% during an outbreak that included hospital exposure and therefore likely high infectious doses that antibodies to these viruses wane rapidly in humans. The latter hypothesis is supported by findings that antibodies to SARS decline rapidly (2–3 years) after illness. Expanding this approach to a larger population, using a longitudinal (repeated sampling) approach, and targeting people who are in the higher-risk categories identified here may provide a larger number of sero-positives and more critical information on the driving factors of viral spill over. However, despite the small sample sizes, this study suggests that there are a substantial number of people in rural Southern China who are exposed to bat-borne viruses, and that exposure likely occurs through the daily or normal practices of rural communities, rather than specific high-risk behaviours (e.g. wild animal hunting). Considering the proven potential of some SARSr-CoVs currently circulating in bats in southern China, to infect human cells, cause clinical signs in humanized mouse models, and lead to infections that cannot be treated with monoclonal therapies effective against SARS-CoV this represents a clear and present danger to our biosafety and public health. Further studies to determine the relationship between SARSr-CoV and HKU10-CoV exposure and illness in people may help elucidate this risk and provide critical mitigation strategies. What About the Bats? Bat populations in China appear to have decreased considerably in the last 30 years. China has a rich bat fauna, with 100 species described and taxonomic research on bats has increased in the last 2 decades. Four reasons may have been responsible: Extensive pesticide use has resulted in bioaccumulation in bats, reducing their survival Many old buildings were demolished during urbanization, reducing the availability of suitable roost sites People often include bats in their diet, and bats are served in restaurants. We make recommendations for improving bat conservation in China. Education programmes about bat conservation should be provided for adults and schoolchildren, and laws for protecting bats need to be enacted and enforced. The roosting sites of bats should be protected comprehensively, and pesticide use should be regulated Cave exploitation for tourism has changed the atmosphere and temperature in caves,disturbing bats directly The flow of visitors causes fluctuations in carbon dioxide content and temperature, and cave topography and dimensions affect the accumulation and diffusion of the gas, disturbing bats directly for example, the maximum CO2 content increased from 1,000 to 7,000 ppm in the chamber in Baiyun Cave, Hebei, after c. 3,000 people visited for 5 hours, and the temperature increased from 16.8 to 19.6. The effects of disturbance on bats and other cave fauna have seldom been studied in China. Lighting schemes have been installed for visitors without any consideration of the effects on bats and other cave animals, paths have been constructed, and gates at cave entrances for managing visitors are often unsuitable for flying bats to negotiate. The population of fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti in Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province, for example, decreased from c. 5,000 to 2,000 after cave tourism was implemented in 1993. Yiling Cave in Guangxi Province Based on surveys of bats in China, combined with enquiries to local people, we estimate that the bat population may have decreased by 60% in the last 30 years. Bats provide important ecosystem services, pollinating plants, dispersing seeds and controlling pests. However many people in China regard bats as vermin because some species feed on economically important fruits, such as longan and litchi. Bats are also regarded as nefarious animals because they fly in the dark. Before the emergence of the SARS virus many restaurants in Guangzhou and other cities in south China offered bats, and live bats were also sold in markets. In some remote villages our surveys have repeatedly revealed that local people capture wild bats to eat, to meet their protein requirements. We have also found bamboo wattles, used to kill bats, in caves. There are additional factors causing decreases of bat populations in China. Many forests were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) and vast steel-making and iron-smelting facilities were established, resulting in the loss of many roosting sites and foraging areas. Recently, many small paper mills have been built, resulting in the clear-cutting of forests and their replacement with the fast growing eucalypts that are preferred by the mills. We have found that many limestone hills excavated to make cement have lost their bat-roosting caves. No bat species are included in the lists of wildlife under special state protection (1989 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife), and no nature reserves protect bat species or their roost sites. The 2019-nCoV outbreak is another reminder that people should limit the consumption of wild animals to prevent zoonotic infections. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about the change in wildlife? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis
Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis
Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years
It works like a rechargeable battery, which is charged by the sun.  A major discovery in the field of solar fuel could make it possible to store solar energy for years to come. It is hard to believe that we are still using fossil fuels that contribute to climate change.  Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel: Sunlight In A Bottle? We have a sun bombing our planet daily with abundant, clean, renewable energy. However, fossil fuels do have an often overlooked advantage over solar energy, which has long prevented solar energy from really popping up: they are fuel.  Solar energy, for all its benefits, does not come in the form of fuel, which essentially means it cannot be stored easily. Solar energy? What is it exactly? Solar energy, radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. The total amount of solar energy incident on Earth is vastly in excess of the world's current and anticipated energy requirements This could now all change, following a breakthrough in the development of a fuel that can capture and save the sun's energy. Scientists say that this fuel can store that energy for up to 18 years, reports NBC. Recommended:  Sun And Wind? Energy Generated From Temperature Fluctuations Call it 'sunlight in a bottle'. Researchers in Sweden have detected a specialised liquid that operates like a rechargeable battery. The sunlight shines on the device, and the fluid absorbs it. At a later stage, that energy can be released as heat by merely adding a catalyst. This remarkable discovery could be how we power our homes by 2030. {youtube}                                               Storing the Sun's Energy in Liquid Could Change Solar Forever                                               Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years Solar Energy: How To Get Sunlight In And Heat Out? "A solar thermal fuel is like a rechargeable battery, but instead of electricity, you put sunlight in and get heat out, triggered on demand," explained Jeffrey Grossman, who is in charge of the MIT lab working on the project.  It is incredibly easy. The liquid consists of a molecule of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen that reacts to the presence of sunlight by shifting its atomic bonds. The particle, fundamentally, transforms the molecule into a cage that "captures" the energy of the sun. Surprisingly enough, this energy content is retained even after the liquid itself has cooled to room temperature. Recommended:  Solar And Battery-Based Generator: Electricity Anywhere To release the energy, pass the liquid over a cobalt-containing catalyst, returning the molecules to their original form. As a result: energy from sunlight comes from the cage as heat. "And when we come to extract the energy and use it, we get a warmth increase which is greater than we dared to hope for," says Kasper Moth-Poulsen, one of the team members. How does the sun interact with the earth? The sun, earth, and moon are held together by gravity, and they interact in lots of ways. The moon orbits the earth because of the pull of the earth. And the earth orbits the sun because of the pull of the sun. Because of the way they move relative to each other, we see phases and eclipses Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years: A Rechargeable Device That Does Not Lose Capacity Early results have shown that once the liquid has passed by the catalyst, it heats up with 113 degrees Fahrenheit. But researchers believe that with the right mixes they can elevate the output to 230 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Noted today, the system can double the power capacity of Tesla's reputed Powerwall batteries. This has drawn the attention of countless investors.  Even better, researchers have tested the liquid through as many as 125 cycles. The particle has shown almost no degradation. In short, it is a rechargeable battery that continues to take charge without losing much capacity over many applications. Recommended:  Solar Powered Sea Slugs Shed Light On Perpetual Green Energy Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel: What Is It Being Used For? How much energy hits the earth from the sun? In a single hour, the amount of power from the sun that strikes the Earth is more than the entire world consumes in an year. To put that in numbers: Each hour 430 quintillion Joules of energy from the sun hits the Earth. That's 430 with 18 zeroes after it! The technology is intended to be applied for domestic heating systems, like powering a building's water heater, dishwasher, dryer, etc. Since the energy comes in the form of fuel, it can be stored and used even when the sun is not shining. It should also be possible to transport energy through pipes or trucks.  If everything goes as planned - and it seems to be going much better than expected so far - researchers estimate that the technology could be available for commercial use within ten years. Given the rapidly escalating climate change crisis, this could not happen fast enough. Before you go! Recommended:  Gravitricity: Fast, Versatile Energy Storage Solution, UK Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about energy storage? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
It works like a rechargeable battery, which is charged by the sun.  A major discovery in the field of solar fuel could make it possible to store solar energy for years to come. It is hard to believe that we are still using fossil fuels that contribute to climate change.  Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel: Sunlight In A Bottle? We have a sun bombing our planet daily with abundant, clean, renewable energy. However, fossil fuels do have an often overlooked advantage over solar energy, which has long prevented solar energy from really popping up: they are fuel.  Solar energy, for all its benefits, does not come in the form of fuel, which essentially means it cannot be stored easily. Solar energy? What is it exactly? Solar energy, radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. The total amount of solar energy incident on Earth is vastly in excess of the world's current and anticipated energy requirements This could now all change, following a breakthrough in the development of a fuel that can capture and save the sun's energy. Scientists say that this fuel can store that energy for up to 18 years, reports NBC. Recommended:  Sun And Wind? Energy Generated From Temperature Fluctuations Call it 'sunlight in a bottle'. Researchers in Sweden have detected a specialised liquid that operates like a rechargeable battery. The sunlight shines on the device, and the fluid absorbs it. At a later stage, that energy can be released as heat by merely adding a catalyst. This remarkable discovery could be how we power our homes by 2030. {youtube}                                               Storing the Sun's Energy in Liquid Could Change Solar Forever                                               Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years Solar Energy: How To Get Sunlight In And Heat Out? "A solar thermal fuel is like a rechargeable battery, but instead of electricity, you put sunlight in and get heat out, triggered on demand," explained Jeffrey Grossman, who is in charge of the MIT lab working on the project.  It is incredibly easy. The liquid consists of a molecule of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen that reacts to the presence of sunlight by shifting its atomic bonds. The particle, fundamentally, transforms the molecule into a cage that "captures" the energy of the sun. Surprisingly enough, this energy content is retained even after the liquid itself has cooled to room temperature. Recommended:  Solar And Battery-Based Generator: Electricity Anywhere To release the energy, pass the liquid over a cobalt-containing catalyst, returning the molecules to their original form. As a result: energy from sunlight comes from the cage as heat. "And when we come to extract the energy and use it, we get a warmth increase which is greater than we dared to hope for," says Kasper Moth-Poulsen, one of the team members. How does the sun interact with the earth? The sun, earth, and moon are held together by gravity, and they interact in lots of ways. The moon orbits the earth because of the pull of the earth. And the earth orbits the sun because of the pull of the sun. Because of the way they move relative to each other, we see phases and eclipses Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years: A Rechargeable Device That Does Not Lose Capacity Early results have shown that once the liquid has passed by the catalyst, it heats up with 113 degrees Fahrenheit. But researchers believe that with the right mixes they can elevate the output to 230 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Noted today, the system can double the power capacity of Tesla's reputed Powerwall batteries. This has drawn the attention of countless investors.  Even better, researchers have tested the liquid through as many as 125 cycles. The particle has shown almost no degradation. In short, it is a rechargeable battery that continues to take charge without losing much capacity over many applications. Recommended:  Solar Powered Sea Slugs Shed Light On Perpetual Green Energy Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel: What Is It Being Used For? How much energy hits the earth from the sun? In a single hour, the amount of power from the sun that strikes the Earth is more than the entire world consumes in an year. To put that in numbers: Each hour 430 quintillion Joules of energy from the sun hits the Earth. That's 430 with 18 zeroes after it! The technology is intended to be applied for domestic heating systems, like powering a building's water heater, dishwasher, dryer, etc. Since the energy comes in the form of fuel, it can be stored and used even when the sun is not shining. It should also be possible to transport energy through pipes or trucks.  If everything goes as planned - and it seems to be going much better than expected so far - researchers estimate that the technology could be available for commercial use within ten years. Given the rapidly escalating climate change crisis, this could not happen fast enough. Before you go! Recommended:  Gravitricity: Fast, Versatile Energy Storage Solution, UK Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about energy storage? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years
Solar Energy Turned Into Liquid Fuel Can Be Stored 18 Years
Coronavirus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable Update Wednesday, the 29th of January 2020: 132 People died, 6.000 people are proven infected, 10.000 people are expected to carry the Coronavirus. A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. Monday (27th-01-2020) a 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Rreplicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. The World Health Organization (WHO) has invited people to participate in a live Q&A with expert Dr Maria Van Kerkhove on Twitter. Van Kerkhove said that, while it was confirmed that this was a 'new' coronavirus, it was still being investigated whether it was transmitted from an animal. She added that currently there were cases in 16 countries other than China. Click on: Twitter World Health Organisation For Live Updates How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus that has claimed 132 lives - mostly - in Wuhan (Wednesday 29th of January 2020), China, may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China, AFP’s Hong Kong correspondent reports. Read The Latest Updates On: Coronavirus Worldwide Breaking News Updates Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind Coronavirus outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate." Coronavirus What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. China has confirmed that it is dealing with a total of 6.000 cases of coronavirus nationally and 10.000 people carrying the Coronavirus. The death toll stays (Wednesday the 29th of January 2020) at 132. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission. (Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Mallaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau, Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal, Tibet, Shri Lanka, US, Uk, Germany, France (Paris and Bordeaux), United Arab Emirates and Australia. Many health workers have also been infected and one docter died. It has now spread to various places in China, including Beijing and Shanghai. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province on Jan 5. He said on Monday that a Chinese woman found infected with a new strain of coronavirus was in quarantine and being treated in Nonthaburi province. {youtube}                                       Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                                  Coronavirus spread is ‘accelerating’ says China as death toll rises to 56 How do you catch coronavirus? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. How long does the coronavirus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan. Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain. Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
No one will be surprised to hear that there is a worryingly wide range of problems associated with climate change. From extreme weather events to melting ice caps and the extinction of animal species - these have all been well-researched to fall somewhere in the range of ‘likely’ to ‘highly probable’. Perhaps not as obvious is the suddenly rise of the Corona virus and the flu, as a direct result of climate change. How does that even work?  Coronavirus And Climate Change: Winter And Traveling Makes People More Vurnerable Update Wednesday, the 29th of January 2020: 132 People died, 6.000 people are proven infected, 10.000 people are expected to carry the Coronavirus. A worker in protective mask disinfects a waiting hall at the Nanjing Railway Station, in Nanjing NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak. Top microbiologist states golden window of containment was missed, cost of containment escalating dramatically, virus takes 2-3mo to reach max strength, & morality rates will increase from here. Total scale of outbreak could reach 10x that of SARS. Till recently the Coronavirus mainly occured in vurnerable and elderly people. Monday (27th-01-2020) a 9-month-old baby is the youngest known patient infected with the deadly coronavirus sweeping across China, according to a report. The baby girl was among the 68 coronavirus cases detected in Beijing since the illness emerged last month in the city of Wuhan In order for this coronavirus, or any, to lead to a pandemic in humans, it needs to do three things: Efficiently infect humans Rreplicate in humans Spread  easily  among humans New Coronavirus Can Spread Person-to-Person Share your experiences We want to know about any additional measures you have encountered in airports in different countries following the coronavirus outbreak. Which airport were you travelling through and were people screened or asked to enter a different way? Do you feel that the measures were adequate? Please write or reply to this article at: WhatsOrb The new coronavirus that began sickening people in China late in 2019 can be transmitted from human to human, China’s health ministry announced last Monday. The mysterious respiratory illness emerged last month in a fish market in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, and officials thought it was mostly passed from animals to humans. Recommended:  Coronavirus From Bat To Snake To Humans: Fact Or Hypothesis However, Zhong Nanshan of China's National Health Commission said two people who lived hundreds of miles away caught the virus from a family member who had visited Wuhan. 5 Million residents had left Wuhan before it went into lockdown. This includes people who traveled for the lunar new year festival, as well as those who fled to escape the virus and impending shutdown. The World Health Organization (WHO) has invited people to participate in a live Q&A with expert Dr Maria Van Kerkhove on Twitter. Van Kerkhove said that, while it was confirmed that this was a 'new' coronavirus, it was still being investigated whether it was transmitted from an animal. She added that currently there were cases in 16 countries other than China. Click on: Twitter World Health Organisation For Live Updates How did the coronavirus start in China? Wuhan coronavirus may have been transmitted to people from snakes. A new coronavirus that has claimed 132 lives - mostly - in Wuhan (Wednesday 29th of January 2020), China, may have been transmitted to people from snakes or bats according to a genetic analysis. The snakes may have caught the virus from bats in the food market in which both animals were sold. The semi-autonomous region of Macau has imposed new restrictions on vistitors from mainland China, AFP’s Hong Kong correspondent reports. Read The Latest Updates On: Coronavirus Worldwide Breaking News Updates Is bat soup sold in Wuhan market in China behind Coronavirus outbreak? While nothing has been officially declared, experts feel that bat soup can be one of the reasons, as it is an unusual but widely consumed Chinese delicacy. In a statement, a scientist has mentioned, "The Wuhan Coronavirus, which can cause pneumonia, the natural host could be bats, but between bats and humans there may be an unknown intermediate." Coronavirus What is the coronavirus in humans? Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals, including humans. They are associated with the common cold, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and can also affect the gut. China has confirmed that it is dealing with a total of 6.000 cases of coronavirus nationally and 10.000 people carrying the Coronavirus. The death toll stays (Wednesday the 29th of January 2020) at 132. The current cases show there is definitely human-to-human transmission. (Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Mallaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Macau, Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal, Tibet, Shri Lanka, US, Uk, Germany, France (Paris and Bordeaux), United Arab Emirates and Australia. Many health workers have also been infected and one docter died. It has now spread to various places in China, including Beijing and Shanghai. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, second right, shows visitors from Wuhan receiving health screening at Suvarnabhumi airport in Samut Prakan province on Jan 5. He said on Monday that a Chinese woman found infected with a new strain of coronavirus was in quarantine and being treated in Nonthaburi province. {youtube}                                       Corona Virus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?                                  Coronavirus spread is ‘accelerating’ says China as death toll rises to 56 How do you catch coronavirus? Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do, through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person's hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched. The disease has also spread outside China: Two cases were diagnosed in Thailand, one in Japan, one in South Korea and one in Taiwan. The Philippines also reported a suspected case Tuesday and later in Nepal, the UK and France. There are fears the disease could spread further as millions are expected to travel throughout Asia Tuesday for the Lunar New Year. Airports in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco will begin screening passengers coming from Wuhan. The new virus has raised the specter of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus that killed almost 800 people in 2002 and 2003. Zhong, who also helped discover SARS, said the new disease was not as infectious, but was ‘climbing’. How long does the coronavirus live? How long does the virus survive in the environment? Outdoors, the virus can usually only survive for hours or days. Indoors, in dried-up cat litter, it can survive for up to seven weeks. This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS How contagious is the virus? It is too soon to know how easily the virus will spread. It is airborne and we know it can be transmitted between people. Chinese authorities have presented evidence of fourth-generation cases in Wuhan and second-generation infections outside of the city. Yesterday, the World Health Organization heard preliminary calculations for the average number of infections that each infected person may go on to cause, known as R0. This is estimated to be 1.4 to 2.5 people per infected person . In comparison, seasonal flu usually has an R0 of around 1.3. Coronavirus, Flu And Climate: The Corona Virus Has Been Underreported Researchers at Imperial College London also think the new virus has been severely underreported. Officials are also concerned that they do not yet know the exact source of the disease. What concerns me is the source of infection. They have no idea. That's the most important thing. At the moment, it is a bad flu. Yes, it is something to be concerned about and it is probably going to get worse in terms of infections and mortality, because it's winter. Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Virusses In Relation With Air Temperature And Relative Humidity Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Both were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days The slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. Expected humidity (%): 27/1-75, 28/1-70, 29/1-62, 30/1-62, 31/1-39. 1/2-58, 2/2-41, 3/2-33, 4/2-69, 5/2-70, 6/2-85, 7/2-89, 8/2-89. Temperature forecast Wuhan. Temperature year-round Wuhan. Climate Change And Flu Ironically, initial research seemed to point towards climate change actually benefitting our health. It was thought to be one of the few positives to a very negative, with fewer deaths to mourn as a result of respiratory illnesses. After all, those are common in colder areas, where flu gets to spread like a wildfire as the result of harsh winter days and poor ventilation. Warmer weather would, logically speaking, counteract this. Unfortunately, new research has cast doubt over this hypothesis. In a worrisome twist, some are now concerned that climate change could actually worsen pandemics. This has to do with the way in which viruses, including influenza and HIV, develop and spread. It has already been proven that certain strains of influenza, usually occurring in the winter, are now able to survive in warmer temperatures. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected What has also been found is that seasonal diseases like the influenza are rearing their ugly heads earlier in the year - all while being more powerful. There appears to be a strong link between warm winters and the consequent flu breakouts immediately after. Meaning, a warm winter with a mild flu season will usually trigger an earlier and more severe flu outbreak in the following year. 2020 on track to be worst US flu season in decades  This explains why these viruses have been found in Asia during their summer months, having been brought over by birds, who have been pushed further north by climate change and warmer winters. This allows them to come in contact with other bird species and, consequently, other forms of influenza. Together, this leads to poultry interchanging flu types and incubating new and potentially dangerous new strains. These feathered migrating creatures then hold the power of spreading these diseases over the world, with our regular influenza seeding in Southeast Asia before taking over the rest of the world in a miserable swoop during our winters. Recommended:  Global Cooling Will Kills Us All. No, Wait Global Warming Will Kill Us! Flu And Climate Change: Older Adults (Above 65 years) According to the CDC , people aged 65 and older are at a greater risk for serious complications from the flu. This is because the immune system typically weakens with age. Flu infection can also worsen long-term health conditions, like heart disease, lung disease, and asthma. Some of this has been contributed to the changing La Niña, an increase in the intensity and frequency of this weather phenomenon, causing different flu types to converge as a result of birds and animals that are normally not found together mixing. Not only does this lead to more creatures being infected, it also moulds influenza genetic material in new combinations. Flu And Climate Change: We Can’t Predict How Bad 2019th & 2020th Year’s Flu Season Will Be The outlook for 2019’s & 2020's flu season is not particularly rosy, based on the relatively mild 2018 season and warm winters. Yet it is nearly impossible to predict until we find ourselves in the midst of the epidemic - at which point there is not much to do but sit it out. And ‘sitting it out’ can be anything from a mild nuisance to a life-threatening event. The influenza illness, or the flu in short, is characterised by a sudden onset of a high fever, chills, muscle aches, tiredness and a dry cough - symptoms that get progressively worse over the first few days. Although most people infected will not require any medical attention, there are instances where high-risk groups, including the pregnant and elderly, could suffer from very dangerous complications. In 2018, the World Health Organisation characterised that year’s flu season as pretty mild. This characterisation is made based on the speed of circulation, the seriousness, and the impact of the  disease. So, in short, how fast it spreads, how many people are hospitalised or even die, and the strain it puts on hospitals and doctors. In 2017, on the other hand, there was a pretty serious outbreak, that started early and had a serious impact on society. And it looks as if 2019 is going to follow in its footsteps. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, Why Is It So Hard To Predict? The problem with making predictions regarding the severity of the flu season is the fact that there are actually four different types of viruses to consider, that can be categorised in influenza types A, with subtypes H1N1pdm09 and H3N2, and B, with lineages B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Although those at higher risk may choose to get vaccinated, these vaccinations only protect against certain of those (sub)types. What this means is that those vaccinated will not be fully covered against all types - nor will a previous infection with one type protect you against other types. Add to this that influenza viruses are in constant flux, meaning that a certain vaccine or previous infection will not grant immunity for next season’s slightly altered viruses, and it is not hard to see why flu can be such a tough opponent. Predicting flu is very difficult Additionally, it poses a problem for tracking the specific (sub)types: hospitals and doctors generally do not collect information on the specific viruses that they come across in their practice. Not only is this process time-consuming and costly, it does not add anything of value to the treatment plan either. An unfortunate side effect is that it makes it that much harder to observe the circulation pattern of a specific virus, in turn making general flu patterns across seasons hard to predict. Flu And Climate Change: Flu, What’s Happening Elsewhere In The World? Not only is it hard to predict flu trends over time, it is equally hard to find trends over space. Even though increased (air) travel has made it easier for viruses to mutate and find their way across the globe, there is no consistent pattern of flu viruses travelling the globe. During the same flu season, very different viruses can dominate on different continents. Where Is Influenza Most Common? A study in 2015 looked into where influenza is most common, alongside how it spreads around the globe. While there are cases of it appearing all around the world, scientists found that it is far more prominent in the east than in the west, particularly in Southeast Asia. Influenza most common in South-East Asia. Now the Caronavirus! Even the timing can differ. Particularly in (sub)tropical areas, where there are no real winters, there can be multiple flu seasons each year, circulating at vastly different times. Some have pointed at climate or even tourism as the reason for this variation, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. It is notoriously hard to predict those kind of patterns as well, although we are slowly getting to a place where modern technologies and an increased understanding of the flu are allowing for better analysis and tracking. Yet there is still a long way to go. Flu And Climate Change: Definite History Of The Flu Looking back in time, though, we are certainly much more on the ball than we ever were before. We are documenting and analysing far more than our ancestors. The very first reported instances of the flu might date back to 500 BCE, with Greek historians reporting on a so-called ‘three-year plague’, that boasted symptoms much like our flu. However, descriptions were so scarce that many historians are not convinced that it actually was. What we do know is that the disease did not get its name until well in the 14th century, when the term ‘influenza’, the Italian word for ‘influence’, was coined to describe it. This ‘influence’ was contributed to either cold weather or a misalignment of stars and planets. And although many different terms have been used to describe it since, this is the one that stuck. Although the beast had been given a name, it was not until some 80 years ago that scientists actually managed to debunk the flu virus, thanks to the invention of the electron microscope. Pictures of the flu could now be made and shared, with distinctions finally made between the most prominent types. Soon after, the first influenza vaccines hit the market, including those that were capable of preventing more than one strain. As the world evolved, so did the flu and our ways of dealing with it. Unfortunately, with climate change ramping up, we are about to enter a new phase of epidemics, pandemics and the spread of diseases like the flu. Climate change might even amplify its causes and effects and lead to the creation of mutated, vaccine-resistant strains that can be equally hard to control and contain. Tips & Tricks to Avoid Colds And Flu This Winter That sounds like doom and gloom. Yet it is important to realise that there is always something that we can do about it. What is the best way of staying ahead of the flu, even in this time of climate change possibly amplifying its spread and severity? There are a few tips and tricks that will minimise your chances of contracting it. Wash hands For most of us, washing our hands is a totally normal thing to do. During flu season, you might consider doing so a bit more often. Most viruses are transmitted by air, although they can just as easily be transferred through physical contact. Once we get the disease-spreading germs on our hands, they can easily invade our bodies when we touch our eyes, mouths or noses. By frequently washing our hands with soap and drying them using clean hand towels or paper towels, it will be much harder for a virus to get a hold of us. Dress appropriately Although the concept of ‘having caught a cold’ by standing out in the literal cold has been somewhat debunked, it is still imperative to stay warm and dress appropriately during the colder seasons. Once we are cold, we tend to shiver - an action that affects our immune system, making us more susceptible to lurking viruses. Get yourself a decent sweater and coat, and don’t forget your hat, as we lose quite a bit of our body heat through our head. Avoid crowded spaces One of the preferred breeding grounds for viruses is public transportation, alongside crowded stores and poorly ventilated office buildings. Basically, small and cramped spaces in which a lot of people crowd together. Here, infections spread easily, jumping from one person to the next. The fact that central heating is blasting in most of those spaces does not help either, as this tends to weaken our natural defences and negatively affect our respiratory system. Take vitamins Vitamins are a great way of boosting your immune system. Various minerals and herbs have been proven to help us kick nasty viruses to the curb. Zinc, vitamin C and garlic have been found to reduce the frequency of colds and flu. Echinacea, a plant used by the native Americans to combat infections, is another great booster of our immune system. Taking some kind of multivitamin that includes those minerals and herbs can really do wonders in avoiding the next round of flu going around. Keep an eye on the weather Certain weather conditions have been found to be a real breeding ground for nasty germs. Especially when there are low cloud, dull and misty conditions, so when there is a lot of moist in the air, viruses tend to survive (much) longer. They will attach themselves to the water droplets, while a lack of wind will keep them around, instead of being blown away. So be wary of going outside when this kind of weather is forecast. Sleep well One of the hardest things to do in our busy lives is to ensure that we get a decent night’s sleep. Unfortunately, it is extremely important for our health: a lack of sleep has been found to be a risk factor for contracting the flu or other infections. Yet it is not just getting enough hours of sleep that matters, your state of mind also helps. If you are happy and content, this will reflect positively on your immune system. Being stressed and overworked, on the other hand, will be a sure way of catching that nasty bug going around at work. Drink plenty Drinking plenty of water is one of the most commonly given pieces of advice by doctors and medical professionals worldwide. Water will quite literally flush out all toxins and bad elements from our bodies, making it harder for any viruses to gain a foothold. And even if you find yourself having caught an infection, water will once again be your best friend, helping you to get it out of your system again as soon as possible. Exercise frequently Did you know that regular exercising will summon the so-called natural killer cells in our bodies? These little soldiers are tasked with finding and fighting all kind of invaders, making us more resistant against infections. At the same time, going on a jog or hitting the gym will be a great way of keeping our circulation going. Our bodies are simply better at dealing with any foreign threats when subjected to regular exercise. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise Tips & Tricks To Ease Flu Symptoms Still managed to contract a nasty flu? Then rest assured that you are not alone, as millions and millions of people are hit by this disease each year. And while there really is not much that you can do to prevent or cure it, there are some natural ways of relieving its worst symptoms. How long does it take to get over the flu? In general, healthy people usually get over a cold in 7 to 10 days. Flu symptoms, including fever, should go away after about 5 days, but you may still have a cough and feel weak a few days longer. All your symptoms should be gone within 1 to 2 weeks. Rest at home The healing power of a good nap in your own bed might even outshine that of the commonly prescribed medicines. Make sure that you cancel all and any plans that you may have, preferably for the next few days - as you are now contagious and pretty sick. Make good use of those extra hours in bed to give your ailing body some rest. Drink, drink, and drink some more! Drinking is important in preventing infections, but even if you already find yourself the unfortunate owner of a brand new strain of the flu, drinking is a great way of getting rid of it as soon as possible. It does not necessarily have to be water. If you prefer fruit juices, sports drinks or broth-based soups, they will do the trick as well. Staying hydrated does wonders for your respiratory system and will flush that bug out of your system before you know it. Fight the fever Running a fever means that your body is busy fighting this nasty invader. The best thing for you to do is help it by getting your hands on appropriate over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen, which will both lower your fever and fight the associated aches. Fight the cough While you are already in the pharmacy, you might want to pick up something for that nasty cough that has accompanied the infection. Other ways of clearing your airways and unclogging that runny nose include sitting in a hot, steamy bathroom, using a humidifier, sucking on a lozenge, or trying out a salt-based nose spray. Fighting The Flu Whether you are simply suffering from the ‘sniffles’ or a climate change activist warning against the effect that global warming will have on the flu, it is important to realise that we can do quite a bit in preventing the disease from grabbing a hold of us in the first place. The earlier tips on preventing the flu are vital in staying healthy, although the question remains whether this will sustainable in the long run. With climate change drastically changing the world as we know it, it is likely to also change the way in which we get sick. This might mean that the flu will change from something relatively innocent into something looming and potentially dangerous. New mutations and variations might spread across the world faster than ever before and create more havoc as winters get warmer and flu seasons intensify. Up to us to avoid a future where the simple common cold might actually turn into a killer epidemic. Before you go! Recommended:  Smart Sustainable Lifestyle Changing Tips & Tricks For 2019 Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Re g ister'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Coronavirus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?
Coronavirus, Flu And Climate Change: Is There A Connection?
Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech
Cities are increasingly focusing on becoming smarter. With the ever continuing urbanisation and the wave of digitisation sweeping across the globe, governments are seeking ways of living up to the extra demand for residential, commercial and industrial areas. At the same time, they are under intense scrutiny for their use of scarce resources and CO2 emissions.   Smart Cities: Cameras, Trackers And Sensors? The puzzle of having to expand cities while becoming greener and more sustainable, seems to have been solved by technology. Creating so-called smart cities, governed by the internet and connected devices, has long thought to be the answer. Unfortunately, if you are looking beyond the flashiness and sophistication of smart trashcans and autonomous people movers, there is a dark side to the smart city movement as well. Are there any smart cities? Examples of Smart city technologies and programs have been implemented in Singapore, Dubai, Milton Keynes, Southampton, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Madrid, Stockholm, Copenhagen, China and New York. There is a certain appeal to being dubbed a ‘smart city’, or so most governments seem to think. It appears to be the latest fad amongst mayors and city managers, with start-ups eager to present their latest brainchild that promises to drastically improve city life. Not only does it hit the sweet spot of everyone’s futuristic city dreams, it also solves quite a few notorious headache files. Easier solutions for trash collection and traffic congestion, anyone? Recommended:  Smart Cities, Safe And Efficient, But Are We Being Watched? While there is no consensus yet as to what makes a city smart, there are commonalities. For instance, they extensively use cameras, trackers and sensors to closely monitor whatever is happening in the city - be it on the roads, in the city center, or in hospitals and schools. The generated data is used to not only act on problems, but also to help make predictions about when similar problems are expected to occur in the future and to come up with the best course of action to either prevent or remedy them as soon as possible. The benefits are clear. But there is a clear downside as well. Who owns this data? Who has a right to use and possibly exploit it? What are your rights, as a private citizen, in the light of the privacy vs safety debate? Eventually, the only party that will stand to lose is us, those living in the cities. What is smart city concept? A smart city is a designation given to a city that incorporates information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance the quality and performance of urban services such as energy, transportation and utilities in order to reduce resource consumption, wastage and overall costs. Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech The opposite of smart is dumb. Does this make a city that refuses to incorporate smart technologies a dumb city? Definitely not. At least, not in the meaning most commonly associated with dumb. For most issues that are faced by governmental bodies, there are ‘dumb’ solutions available that will do the job just as well. {youtube}                                                     Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech                             Life on the Mekong river in Cambodia. Floating village inhabited by fisherman and fish farmers. While smart cities are becoming huge breathing, living machines that rely on sensors and other input devices - not to mention its reliance on the internet -, they are also becoming vulnerable. When everything is connected to the internet, it could theoretically be accessed by anyone, anywhere. Those with bad intentions will be able to take over control of a city - and it will not be hard to picture what could happen next. Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Those with bad intentions will be able to take over control of a city Slightly less dramatic, but still relevant. Technology can break down, sensors can fail. Its operating, updating and maintenance requires a whole new team of, oftentimes expensive, personnel. It also requires a lot of energy, meaning that smart cities will initially have a larger carbon footprint. And this extra energy goes to issues that could be solved using low-tech measures as well. What are the features of smart cities? Features of Smart Cities: Adequate water supply Assured electricity supply Sanitation, including solid waste management Efficient urban mobility and public transport Affordable housing, especially for the poor Robust IT connectivity and digitalization Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation, Recommended:  Eco-friendly Sustainable Megacities Clean By Trees: Globally Looking back in history and figuring out how our ancestors used to deal with the issues that we are facing today would be a great start. Progress for the sake of progress is an invalid argument when dismissing ancient methods of keeping our cities clean, dry and safe. And yes, this is probably a controversial claim, and I do not advocate going back to the dirty medieval towns, but there are some things to be learned from ‘how we used to do it’. Things that are not attached to a cable or dependent upon the IT helpdesk. Dumb Cities Are Not Dumb At All In the past, we managed to live together with nature in a harmonious and mutually benefitting relationship. The advance of technology is one of the major reasons why this fragile balance has been broken, with us now taking Mother Nature to the edge of destruction. Going back to a pre-technological age and finding ways of living together with nature, even in cities, does not make a city ‘dumb’. Instead, it makes it more resilient and sustainable. Green urban spaces or urban agriculture are some examples of what dumb cities invest in. They take know-how from the local population, based on tradition and history, and incorporate this in today’s world. Why build a fancy bridge if you can just as easily build one using trees and wood, that actually better withstands humidity and harsh weather elements, as experienced by the people in Northern India? What are 'dumb' solutions? Congestion can be tackled with autonomous cars, true; it can also be tackled with better railways, bus rapid transit and bike lanes Houses can be covered in sensors to control an automated heating and cooling system; they can also be built with operable windows and high-quality insulation. Why not use green roofs, permeable pavements and terraced wetland parks in areas frequently stricken by monsoons - allowing for a better absorption of rainwater, hence preventing floods in a more natural way than expensive pumps? The Chinese already do this, as they have seen the benefits and enjoy the extra nature it brings to their overcrowded cities. Recommended:  Architecture Designs: Green White Roofs To Cool Urban Area's Dumb City: Green And Blue Denmark has implemented a similar project in her capital city Copenhagen. Their ‘dumb’ solution for preventing floods is green and blue. They created a number of parks that can, during storms, become lakes. This allows for nature and animal species to thrive, while people enjoy the nature reserve it has created. Dumb City: Green And Blue Copenhagen Similar wetlands have been introduced in India, where the areas also function as cleaners of wastewater. This has proven to be more effective than high-tech sewage treatment, absorbing a bunch of pollution while fostering a lively fishing industry. Florida, Gainsville’s Sweetwater Wetland park Dumb Cities: On Stilts And Floating Makoko, the remarkable town in the African country of Lagos, is taking a different approach in battling rising sea levels. The town, that is home to 80,000 people, is sustainable, solar-fuelled - and on stilts. Rotterdam is working on a similar concept, planning a sustainable floating city. Recommended:  A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? Dumb Cities On Stilts And Floating: Makoko Dumb Cities Have Dumb Airconditioning How to build excellent ‘dumb’ cities? Rather than chasing the newest shiny smart-city technology, we should redirect some of that energy toward building excellent ‘dumb’ cities Cities planned and built with best-in-class, durable approaches to infrastructure and the public realm. For many of our challenges, we don’t need new technologies or new ideas; we need the will, foresight and courage to use the best of the old ideas Another surprising idea that can be found in nature is the alternative it offers for airconditioning, a notorious polluter. Plants are the solution for cooling down on a hot summer day. With more tree cover, temperatures will be considerably lower. Also, green roofs are great for cooling down the buildings they cover.   Frankfurt was named European City of Trees and has approximately 200,000 of them in public spaces around the city. Dumb Cities Are Smart Cities Are smart cities are making us dumber? Embracing evidence-based, data-driven decision-making and using technology to capture that data is a laudable goal. The problem with the idea is that it’s often presented as a panacea There is an underlying assumption that technology is the key to unlocking the smart solutions our cities most desperately need. To believe this is to completely miss the plot The ‘dumb’ solutions to things that we are trying to make smarter are endless. This goes for virtually anything. Transportation, with the old-fashioned bike or walking shoes being superior low-emission solutions. Or airconditioning and heating, where plant cover can prove highly efficient. With a little effort, it is not hard to find alternatives for sensors, cameras and trackers.   Recommended:  Bicycles Without Battery: We Just Forgot They Are Cleanest Dumb Cities, Smart Cities: A Root Hangbridge We can make the world a better place if we would try a little harder to go back to the methods that worked in the distant past. If we would move beyond our current issues to a point where they did not exist yet. After all, if generations before us were able to make do without the internet and ‘smart’ solutions, why can’t we? Before you go! Recommended:  Greenest Buildings In The World: Sustainable Highlights Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about green sustainable architecture? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Cities are increasingly focusing on becoming smarter. With the ever continuing urbanisation and the wave of digitisation sweeping across the globe, governments are seeking ways of living up to the extra demand for residential, commercial and industrial areas. At the same time, they are under intense scrutiny for their use of scarce resources and CO2 emissions.   Smart Cities: Cameras, Trackers And Sensors? The puzzle of having to expand cities while becoming greener and more sustainable, seems to have been solved by technology. Creating so-called smart cities, governed by the internet and connected devices, has long thought to be the answer. Unfortunately, if you are looking beyond the flashiness and sophistication of smart trashcans and autonomous people movers, there is a dark side to the smart city movement as well. Are there any smart cities? Examples of Smart city technologies and programs have been implemented in Singapore, Dubai, Milton Keynes, Southampton, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Madrid, Stockholm, Copenhagen, China and New York. There is a certain appeal to being dubbed a ‘smart city’, or so most governments seem to think. It appears to be the latest fad amongst mayors and city managers, with start-ups eager to present their latest brainchild that promises to drastically improve city life. Not only does it hit the sweet spot of everyone’s futuristic city dreams, it also solves quite a few notorious headache files. Easier solutions for trash collection and traffic congestion, anyone? Recommended:  Smart Cities, Safe And Efficient, But Are We Being Watched? While there is no consensus yet as to what makes a city smart, there are commonalities. For instance, they extensively use cameras, trackers and sensors to closely monitor whatever is happening in the city - be it on the roads, in the city center, or in hospitals and schools. The generated data is used to not only act on problems, but also to help make predictions about when similar problems are expected to occur in the future and to come up with the best course of action to either prevent or remedy them as soon as possible. The benefits are clear. But there is a clear downside as well. Who owns this data? Who has a right to use and possibly exploit it? What are your rights, as a private citizen, in the light of the privacy vs safety debate? Eventually, the only party that will stand to lose is us, those living in the cities. What is smart city concept? A smart city is a designation given to a city that incorporates information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance the quality and performance of urban services such as energy, transportation and utilities in order to reduce resource consumption, wastage and overall costs. Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech The opposite of smart is dumb. Does this make a city that refuses to incorporate smart technologies a dumb city? Definitely not. At least, not in the meaning most commonly associated with dumb. For most issues that are faced by governmental bodies, there are ‘dumb’ solutions available that will do the job just as well. {youtube}                                                     Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech                             Life on the Mekong river in Cambodia. Floating village inhabited by fisherman and fish farmers. While smart cities are becoming huge breathing, living machines that rely on sensors and other input devices - not to mention its reliance on the internet -, they are also becoming vulnerable. When everything is connected to the internet, it could theoretically be accessed by anyone, anywhere. Those with bad intentions will be able to take over control of a city - and it will not be hard to picture what could happen next. Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Those with bad intentions will be able to take over control of a city Slightly less dramatic, but still relevant. Technology can break down, sensors can fail. Its operating, updating and maintenance requires a whole new team of, oftentimes expensive, personnel. It also requires a lot of energy, meaning that smart cities will initially have a larger carbon footprint. And this extra energy goes to issues that could be solved using low-tech measures as well. What are the features of smart cities? Features of Smart Cities: Adequate water supply Assured electricity supply Sanitation, including solid waste management Efficient urban mobility and public transport Affordable housing, especially for the poor Robust IT connectivity and digitalization Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation, Recommended:  Eco-friendly Sustainable Megacities Clean By Trees: Globally Looking back in history and figuring out how our ancestors used to deal with the issues that we are facing today would be a great start. Progress for the sake of progress is an invalid argument when dismissing ancient methods of keeping our cities clean, dry and safe. And yes, this is probably a controversial claim, and I do not advocate going back to the dirty medieval towns, but there are some things to be learned from ‘how we used to do it’. Things that are not attached to a cable or dependent upon the IT helpdesk. Dumb Cities Are Not Dumb At All In the past, we managed to live together with nature in a harmonious and mutually benefitting relationship. The advance of technology is one of the major reasons why this fragile balance has been broken, with us now taking Mother Nature to the edge of destruction. Going back to a pre-technological age and finding ways of living together with nature, even in cities, does not make a city ‘dumb’. Instead, it makes it more resilient and sustainable. Green urban spaces or urban agriculture are some examples of what dumb cities invest in. They take know-how from the local population, based on tradition and history, and incorporate this in today’s world. Why build a fancy bridge if you can just as easily build one using trees and wood, that actually better withstands humidity and harsh weather elements, as experienced by the people in Northern India? What are 'dumb' solutions? Congestion can be tackled with autonomous cars, true; it can also be tackled with better railways, bus rapid transit and bike lanes Houses can be covered in sensors to control an automated heating and cooling system; they can also be built with operable windows and high-quality insulation. Why not use green roofs, permeable pavements and terraced wetland parks in areas frequently stricken by monsoons - allowing for a better absorption of rainwater, hence preventing floods in a more natural way than expensive pumps? The Chinese already do this, as they have seen the benefits and enjoy the extra nature it brings to their overcrowded cities. Recommended:  Architecture Designs: Green White Roofs To Cool Urban Area's Dumb City: Green And Blue Denmark has implemented a similar project in her capital city Copenhagen. Their ‘dumb’ solution for preventing floods is green and blue. They created a number of parks that can, during storms, become lakes. This allows for nature and animal species to thrive, while people enjoy the nature reserve it has created. Dumb City: Green And Blue Copenhagen Similar wetlands have been introduced in India, where the areas also function as cleaners of wastewater. This has proven to be more effective than high-tech sewage treatment, absorbing a bunch of pollution while fostering a lively fishing industry. Florida, Gainsville’s Sweetwater Wetland park Dumb Cities: On Stilts And Floating Makoko, the remarkable town in the African country of Lagos, is taking a different approach in battling rising sea levels. The town, that is home to 80,000 people, is sustainable, solar-fuelled - and on stilts. Rotterdam is working on a similar concept, planning a sustainable floating city. Recommended:  A Floating Airport Cutting Edge Madness Or Visionary? Dumb Cities On Stilts And Floating: Makoko Dumb Cities Have Dumb Airconditioning How to build excellent ‘dumb’ cities? Rather than chasing the newest shiny smart-city technology, we should redirect some of that energy toward building excellent ‘dumb’ cities Cities planned and built with best-in-class, durable approaches to infrastructure and the public realm. For many of our challenges, we don’t need new technologies or new ideas; we need the will, foresight and courage to use the best of the old ideas Another surprising idea that can be found in nature is the alternative it offers for airconditioning, a notorious polluter. Plants are the solution for cooling down on a hot summer day. With more tree cover, temperatures will be considerably lower. Also, green roofs are great for cooling down the buildings they cover.   Frankfurt was named European City of Trees and has approximately 200,000 of them in public spaces around the city. Dumb Cities Are Smart Cities Are smart cities are making us dumber? Embracing evidence-based, data-driven decision-making and using technology to capture that data is a laudable goal. The problem with the idea is that it’s often presented as a panacea There is an underlying assumption that technology is the key to unlocking the smart solutions our cities most desperately need. To believe this is to completely miss the plot The ‘dumb’ solutions to things that we are trying to make smarter are endless. This goes for virtually anything. Transportation, with the old-fashioned bike or walking shoes being superior low-emission solutions. Or airconditioning and heating, where plant cover can prove highly efficient. With a little effort, it is not hard to find alternatives for sensors, cameras and trackers.   Recommended:  Bicycles Without Battery: We Just Forgot They Are Cleanest Dumb Cities, Smart Cities: A Root Hangbridge We can make the world a better place if we would try a little harder to go back to the methods that worked in the distant past. If we would move beyond our current issues to a point where they did not exist yet. After all, if generations before us were able to make do without the internet and ‘smart’ solutions, why can’t we? Before you go! Recommended:  Greenest Buildings In The World: Sustainable Highlights Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about green sustainable architecture? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech
Smart Cities Or Dumb Cities? Let’s Embrace Low Tech
Climate Change Africa: Largest Locust Swarm In 25 Years
Locust swarm 37 miles long and 25 miles wide threatens crops across swathes of east Africa. A swarm of locusts measured at 37 miles long and 25 miles wide has been tracked in Kenya - and the insects are now threatening to decimate crops across swatches of east Africa. Climate Change Africa: Locust Swarm The most serious outbreak of desert locusts in 25 years is posing an unprecedented threat to food security in some of the world’s most vulnerable countries, authorities say. Unusual climate conditions are partly to blame. Recommended:  Water War Brewing Over New River Nile Dam: Egypt, Ethiopia Locusts swarm near the village of Sissia, in Samburu county, Kenya Locust, what are they do? Locusts are sometimes solitary insects with lifestyles much like grasshoppers. But locusts have another behavioral phase called the gregarious phase. When environmental conditions produce many green plants and promote breeding, locusts can congregate into thick, mobile, ravenous swarms Kenya's Intergovernmental Authority on Development said: "A typical desert locust swarm can contain up to 150 million locusts per square kilometre. "Swarms migrate with the wind and can cover 100 to 150 kilometres in a day. An average swarm can destroy as much food crops in a day as is sufficient to feed 2,500 people." {youtube}                                                 Climate Change Africa: Largest Locust Swarm In 25 Years                                                 Locust swarm threatens food security in several countries Roughly the length of a finger, the insects fly together by the millions and are devouring crops and forcing people in some areas to bodily wade through them. The outbreak of desert locusts, considered the most dangerous locust species, also has affected parts of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Djibouti and Eritrea and IGAD warns that parts of South Sudan and Uganda could be next. Are Locusts harmful to humans? Locusts do not attack people or animals. There is no evidence that suggests that locusts carry diseases that could harm humans. Recommended:  African Agricultural Revolution Falters: Food Grow Is Low The "extremely dangerous" outbreak is making the region's bad food security situation worse, the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation has warned. Hundreds of thousands of acres of crops have been destroyed. How long do locusts live for? It takes approximately two weeks for the fledgling locust to reach sexual maturity. Adults often group together into swarms containing thousands of locusts. Adult locusts typically live about 10 weeks. The further increase in locust swarms could last until June as favorable breeding conditions continue, IGAD said, helped along by unusually heavy flooding in parts of the region in recent weeks. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected A man holds a desert locust, considered to be the most dangerous of the locust species Climate Change Africa: Major Locust Outbreaks Can Be Devastating A major one between 2003 and 2005 cost more than $500 million to control across 20 countries in northern Africa, the FAO has said, with more than $2.5billion in harvest losses. To help prevent and control outbreaks, authorities analyse satellite images, stockpile pesticides and conduct aerial spraying. In Ethiopia, officials said they have deployed four small planes to help fight the invasion. Before you go! Recommended:  Hunger, Not Global Warming Will Impact Our Future Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about vegan food? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Locust swarm 37 miles long and 25 miles wide threatens crops across swathes of east Africa. A swarm of locusts measured at 37 miles long and 25 miles wide has been tracked in Kenya - and the insects are now threatening to decimate crops across swatches of east Africa. Climate Change Africa: Locust Swarm The most serious outbreak of desert locusts in 25 years is posing an unprecedented threat to food security in some of the world’s most vulnerable countries, authorities say. Unusual climate conditions are partly to blame. Recommended:  Water War Brewing Over New River Nile Dam: Egypt, Ethiopia Locusts swarm near the village of Sissia, in Samburu county, Kenya Locust, what are they do? Locusts are sometimes solitary insects with lifestyles much like grasshoppers. But locusts have another behavioral phase called the gregarious phase. When environmental conditions produce many green plants and promote breeding, locusts can congregate into thick, mobile, ravenous swarms Kenya's Intergovernmental Authority on Development said: "A typical desert locust swarm can contain up to 150 million locusts per square kilometre. "Swarms migrate with the wind and can cover 100 to 150 kilometres in a day. An average swarm can destroy as much food crops in a day as is sufficient to feed 2,500 people." {youtube}                                                 Climate Change Africa: Largest Locust Swarm In 25 Years                                                 Locust swarm threatens food security in several countries Roughly the length of a finger, the insects fly together by the millions and are devouring crops and forcing people in some areas to bodily wade through them. The outbreak of desert locusts, considered the most dangerous locust species, also has affected parts of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Djibouti and Eritrea and IGAD warns that parts of South Sudan and Uganda could be next. Are Locusts harmful to humans? Locusts do not attack people or animals. There is no evidence that suggests that locusts carry diseases that could harm humans. Recommended:  African Agricultural Revolution Falters: Food Grow Is Low The "extremely dangerous" outbreak is making the region's bad food security situation worse, the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation has warned. Hundreds of thousands of acres of crops have been destroyed. How long do locusts live for? It takes approximately two weeks for the fledgling locust to reach sexual maturity. Adults often group together into swarms containing thousands of locusts. Adult locusts typically live about 10 weeks. The further increase in locust swarms could last until June as favorable breeding conditions continue, IGAD said, helped along by unusually heavy flooding in parts of the region in recent weeks. Recommended:  Climate Change Causes Nature To Change: The World Affected A man holds a desert locust, considered to be the most dangerous of the locust species Climate Change Africa: Major Locust Outbreaks Can Be Devastating A major one between 2003 and 2005 cost more than $500 million to control across 20 countries in northern Africa, the FAO has said, with more than $2.5billion in harvest losses. To help prevent and control outbreaks, authorities analyse satellite images, stockpile pesticides and conduct aerial spraying. In Ethiopia, officials said they have deployed four small planes to help fight the invasion. Before you go! Recommended:  Hunger, Not Global Warming Will Impact Our Future Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about vegan food? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Climate Change Africa: Largest Locust Swarm In 25 Years
Rescue Globally: Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change
Nowadays, CO2 is extracted from the industry by using molecules known as amines (an organic compound), which react with CO2. DTU has introduced a new method of removing CO2 from human blood using molecules. The new technology may help prevent climate change. Rescue Globally: Cleaning Gasses Governments all over the world need to act as quick as possible, climate change is moving fast, and we need to prevent further alteration. The Danish government took an important step recently to reduce CO2-emissions by 70 per cent before 2030. How they want to do that is yet unknown. At this moment, we are still relying on fossil fuels. It would be way cheaper and more logical to avoid CO2-emissions reaching the atmosphere by cleaning the gases instead of removing it. Rescue Globally: Polluting Tackled At The Source The concept is comparable to wastewater treatment plants that clean water at the source, instead of polluting and cleaning the oceans years later. That is why we need to implement CO2 capture and storage (CCS) on an industrial scale to secure the climate and prevent further global warming. Rescue Globally: Bio-Based Materials Are The Way Forward Carbon dioxide is separated from the waste gases coming from the power plants/process industry. It is then inserted passively under the land and the sea and stored. There are various storage options for CO2. Even if we were able to reduce the use of fossil fuels, we would still have to start by removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change The better and more durable the technology is, the better global warming can be prevented. We need to use bio-based materials that are close to natural mechanisms, like plant photosynthesis or human respiration. These natural processes could relegate the carbon dioxide level. The amines which we use to react with CO2 are synthetic organic chemicals. They do not correlate with nature. By replacing them with natural materials from a biological origin, we can find the right balance. That is why we could better use materials we do not need synthetic processes for. Thus, we could use human blood or respiration. How Can Human Blood Help? {youtube}                                            Rescue Globally: Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change                                                                  Capturing CO2 - Mongstad, Norway Human blood consists of many biological chemicals and compounds. It transmits nutrients such as proteins, oxygen, sugars and fats to our body cells. Also, a lot of waste products are transported by the blood, including carbon dioxide, a by-product of our metabolism. Besides, various helpful substances such as enzymes and electrolytes maintain the right balance in the composition of the blood and keep our bodies healthy. Enzymes are biological reactors that significantly increase the speed of the chemical reaction. We have a lot of enzymes in our blood, and one of them is carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase helps to capture CO2 from different body parts, and release it in pure form into our lungs, where it is then exhaled. We can use this process outside our body as well. When used in existing carbon capture plants, the enzyme can capture CO2 forever. Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change: The Projects Has Potential Not long ago, the carbonic anhydrase enzyme is studied for carbon capture applications at DHU. The results are quite promising and state that a combination of an enzyme and a portable biological material can efficiently separate CO2 from the gas mixture. The result is the elaboration of a new process where CO2 can be chemically absorbed in the biological material. The bio-based molecules can be converted back to gaseous CO2. All in all, the project aims to achieve potential energy savings and ecological sustainability. This process has to potential to disrupt the area of CO2 capture. With the help of bio-based molecules, we could almost create artificial lungs for the world. This would be amazing! But for now, we will be focusing on developing bio-based carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS). For the next decade, the new technology concept will be available for first commercial use. Human Blood Prevent Climate Change. It Will Work, But Is It Enough? This is not always possible. It is tempting to have a project or process that is similar to the actual human lung, which pollutes CO2 with the help of natural materials. If we want to reduce climate change, we need different approaches. These approaches need to be close to nature and close to ourselves to be technologically feasible and socially acceptable. Recommended:  How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! We know for sure that this technique works. But we need to put all our efforts together to make a change, to reduce CO2-emissions. Global Bio-CCS systems need to be put in place to achieve a carbon-negative emission standard by 2050 that meets the objectives of the Paris agreement. We need time and resources to beat climate change. But we can do something if we all help. This new technology may be a small step for us, for CCS, but a giant leap for the global environment. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Stop, Store CO2, Add Phytoplankton By Whales? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Nowadays, CO2 is extracted from the industry by using molecules known as amines (an organic compound), which react with CO2. DTU has introduced a new method of removing CO2 from human blood using molecules. The new technology may help prevent climate change. Rescue Globally: Cleaning Gasses Governments all over the world need to act as quick as possible, climate change is moving fast, and we need to prevent further alteration. The Danish government took an important step recently to reduce CO2-emissions by 70 per cent before 2030. How they want to do that is yet unknown. At this moment, we are still relying on fossil fuels. It would be way cheaper and more logical to avoid CO2-emissions reaching the atmosphere by cleaning the gases instead of removing it. Rescue Globally: Polluting Tackled At The Source The concept is comparable to wastewater treatment plants that clean water at the source, instead of polluting and cleaning the oceans years later. That is why we need to implement CO2 capture and storage (CCS) on an industrial scale to secure the climate and prevent further global warming. Rescue Globally: Bio-Based Materials Are The Way Forward Carbon dioxide is separated from the waste gases coming from the power plants/process industry. It is then inserted passively under the land and the sea and stored. There are various storage options for CO2. Even if we were able to reduce the use of fossil fuels, we would still have to start by removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Recommended:  Climate Change Efforts On Reducing CO2 Why Not Recycle It? Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change The better and more durable the technology is, the better global warming can be prevented. We need to use bio-based materials that are close to natural mechanisms, like plant photosynthesis or human respiration. These natural processes could relegate the carbon dioxide level. The amines which we use to react with CO2 are synthetic organic chemicals. They do not correlate with nature. By replacing them with natural materials from a biological origin, we can find the right balance. That is why we could better use materials we do not need synthetic processes for. Thus, we could use human blood or respiration. How Can Human Blood Help? {youtube}                                            Rescue Globally: Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change                                                                  Capturing CO2 - Mongstad, Norway Human blood consists of many biological chemicals and compounds. It transmits nutrients such as proteins, oxygen, sugars and fats to our body cells. Also, a lot of waste products are transported by the blood, including carbon dioxide, a by-product of our metabolism. Besides, various helpful substances such as enzymes and electrolytes maintain the right balance in the composition of the blood and keep our bodies healthy. Enzymes are biological reactors that significantly increase the speed of the chemical reaction. We have a lot of enzymes in our blood, and one of them is carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase helps to capture CO2 from different body parts, and release it in pure form into our lungs, where it is then exhaled. We can use this process outside our body as well. When used in existing carbon capture plants, the enzyme can capture CO2 forever. Recommended:  Energy Miracle Algae. 10.000 Barrels A Day, Less CO2: 2025 Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change: The Projects Has Potential Not long ago, the carbonic anhydrase enzyme is studied for carbon capture applications at DHU. The results are quite promising and state that a combination of an enzyme and a portable biological material can efficiently separate CO2 from the gas mixture. The result is the elaboration of a new process where CO2 can be chemically absorbed in the biological material. The bio-based molecules can be converted back to gaseous CO2. All in all, the project aims to achieve potential energy savings and ecological sustainability. This process has to potential to disrupt the area of CO2 capture. With the help of bio-based molecules, we could almost create artificial lungs for the world. This would be amazing! But for now, we will be focusing on developing bio-based carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS). For the next decade, the new technology concept will be available for first commercial use. Human Blood Prevent Climate Change. It Will Work, But Is It Enough? This is not always possible. It is tempting to have a project or process that is similar to the actual human lung, which pollutes CO2 with the help of natural materials. If we want to reduce climate change, we need different approaches. These approaches need to be close to nature and close to ourselves to be technologically feasible and socially acceptable. Recommended:  How An Artificial Leaf Sucks CO2 And Makes Fuel. Amazing! We know for sure that this technique works. But we need to put all our efforts together to make a change, to reduce CO2-emissions. Global Bio-CCS systems need to be put in place to achieve a carbon-negative emission standard by 2050 that meets the objectives of the Paris agreement. We need time and resources to beat climate change. But we can do something if we all help. This new technology may be a small step for us, for CCS, but a giant leap for the global environment. Before you go! Recommended:  Climate Change Stop, Store CO2, Add Phytoplankton By Whales? Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about sustainability? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Rescue Globally: Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change
Rescue Globally: Human Blood Can Help Prevent Climate Change
Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore
With a larger share of green spaces than the lot area, Marina One is a role model for megacities. In the high-rise project, homes, offices and public facilities are connected in high density, in a sustainable manner that leads to a pleasant microclimate. Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marina One Is A Role Model For Megacities Photo by: Darren Soh. On the lower layers there is a publicly accessible park that gradually passes into the towers.  Marina One by Ingenhoven Architects can rightly be called an impressive project. In terms of size it looks a bit like a small city. The complex is part of the new Central Business District of Singapore and offers space for 20,000 workplaces and 3,000 residents. As a 'hub project' for green urban development, it presents a strong example of sustainable architecture. In the design not only attention was paid to the creation of sufficient commercial floor space, but also valuable green urban space was integrated. In this case, instead of four obvious separate buildings, a neighborhood that was accessible to everyone around a green heart arose here. A vertical park that extends over several floors. Is Singapore a city or country? The Republic of Singapore is a sovereign island nation located just off the southern tip of Peninsular Malaysia in Southeast Asia. Singapore is an anomaly, and they're quite proud of it. The country is currently the only city-island-nation in the world. Singapore has grown since 1990 mainly thanks to artificial land reclamation with 8.9 percent. With the development of Marina One and many other new construction projects, it is currently undergoing a radical transformation from a 'Garden City' to a 'City in a Garden'. The city state, which in the sixties was still regarded as one of the most unhealthiest places in the world, has since grown into an international economic hotspot. To ensure that Singapore remains attractive for living and working in the future, there is now also a lot of attention for improving the quality of life. Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marina Bay, West Of The Old City Center From Singapore Marina Bay is located directly to the west of the old city center and is without doubt one of the largest and most prominent new neighborhoods in the area. Where empty yards and railroads still existed in the 1990s, the new Central Business District has been realized since 2006 under the watchful eye of government agency Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). {youtube}                                                   Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore                                                                            Marina Bay, Singapore And ambitious goals are envisaged for this new business district. Strict energy guidelines and higher requirements for public and green spaces apply to all new building projects. The publicly accessible areas must occupy at least 25 percent of the plot surface, the green spaces at least one hundred percent. For the energy requirements even a national standard, the 'Green Mark Standard', has been created. With its unlimited authority, the URA is a unique planning body that investors have the opportunity to join and which, unlike many other countries, is also much more active in establishing and maintaining development goals. Recommended:  Solar Canopies Supply Shade Electricity And Filter Rainwater Marine One In Singapore: The wavy facade is continued on all sides Green Urban Sustainable Project: Rice Terraces And 'Gardens By The Bay' Here, the URA uses so-called 'studies', for which architects are asked without knowledge of the concrete location, but on the basis of very concrete planning guidelines to develop interesting ideas and to submit them to a committee. Marina One also resulted from such a study. Christoph Ingenhoven, who together with local architect Michael Ngu of architects a61 on the Robinson Road created a remarkable office building, initially received only basic information about a plot that provided space for four blocks of one hundred by one hundred meters and was split up. through two streets of twenty to twenty-five meters wide. Singapore is a great nation with some strict rules? 7 Things Tourists Should Avoid Doing in Singapore Throw Your Litter Into The Bin Avoid Chewing Gum Ask For Food Prices Before Ordering Avoid Vandalism at Any Cost Smoke Only at Designated Smoking Areas Be Sensitive to Singapore's Multi-Cultural Society Avoid Eating In Public Trains and Buses. Instead of an obvious idea with a separate building on each corner, he suggested giving up the intersection and creating a neighborhood around a vertical park. In doing so, he aroused the interest of the URA, who soon invited him to further develop his green concept in the context of a small-scale architectural competition. Recommended:  Sustainable University Hanoi: By Vo Trong Nghia Architects The plot is located northwest of the famous 'Gardens by the Bay' by architects WilkinsonEyre and directly between two small city parks. For this, the architects came up with a complex with space for offices (half) and houses (a third), which would go down in height from two hundred to 139 meters in the direction of one of the two parks. For their project, Christoph Ingenhoven and Michael Ngu took the idea of ​​park C in the middle of park A and B in 2010. Marine One In Singapore: Large frames in the façade provide shade effects in the residential towers Green Urban Sustainable Project: Green Heart Park, Singapore In order to create the large 'Green Heart Park' in the middle of the complex, all buildings have been shifted cartesian and strictly orthogonal to the outer boundaries of the plot, following the example of the New York city map. Around the green heart, for example, two blocks of two buildings were realized, with sloping galleries and vertical, step-by-step lamella constructions that do not entirely reminiscent of the well-known Southeast Asian rice terraces. Thanks to the cascading, undulating floors that come closer and closer together, natural air flows are created which ensure that even in the outdoor areas, despite the subtropical climate, it is pleasant to stay here. Recommended:  The Bicycle Metropolis: Why Still Investing In Car Parking? On the outside, highly efficient, perforated sun protection elements adorn the sleek façade. For the inside, the architects and engineers developed extensive slats with a depth of 1.2 to 2 meters, based on extensive climate and design studies. This created a unique dynamic space in the heart of the complex, which, consciously not as a European city square but as a 'city room', a Singaporean version of a city garden, should be seen as a relaxing place to relax, move and to meet each other. The British landscape architects Gustafson Porter + Bowman created here a green oasis with great biodiversity that invites haptic (soil material) as well as acoustic (birds and insects) to explore. Marine One In Singapore: Earth tones However, it did not stay with the creation of this green heart. This only covers part of the very complex building concept with a total of 175,000 square meters of gross floor area for offices, 115,000 square meters for living, 18,000 square meters for trade / gastronomy and 37,000 square meters of green space. In addition to the green heart on the first four floors, in the office buildings on floor 28 and 29 'sky gardens' are integrated, which are publicly accessible and where restaurants are located just below. The green spaces now cover up to 125 percent of the plot surface. Recommended:  Sustainable Architecture Today: How Does It Feel For You? Most are accessible to the general public - apart from the roof gardens, which serve as exclusive outdoor spaces for businesses and penthouses. The vegetation of the 'strata terraces', 'cloud garden', 'green screens' and 'rooftop gardens' varies greatly from floor to floor and with the different shades of color and plant structures it is a real enrichment of the otherwise rather strict high-tech façade. Incidentally, for the façade, Ingenhoven consciously took dark earth tones in order to contrast them nicely with the white of the former colonial buildings. Is Singapore visa free? Most visitors to Singapore can enter the country without a visa; however some visitors must first obtain a visa in advance before being allowed to enter Singapore. Citizens of almost 80% of the world's countries may travel to Singapore for a period of 30 days or 90 days without a visa, depending on their nationality. Marine One In Singapore: Hybrid Construction For Marina One, first a reinforced concrete skeleton was planned, but in the end the choice fell on a more advantageous option. In order to place the alternative hybrid construction from reinforced concrete and steel firmly on the soft surface of the newly reclaimed land, a very complex pile foundation was required. Another impressive element, both spatially and constructively, are the three 'suspended' floors of 10,000 square meters each connecting the two office buildings. And do not underestimate the great functionality of Marina One. For the mediated clientele, consisting mainly of financial companies and professionals who can pay an average of 14,762 euros per square meter, there is virtually nothing to be desired: three underground shop floors and direct access to two metro stations, a 2,400-square-meter gym with a ten-meter high climbing wall and a fifty meter long outdoor swimming pool, several 'signature' restaurants, a party zone, lounges, a 'resident clubhouse' and special teppanyaki and BBQ terraces. Marine One In Singapore: New Urban Exploration Is Singapore cheap for shopping? Situated between Little India in the north and Marina Bay in the south, the Bugis Street Market is one of the top shopping places in Singapore . It is known for being the cheapest market in the country for buying souvenirs, accessories, clothes, electronics, houseware, and cosmetics. The smart spatial and sustainable architectural solutions of Marina One can serve as a model for urban compaction projects at other locations. But the significance of this special project goes further. In Singapore, Marina One is part of a complete generation of new, green high-rise projects for an urban transformation and a change in the use wishes that they had not previously thought possible. It represents the desire for more and qualitative green spaces and outdoor spaces, the use of which actually increases despite the sometimes murderous subtropical climate. Recommended:  Climate Change And Its Effects Like Droughts: The Heat Is On Although Ingenhoven Architects and the supporting engineering firms Werner Sobek, DS-Plan and Arup Singapore with their complex design solutions managed to lower the temperature in the microclimate of Marina One compared to 'normal' with only a few degrees, the architecture entices many people to trust their familiar to leave the inner world more often. This new urban exploration is, in addition to the great energy values, the most impressive one at Marina One. Marine One In Singapore: Ground floor with park, public functions and entrances to homes, offices and parking Marine One: Microclimate In addition to the large green spaces, more surprising openings have been created, some of which are only visible from close by or even only on the floors in question. For example, vertical slits in which two air shafts are housed in different places run through different residential buildings in order to achieve a completely natural ventilation and thus a more pleasant outdoor climate. This effect is further enhanced by the smartly chosen dimensions and positioning of the slats on the park side. What is the coolest month in Singapore? Relative humidity is in the range of 70% – 80%. April is the warmest month, January is the coolest month and November is the wettest month. For the architects it still took a lot of steps to convince their client M + S, owned by the Singaporean investment company Temasek and the Malaysian state fund Khazanah, of these slots and slats. Both meant a significant investment and loss of useful floor space. Sustainability played a crucial role not only in the design of the inside, but also in the exterior of both buildings. For example, the different blocks with staggered frames and deeper loggias act as a kind of natural sunblind that helps to reduce the subtropical heat load on the 1,042 dwellings.                                                                     Multi story three demensial garden                                                     Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore The fact that the plot is positioned slightly tilted in relation to the wind points was certainly also useful here. None of the facades is in fact oriented towards the very warm west. Thanks to a system for heat recovery, a rainwater collection system (for greywater and irrigation of the gardens), the greater heat tolerance to office temperatures of 24-26 degrees and the use of state-of-the-art glazing that prevents heat, the energy consumption is up to 35 percent lower than for this kind of complexes is common. This gave the project the Pre-Certification LEED Platinum and the Green Mark Platinum. Before you go! Recommended:  Greenest Buildings In The World: Sustainable Highlights Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about green sustainable architecture? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
With a larger share of green spaces than the lot area, Marina One is a role model for megacities. In the high-rise project, homes, offices and public facilities are connected in high density, in a sustainable manner that leads to a pleasant microclimate. Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marina One Is A Role Model For Megacities Photo by: Darren Soh. On the lower layers there is a publicly accessible park that gradually passes into the towers.  Marina One by Ingenhoven Architects can rightly be called an impressive project. In terms of size it looks a bit like a small city. The complex is part of the new Central Business District of Singapore and offers space for 20,000 workplaces and 3,000 residents. As a 'hub project' for green urban development, it presents a strong example of sustainable architecture. In the design not only attention was paid to the creation of sufficient commercial floor space, but also valuable green urban space was integrated. In this case, instead of four obvious separate buildings, a neighborhood that was accessible to everyone around a green heart arose here. A vertical park that extends over several floors. Is Singapore a city or country? The Republic of Singapore is a sovereign island nation located just off the southern tip of Peninsular Malaysia in Southeast Asia. Singapore is an anomaly, and they're quite proud of it. The country is currently the only city-island-nation in the world. Singapore has grown since 1990 mainly thanks to artificial land reclamation with 8.9 percent. With the development of Marina One and many other new construction projects, it is currently undergoing a radical transformation from a 'Garden City' to a 'City in a Garden'. The city state, which in the sixties was still regarded as one of the most unhealthiest places in the world, has since grown into an international economic hotspot. To ensure that Singapore remains attractive for living and working in the future, there is now also a lot of attention for improving the quality of life. Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marina Bay, West Of The Old City Center From Singapore Marina Bay is located directly to the west of the old city center and is without doubt one of the largest and most prominent new neighborhoods in the area. Where empty yards and railroads still existed in the 1990s, the new Central Business District has been realized since 2006 under the watchful eye of government agency Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). {youtube}                                                   Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore                                                                            Marina Bay, Singapore And ambitious goals are envisaged for this new business district. Strict energy guidelines and higher requirements for public and green spaces apply to all new building projects. The publicly accessible areas must occupy at least 25 percent of the plot surface, the green spaces at least one hundred percent. For the energy requirements even a national standard, the 'Green Mark Standard', has been created. With its unlimited authority, the URA is a unique planning body that investors have the opportunity to join and which, unlike many other countries, is also much more active in establishing and maintaining development goals. Recommended:  Solar Canopies Supply Shade Electricity And Filter Rainwater Marine One In Singapore: The wavy facade is continued on all sides Green Urban Sustainable Project: Rice Terraces And 'Gardens By The Bay' Here, the URA uses so-called 'studies', for which architects are asked without knowledge of the concrete location, but on the basis of very concrete planning guidelines to develop interesting ideas and to submit them to a committee. Marina One also resulted from such a study. Christoph Ingenhoven, who together with local architect Michael Ngu of architects a61 on the Robinson Road created a remarkable office building, initially received only basic information about a plot that provided space for four blocks of one hundred by one hundred meters and was split up. through two streets of twenty to twenty-five meters wide. Singapore is a great nation with some strict rules? 7 Things Tourists Should Avoid Doing in Singapore Throw Your Litter Into The Bin Avoid Chewing Gum Ask For Food Prices Before Ordering Avoid Vandalism at Any Cost Smoke Only at Designated Smoking Areas Be Sensitive to Singapore's Multi-Cultural Society Avoid Eating In Public Trains and Buses. Instead of an obvious idea with a separate building on each corner, he suggested giving up the intersection and creating a neighborhood around a vertical park. In doing so, he aroused the interest of the URA, who soon invited him to further develop his green concept in the context of a small-scale architectural competition. Recommended:  Sustainable University Hanoi: By Vo Trong Nghia Architects The plot is located northwest of the famous 'Gardens by the Bay' by architects WilkinsonEyre and directly between two small city parks. For this, the architects came up with a complex with space for offices (half) and houses (a third), which would go down in height from two hundred to 139 meters in the direction of one of the two parks. For their project, Christoph Ingenhoven and Michael Ngu took the idea of ​​park C in the middle of park A and B in 2010. Marine One In Singapore: Large frames in the façade provide shade effects in the residential towers Green Urban Sustainable Project: Green Heart Park, Singapore In order to create the large 'Green Heart Park' in the middle of the complex, all buildings have been shifted cartesian and strictly orthogonal to the outer boundaries of the plot, following the example of the New York city map. Around the green heart, for example, two blocks of two buildings were realized, with sloping galleries and vertical, step-by-step lamella constructions that do not entirely reminiscent of the well-known Southeast Asian rice terraces. Thanks to the cascading, undulating floors that come closer and closer together, natural air flows are created which ensure that even in the outdoor areas, despite the subtropical climate, it is pleasant to stay here. Recommended:  The Bicycle Metropolis: Why Still Investing In Car Parking? On the outside, highly efficient, perforated sun protection elements adorn the sleek façade. For the inside, the architects and engineers developed extensive slats with a depth of 1.2 to 2 meters, based on extensive climate and design studies. This created a unique dynamic space in the heart of the complex, which, consciously not as a European city square but as a 'city room', a Singaporean version of a city garden, should be seen as a relaxing place to relax, move and to meet each other. The British landscape architects Gustafson Porter + Bowman created here a green oasis with great biodiversity that invites haptic (soil material) as well as acoustic (birds and insects) to explore. Marine One In Singapore: Earth tones However, it did not stay with the creation of this green heart. This only covers part of the very complex building concept with a total of 175,000 square meters of gross floor area for offices, 115,000 square meters for living, 18,000 square meters for trade / gastronomy and 37,000 square meters of green space. In addition to the green heart on the first four floors, in the office buildings on floor 28 and 29 'sky gardens' are integrated, which are publicly accessible and where restaurants are located just below. The green spaces now cover up to 125 percent of the plot surface. Recommended:  Sustainable Architecture Today: How Does It Feel For You? Most are accessible to the general public - apart from the roof gardens, which serve as exclusive outdoor spaces for businesses and penthouses. The vegetation of the 'strata terraces', 'cloud garden', 'green screens' and 'rooftop gardens' varies greatly from floor to floor and with the different shades of color and plant structures it is a real enrichment of the otherwise rather strict high-tech façade. Incidentally, for the façade, Ingenhoven consciously took dark earth tones in order to contrast them nicely with the white of the former colonial buildings. Is Singapore visa free? Most visitors to Singapore can enter the country without a visa; however some visitors must first obtain a visa in advance before being allowed to enter Singapore. Citizens of almost 80% of the world's countries may travel to Singapore for a period of 30 days or 90 days without a visa, depending on their nationality. Marine One In Singapore: Hybrid Construction For Marina One, first a reinforced concrete skeleton was planned, but in the end the choice fell on a more advantageous option. In order to place the alternative hybrid construction from reinforced concrete and steel firmly on the soft surface of the newly reclaimed land, a very complex pile foundation was required. Another impressive element, both spatially and constructively, are the three 'suspended' floors of 10,000 square meters each connecting the two office buildings. And do not underestimate the great functionality of Marina One. For the mediated clientele, consisting mainly of financial companies and professionals who can pay an average of 14,762 euros per square meter, there is virtually nothing to be desired: three underground shop floors and direct access to two metro stations, a 2,400-square-meter gym with a ten-meter high climbing wall and a fifty meter long outdoor swimming pool, several 'signature' restaurants, a party zone, lounges, a 'resident clubhouse' and special teppanyaki and BBQ terraces. Marine One In Singapore: New Urban Exploration Is Singapore cheap for shopping? Situated between Little India in the north and Marina Bay in the south, the Bugis Street Market is one of the top shopping places in Singapore . It is known for being the cheapest market in the country for buying souvenirs, accessories, clothes, electronics, houseware, and cosmetics. The smart spatial and sustainable architectural solutions of Marina One can serve as a model for urban compaction projects at other locations. But the significance of this special project goes further. In Singapore, Marina One is part of a complete generation of new, green high-rise projects for an urban transformation and a change in the use wishes that they had not previously thought possible. It represents the desire for more and qualitative green spaces and outdoor spaces, the use of which actually increases despite the sometimes murderous subtropical climate. Recommended:  Climate Change And Its Effects Like Droughts: The Heat Is On Although Ingenhoven Architects and the supporting engineering firms Werner Sobek, DS-Plan and Arup Singapore with their complex design solutions managed to lower the temperature in the microclimate of Marina One compared to 'normal' with only a few degrees, the architecture entices many people to trust their familiar to leave the inner world more often. This new urban exploration is, in addition to the great energy values, the most impressive one at Marina One. Marine One In Singapore: Ground floor with park, public functions and entrances to homes, offices and parking Marine One: Microclimate In addition to the large green spaces, more surprising openings have been created, some of which are only visible from close by or even only on the floors in question. For example, vertical slits in which two air shafts are housed in different places run through different residential buildings in order to achieve a completely natural ventilation and thus a more pleasant outdoor climate. This effect is further enhanced by the smartly chosen dimensions and positioning of the slats on the park side. What is the coolest month in Singapore? Relative humidity is in the range of 70% – 80%. April is the warmest month, January is the coolest month and November is the wettest month. For the architects it still took a lot of steps to convince their client M + S, owned by the Singaporean investment company Temasek and the Malaysian state fund Khazanah, of these slots and slats. Both meant a significant investment and loss of useful floor space. Sustainability played a crucial role not only in the design of the inside, but also in the exterior of both buildings. For example, the different blocks with staggered frames and deeper loggias act as a kind of natural sunblind that helps to reduce the subtropical heat load on the 1,042 dwellings.                                                                     Multi story three demensial garden                                                     Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore The fact that the plot is positioned slightly tilted in relation to the wind points was certainly also useful here. None of the facades is in fact oriented towards the very warm west. Thanks to a system for heat recovery, a rainwater collection system (for greywater and irrigation of the gardens), the greater heat tolerance to office temperatures of 24-26 degrees and the use of state-of-the-art glazing that prevents heat, the energy consumption is up to 35 percent lower than for this kind of complexes is common. This gave the project the Pre-Certification LEED Platinum and the Green Mark Platinum. Before you go! Recommended:  Greenest Buildings In The World: Sustainable Highlights Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about green sustainable architecture? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore
Green Urban Sustainable Project: Marine One In Singapore
Vegan Food: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse
Since the earliest of days, mankind has fed itself on a couple of major food groups - most significantly nuts, seeds, fruits and meat. Whether we were hunting or gathering, we were happy and satisfied with our diet. Our bodies seemingly adjusted to whatever was available at the time, interchanging scarce seasonal products for other options. Vegan Food Versus 'Extravagant' Diets Today, our dietary options are slightly more extravagant. Whether we are craving tropical foods in the winter or something Christmassy in June, there will be options on hand. Likewise, we can choose to restrict ourselves to certain foodstuffs only - the dietary equivalent of only eating the blue M&Ms. Whether you are on the Paleo diet or the low-carb diet, we all got our own food quirks.   Is the food industry growing? Food Industry. The global food and beverage industry is growing at around 5% a year and global expenditure on food products by consumers is expected to reach US$20 trillion by 2030. Key trends for new product development are in health, convenience, naturality and sustainability. Let’s talk about one of those specific food crazes some pride themselves on. Vegan food, or completely eliminating all and any animal products from our plates. For some, it is a real passion. For others, it is merely another political or economical ploy.   {youtube}                                              Vegan Food: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse                                                                 Food and Money A Political Hot Potato   Vegan Wars: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse What are the trends in food service industry? Here are the top foodservice trends to watch for 2019. Plant-Based Cuisine Beyond Instagram Over the past few years, Instagram and other photo-sharing apps have revolutionized the food industry Cooking with Cannabis Mushroom Mania Alternative Proteins Food Technology Food Waste Big Flavours Traceability Labour-Saving Innovation Food is an important commodity in the marketplace that we like to call our global economy. It is exactly this importance to our economies that makes it such a political hot potato - pun fully intended. Small agricultural businesses are struggling hard to stay afloat in a sociopolitical landscape that favours the large, industrial farm organisations.   The true craft of agriculture and livestock farming is disappearing and making room for factory-like processes that serve one main goal - to keep costs down. Today, food is mostly created using the cheapest available ingredients, allowing for the fattest bottom line. In order to create most of the stuffs we like to stuff down our throats, manufacturers rely on a wide range of cheap ingredients that are preferably acquired in bulk from big, ‘trustworthy’ producers.   In a futuristic sounding twist, some of those producers have even moved beyond ‘traditional’ farming - instead heavily investing in biotech and genetically manipulated food. From so-called ‘fake meats’, including fake dairy and fake eggs, to entirely new products that Mother Nature never would have been able to foster on her own; they are no longer hypothetical but factual. Recommended:  Food Future: Serving Lab-Meat In Restaurants Reality? This has only added fuel to the fire of vegan enthusiasts, who are now able to replace their favourite animal-based foods with completely acceptable yet similar tasting alternatives. In the past few years, the vegan food market has grown with a staggering 10% annually, a trend that is not expected to slow down anytime soon. Big multinationals and small farm business alike are jumping on the idea of creating fully plant-based produce. Recommended:  Sustainable Food? How Environmental Friendly Is Your Diet? Some have suggested that this means that we are on the verge of the greatest agricultural shake-up that the world has ever seen; with businesses that previously created animal-based products either being forced to adapt or to get out of business altogether. By 2030, the entire cattle and dairy industry might find itself flat on its behind, losing out fast to companies working on so-called ‘precision fermentation’ - or the production of animal proteins using microbes. Who profits from veganism? In January 2018, Ethical Consumer magazine warned its readers about vegan brands owned by meat and dairy parent companies. Alpro, one of the largest vegan milk alternatives, is owned by Danone – a French multinational company with a 24.4 per cent share in the global fresh dairy product market. Bad news for cattle farmers, both big and small. Livestock forms the livelihood of many who are able to escape hunger and poverty by tending to their animals. Yet it is also bad news for those living in developing regions, including India and Africa. While us Westerners might in some ways benefit from moving away from animal-based foods, people living in near poverty often rely on it and will not be able to get the same nutritional value from the more expensive alternatives. Vegan Food: Follow The Money Vegan food fanatics often do not understand what impact their dietary preferences have on those living in poorer regions. Not only does it severely impact local economies, it also influences the fragile food balance. In countries like India, a political and economical debate is waging as to what constitutes a proper diet, in particular when it concerns young children. Although the World Health Organisation has included animal products as a crucial element of what we eat, there are political interests at play in deterring those very same products from entering the market. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise In Africa, similar political interests have led to more and more land being allocated to large-scale farming activities. Crops are now growing on fields where animals used to roam - another profit-driven decision that favours non-animal products and severely disadvantages local businesses and the local population. Do humans need meat? As a new study in Nature makes clear, not only did processing and eating meat come naturally to humans, it's entirely possible that without an early diet that included generous amounts of animal protein, we wouldn't even have become human—at least not the modern, verbal, intelligent humans we are None of that, of course, means that increased meat consumption—or any meat consumption at all—is necessary for the proto-humans’ 21st century descendants.  Despite the grandeur and pretence of enthusiastic vegans, it is not really their passion and concern for animal welfare that drives the trend that they embarked on. Instead, political interests determine what people are to eat and/or produce, while the big food manufacturers are finding themselves in a position where they can actively steer their consumers to food stuffs that provide the greatest economical benefits. The result? Large groups of people that are unwillingly becoming vegan, leading to nutritional deficiencies, biodiversity-destroying monocultures and a dangerous demand-driving attitude. Veganism is as much about politics and profit as much as it is about ethics. And now that companies and governments are telling us what to eat, we should be very careful to not let it get out of hand. Before you go! Recommended:  Hunger, Not Global Warming Will Impact Our Future Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about vegan food? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Since the earliest of days, mankind has fed itself on a couple of major food groups - most significantly nuts, seeds, fruits and meat. Whether we were hunting or gathering, we were happy and satisfied with our diet. Our bodies seemingly adjusted to whatever was available at the time, interchanging scarce seasonal products for other options. Vegan Food Versus 'Extravagant' Diets Today, our dietary options are slightly more extravagant. Whether we are craving tropical foods in the winter or something Christmassy in June, there will be options on hand. Likewise, we can choose to restrict ourselves to certain foodstuffs only - the dietary equivalent of only eating the blue M&Ms. Whether you are on the Paleo diet or the low-carb diet, we all got our own food quirks.   Is the food industry growing? Food Industry. The global food and beverage industry is growing at around 5% a year and global expenditure on food products by consumers is expected to reach US$20 trillion by 2030. Key trends for new product development are in health, convenience, naturality and sustainability. Let’s talk about one of those specific food crazes some pride themselves on. Vegan food, or completely eliminating all and any animal products from our plates. For some, it is a real passion. For others, it is merely another political or economical ploy.   {youtube}                                              Vegan Food: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse                                                                 Food and Money A Political Hot Potato   Vegan Wars: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse What are the trends in food service industry? Here are the top foodservice trends to watch for 2019. Plant-Based Cuisine Beyond Instagram Over the past few years, Instagram and other photo-sharing apps have revolutionized the food industry Cooking with Cannabis Mushroom Mania Alternative Proteins Food Technology Food Waste Big Flavours Traceability Labour-Saving Innovation Food is an important commodity in the marketplace that we like to call our global economy. It is exactly this importance to our economies that makes it such a political hot potato - pun fully intended. Small agricultural businesses are struggling hard to stay afloat in a sociopolitical landscape that favours the large, industrial farm organisations.   The true craft of agriculture and livestock farming is disappearing and making room for factory-like processes that serve one main goal - to keep costs down. Today, food is mostly created using the cheapest available ingredients, allowing for the fattest bottom line. In order to create most of the stuffs we like to stuff down our throats, manufacturers rely on a wide range of cheap ingredients that are preferably acquired in bulk from big, ‘trustworthy’ producers.   In a futuristic sounding twist, some of those producers have even moved beyond ‘traditional’ farming - instead heavily investing in biotech and genetically manipulated food. From so-called ‘fake meats’, including fake dairy and fake eggs, to entirely new products that Mother Nature never would have been able to foster on her own; they are no longer hypothetical but factual. Recommended:  Food Future: Serving Lab-Meat In Restaurants Reality? This has only added fuel to the fire of vegan enthusiasts, who are now able to replace their favourite animal-based foods with completely acceptable yet similar tasting alternatives. In the past few years, the vegan food market has grown with a staggering 10% annually, a trend that is not expected to slow down anytime soon. Big multinationals and small farm business alike are jumping on the idea of creating fully plant-based produce. Recommended:  Sustainable Food? How Environmental Friendly Is Your Diet? Some have suggested that this means that we are on the verge of the greatest agricultural shake-up that the world has ever seen; with businesses that previously created animal-based products either being forced to adapt or to get out of business altogether. By 2030, the entire cattle and dairy industry might find itself flat on its behind, losing out fast to companies working on so-called ‘precision fermentation’ - or the production of animal proteins using microbes. Who profits from veganism? In January 2018, Ethical Consumer magazine warned its readers about vegan brands owned by meat and dairy parent companies. Alpro, one of the largest vegan milk alternatives, is owned by Danone – a French multinational company with a 24.4 per cent share in the global fresh dairy product market. Bad news for cattle farmers, both big and small. Livestock forms the livelihood of many who are able to escape hunger and poverty by tending to their animals. Yet it is also bad news for those living in developing regions, including India and Africa. While us Westerners might in some ways benefit from moving away from animal-based foods, people living in near poverty often rely on it and will not be able to get the same nutritional value from the more expensive alternatives. Vegan Food: Follow The Money Vegan food fanatics often do not understand what impact their dietary preferences have on those living in poorer regions. Not only does it severely impact local economies, it also influences the fragile food balance. In countries like India, a political and economical debate is waging as to what constitutes a proper diet, in particular when it concerns young children. Although the World Health Organisation has included animal products as a crucial element of what we eat, there are political interests at play in deterring those very same products from entering the market. Recommended:  Getting Healthier By Eating Sustainable Food And Taking Exercise In Africa, similar political interests have led to more and more land being allocated to large-scale farming activities. Crops are now growing on fields where animals used to roam - another profit-driven decision that favours non-animal products and severely disadvantages local businesses and the local population. Do humans need meat? As a new study in Nature makes clear, not only did processing and eating meat come naturally to humans, it's entirely possible that without an early diet that included generous amounts of animal protein, we wouldn't even have become human—at least not the modern, verbal, intelligent humans we are None of that, of course, means that increased meat consumption—or any meat consumption at all—is necessary for the proto-humans’ 21st century descendants.  Despite the grandeur and pretence of enthusiastic vegans, it is not really their passion and concern for animal welfare that drives the trend that they embarked on. Instead, political interests determine what people are to eat and/or produce, while the big food manufacturers are finding themselves in a position where they can actively steer their consumers to food stuffs that provide the greatest economical benefits. The result? Large groups of people that are unwillingly becoming vegan, leading to nutritional deficiencies, biodiversity-destroying monocultures and a dangerous demand-driving attitude. Veganism is as much about politics and profit as much as it is about ethics. And now that companies and governments are telling us what to eat, we should be very careful to not let it get out of hand. Before you go! Recommended:  Hunger, Not Global Warming Will Impact Our Future Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about vegan food? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Vegan Food: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse
Vegan Food: About Money And Dairy, Cattle Industry Collapse
Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future?
Taal volcano in the Philippines has begun spewing lava. A 'hazardous eruption' is possible 'within days'. In just a span of three days, three volcanic eruptions had occurred in volcanoes found in the Japan, Mexico and the Philippines. In Japan, Mt. Shintake Erupted on Jan. 11, and Mexico’s Popocatepetl on January 9. On Sunday, January 12, Taal Volcano became active and is feared to have a hazardous explosive eruption. Meanwhile, Rocks were spewed about 300 meters from the crater of Mount Shintake on the Kuhinoerabu Island in the Kagoshima Prefecture. Japan’s Mount Shintake’s alert level was raised to 3. In Mexico, the active Popocatepetl Volcano sent 3 kilometers of smoke with moderate ash in the air. In the Philippines, Taal Volcano’s activity had already been raised to alert level 4. The volcano showed hazardous and explosive eruption(s). Mexico’s Popocatepetl Volcano, on the other hand, had authorities issue a yellow alert. The volcano showed signs of elevated unrest. But, are the eruptions of these volcanoes connected? According to USGS, most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions do not happen randomly. Instead, it occurs in specific areas, such as along plate boundaries. One such area is the circum-Pacific “Ring Of Fire” where the Pacific Plate meets several surrounding plates. There are no reports yet that the eruptions are connected. But, all three of the recently erupted volcanoes lie within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared In the early hours of Monday, a weak flow of lava began seeping out of Taal volcano - located some 70km (45 miles) south of the capital Manila. It comes after it emitted a huge plume of ash, triggering the mass evacuation of 8,000 people from the area. Taal Volcano Taal is the Philippines' second most active volcano. Situated on an island in the middle of a lake, it is one of the world's smallest volcanoes and has recorded at least 34 eruptions in the past 450 years. Authorities in the surrounding province, Batangas, have declared a ‘state of calamity’, signifying major disruption. "Taal volcano entered a period of intense unrest... that progressed into magmatic eruption at 02:49 to 04:28... this is characterised by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning," the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said in a statement. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? But Phivolcs director Renato Solidum said that signs of a hazardous eruption, including ‘flows of ashes, rocks, gas at speeds of more than 60 kph horizontally’ had not yet occurred, according to CNN Philippines. Phivolcs has now raised the alert level from 3 to 4, out of a maximum of 5. {youtube}                                           Mass evacuation as Philippines’ Taal volcano spews lava and ash                                            Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Authorities have also warned of a possible ‘volcanic tsunami’, which can be trigged by falling debris after an eruption, pushing the water and generating waves. Volcanic alert levels 0 - Quiet 1 - Some disturbance but no eruption soon 2 - Low to moderate seismicity - could eventually lead to eruption 3 - Relative high unrest - eruption possible within days or weeks, or it could die down 4 - Intense unrest - hazardous eruption possible within days 5 - Hazardous eruption - lava flowing or fountaining, ashfall, dangers to nearby communities Source: Phivolcs Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Covered in ash' On Sunday, 12-01-2020, the volcano emitted a giant plume of ash, with rumbling sounds and tremors also reported. A total of 75 earthquakes have occurred in the Taal region, with 32 of these earthquakes ranking 2 and higher on the earthquake intensity scale, said Phivolcs. The Official United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said more than 450,000 people are estimated to live within the 14km danger zone of the Taal volcano. Ash fell on several areas nearby with residents advised to wear masks. One resident in metro Manila said shops had begun to run out of masks. "When I went to my car, I saw it was covered in ash. I hurriedly went to buy a mask from a drugstore but they had run out," Angel Bautista said. The government has warned retailers not to hike mask prices amid the surging demand. Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Grey And Lifeless' As we approached the Taal volcano area this morning we saw local residents shovelling thick wet ash from the roads. Pineapple groves, normally verdant and luscious, now looked grey and lifeless. In the distance Taal continued to billow ash and smoke miles into the sky. As the morning went on the ash clouds became darker. The area around the Taal volcano has been cloaked in volcanic ash, which also forced the closure of Manila's international airport to shut down  Police manning a 14km exclusion zone stopped people from travelling into the area close to the volcano, but there was a steady flow of cars and trucks moving out. On the back of one pick-up truck, I saw a large family with their treasured household possessions. They were moving in the direction of the Philippine capital Manila, where many people are choosing to stay with relatives. The volcanic ash also forced Manila's international airport to suspend all flights on Sunday. Phivolcs had warned that the 'airborne ash and ballistic fragments from the eruption... posed hazards to aircrafts'. Earthquakes and volcanic activity are not uncommon in the Philippines, which lies along the Ring of Fire - a zone of major seismic activity, which has one of the world's most active fault lines. What is the ring of fire and where is it located? The Ring of Fire is a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that result from subduction of oceanic plates beneath lighter continental plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located around the Pacific Ring of Fire because that the location of most of the Earth's subduction zones Taal Volcano: 'A Very Dangerous Volcano' The active volcano is at the centre of the 230 sq km Lake Taal, formed by prehistoric eruptions. Taal is a 'complex volcano', which means it doesn't have one vent or cone but several eruption points that have changed over time. The head of Phivolcs calls Taal 'a volcano within a volcano' and says as such it is "very dangerous" Taal has erupted in different ways more than 30 times in the past 500 years - most recently in 1977. A 1911 eruption killed about 1,500 people. A 1974 eruption lasted several months Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future From Other Vulcanoes? Get Ready for More Volcanic Eruptions as the Planet Warms A new study shows that even relatively small-scale climatic changes affect volcanic activity. Scientists have found that climate change affects the frequency of eruptions. Now a new study shows even relatively minor climate variations may have such an influence. If they are right, today’s global warming could mean more and bigger volcanic eruptions in the future. Throughout its history Earth has gone through periods of massive natural climate change such as entering and leaving ice ages. Scientists have noted volcanic eruptions tended to increase as glaciers melted. In a recent study published in Geology researchers looked at smaller-scale changes in glacial coverage to see if these incremental differences had any effect. These incredible, apocalyptic-looking photos, taken by Axel Sigurðarson, show the scenes that occurred during the eruptions in Iceland between August 29, 2014 and February 27, 2015. The scientists focused on eruptions in Iceland about 5,500 to 4,500 years ago. During that period Earth’s climate cooled and glaciers grew, but there was no full-blown ice age. To reconstruct a timeline of volcanic activity, the researchers examined the Icelandic eruption record as well as a record of the ash that fell in Europe during those Icelandic eruptions, which ultimately settled into microscopic layers in the continent’s peat bogs and lakes, study author Graeme Swindles says. He and his colleagues matched these layers to specific Icelandic volcanoes then developed a detailed timeline of increases and decreases in eruptions. When the scientists compared the volcanic record with glacial coverage, they found the number of eruptions indeed dropped significantly as the climate cooled and ice expanded. “There’s a big change in the record in the mid-Holocene (epoch), where we see no volcanic ash in Europe and very little in Iceland,” says Swindles, an associate professor of Earth system dynamics at the University of Leeds. “This seems to overlap with a time where there’s cold climate conditions, which would have favored glacial advance in Iceland.” He says his team observed an approximately 600-year lag between when glaciers advanced and volcanic activity diminished. “That’s because it takes a long time to grow ice masses,” he explains. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA The new study is “looking at maybe the smallest-magnitude climate change yet to show it has influence on volcanic activity,” says Ben Edwards, an associate professor of geology at Dickinson College. “To see this change in an interglacial period indicates that there’s an even more subtle relationship between climate change and volcanism” than scientists previously thought. Julie Schindlbeck, a volcanologist at Heidelberg University in Germany, says the work shows “maybe even small changes in ice volume can really affect volcanism.” Although scientists do not fully understand why glaciers appear to weaken volcanic eruptions, they believe the mechanics may be fairly straightforward. When glaciers expand, all that ice puts immense pressure on Earth’s surface. “It can affect magma flow and the voids and gaps in the Earth where magma flows to the surface as well as how much magma the crust can actually hold,” Swindles says. When glaciers retreat, the pressure lifts and volcanic activity surges. “After glaciers are removed the surface pressure decreases, and the magmas more easily propagate to the surface and thus erupt,” Swindles wrote in an e-mail to Scientific American. Recommended:  CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters This is exactly what he and his team found when they looked at what happened as Earth warmed up again and glaciers melted—they counted more eruptions. Again they saw a time lag, this time between ice melt and the rise in eruptions. But this gap was shorter. “It takes relatively less time to melt ice if the temperature goes up,” compared with growing ice when it gets colder, Swindles says. “So if you’re looking at a period of [warming and subsequent] volcanic flare-up, the lag might be a lot shorter.” He also notes that when volcanic eruptions occur during cooler, ice-covered times, they appear to be smaller in magnitude. As the climate warms, eruptions seem to get bigger. Edwards notes Iceland’s unique geology makes it a very volcanically active compared with many other places, however—and also perhaps more vulnerable to the ice effect than other regions. “It’s probably a place that’s extra-sensitive to [glaciers growing and melting],” he says. Sarychev Volcano: This image of Sarychev Volcano in the early moments of an eruption was captured with a hand-held camera by an astronaut on NASA's International Space Station on June 12, 2009. Sarychev is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Islands of Japan Whether this phenomenon will occur with modern-day climate change is not yet known. But Swindles says the glacier coverage changes his team studied are similar in magnitude to what Earth will likely experience due to human-influenced warming. “I think we can predict we’re probably going to see a lot more volcanic activity in areas of the world where glaciers and volcanoes interact,” he says, listing the U.S. Pacific Northwest, southern South America and even Antarctica. That, he says, is cause for grave concern—for businesses such as airlines as well as for general human and environmental health. “Volcanic ash and emissions can be deadly,” he says. “If not at least very damaging.” Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Five Facts About The Mix Of Beauty And Terror:  Lightning  Large eruptions sometimes put on a stunning display of lightning strikes that illuminate the massive cloud of ash surrounding them. This has happened repeatedly above the Taal volcano and been captured in videos shared widely across social media. It is a relatively unusual and difficult to study phenomenon, so there is some scientific dispute about how and why it happens. One theory posits that particles bashed together in the chaos of the eruption create static electricity which eventually results in lightning. However, according to volcanologist and geologist, Indriati Retno Palupi, lightning can be created when ashes containing chemical elements react with gasses in the surrounding air. Tsunamis  A violent eruption could trigger a deadly rush of waves by displacing water with rising magma or an avalanche of debris, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs). In fact, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the US state of Washington produced a 780-foot (235-metre) tsunami, according to the International Tsunami Information Center. The wall of water was unleashed by the partial collapse of the volcano's flank and a fast-moving avalanche of debris. Thirty years after Mount St. Helens blew its top, the peak is still the second most dangerous volcano in the United States Million volcanoes?  Around 1,500 potentially active volcanoes are present around the world, many of which are found on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire', where tectonic plates collide deep below the earth's surface. However, around 75 percent of volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater. Undersea eruptions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration say, are "a constant process that shapes the features of the ocean". Oregon State University geologists estimate there could be as many as a million of these "submarine volcanoes".  Global cooling The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, about 100 kilometres (60 miles) northwest of Manila, was the Philippines' most powerful in recent years and killed more than 800 people. However, the eruption had worldwide impact. Nearly 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide were shot skyward by Pinatubo, which then drifted globally. "This gas cloud... caused global temperatures to drop temporarily (1991 through 1993) by about 1°F (0.5°C)," according to a US Geological Survey (USGS) account of the eruption. On top of the cooler temperatures, the gases and ash sent high in the sky by Pinatubo also caused "brilliant sunsets and sunrises", USGS said.   Recommended:  Global Warming By CO2 Or Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Indonesia's killer volcanoes Indonesia is the world's most volcanic area. The Southeast Asian archipelago of more than 17,000 islands and islets - and nearly 130 active volcanoes - is situated on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. In 1816, Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa exploded in one of the most violent eruptions in recorded history. Mount Tambora changed the probability of the cold and wet European ‘year without a summer’ of 1816. An estimated 12,000 people died, while a resulting famine killed another 80,000. The island of Krakatoa was practically wiped off the map in 1883 by a volcanic explosion so powerful that it was heard some 4,500 kilometres (2,800 miles) away. Around 36,000 people were killed in the eruption and the resulting tsunami. A new volcano emerged in 1928 on the same site.  Before you go! Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your vulcanoss?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Taal volcano in the Philippines has begun spewing lava. A 'hazardous eruption' is possible 'within days'. In just a span of three days, three volcanic eruptions had occurred in volcanoes found in the Japan, Mexico and the Philippines. In Japan, Mt. Shintake Erupted on Jan. 11, and Mexico’s Popocatepetl on January 9. On Sunday, January 12, Taal Volcano became active and is feared to have a hazardous explosive eruption. Meanwhile, Rocks were spewed about 300 meters from the crater of Mount Shintake on the Kuhinoerabu Island in the Kagoshima Prefecture. Japan’s Mount Shintake’s alert level was raised to 3. In Mexico, the active Popocatepetl Volcano sent 3 kilometers of smoke with moderate ash in the air. In the Philippines, Taal Volcano’s activity had already been raised to alert level 4. The volcano showed hazardous and explosive eruption(s). Mexico’s Popocatepetl Volcano, on the other hand, had authorities issue a yellow alert. The volcano showed signs of elevated unrest. But, are the eruptions of these volcanoes connected? According to USGS, most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions do not happen randomly. Instead, it occurs in specific areas, such as along plate boundaries. One such area is the circum-Pacific “Ring Of Fire” where the Pacific Plate meets several surrounding plates. There are no reports yet that the eruptions are connected. But, all three of the recently erupted volcanoes lie within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared In the early hours of Monday, a weak flow of lava began seeping out of Taal volcano - located some 70km (45 miles) south of the capital Manila. It comes after it emitted a huge plume of ash, triggering the mass evacuation of 8,000 people from the area. Taal Volcano Taal is the Philippines' second most active volcano. Situated on an island in the middle of a lake, it is one of the world's smallest volcanoes and has recorded at least 34 eruptions in the past 450 years. Authorities in the surrounding province, Batangas, have declared a ‘state of calamity’, signifying major disruption. "Taal volcano entered a period of intense unrest... that progressed into magmatic eruption at 02:49 to 04:28... this is characterised by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning," the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said in a statement. Recommended:  Society Collapse: Climate Change, The Environment Or Us? But Phivolcs director Renato Solidum said that signs of a hazardous eruption, including ‘flows of ashes, rocks, gas at speeds of more than 60 kph horizontally’ had not yet occurred, according to CNN Philippines. Phivolcs has now raised the alert level from 3 to 4, out of a maximum of 5. {youtube}                                           Mass evacuation as Philippines’ Taal volcano spews lava and ash                                            Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Authorities have also warned of a possible ‘volcanic tsunami’, which can be trigged by falling debris after an eruption, pushing the water and generating waves. Volcanic alert levels 0 - Quiet 1 - Some disturbance but no eruption soon 2 - Low to moderate seismicity - could eventually lead to eruption 3 - Relative high unrest - eruption possible within days or weeks, or it could die down 4 - Intense unrest - hazardous eruption possible within days 5 - Hazardous eruption - lava flowing or fountaining, ashfall, dangers to nearby communities Source: Phivolcs Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Covered in ash' On Sunday, 12-01-2020, the volcano emitted a giant plume of ash, with rumbling sounds and tremors also reported. A total of 75 earthquakes have occurred in the Taal region, with 32 of these earthquakes ranking 2 and higher on the earthquake intensity scale, said Phivolcs. The Official United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said more than 450,000 people are estimated to live within the 14km danger zone of the Taal volcano. Ash fell on several areas nearby with residents advised to wear masks. One resident in metro Manila said shops had begun to run out of masks. "When I went to my car, I saw it was covered in ash. I hurriedly went to buy a mask from a drugstore but they had run out," Angel Bautista said. The government has warned retailers not to hike mask prices amid the surging demand. Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption 'Grey And Lifeless' As we approached the Taal volcano area this morning we saw local residents shovelling thick wet ash from the roads. Pineapple groves, normally verdant and luscious, now looked grey and lifeless. In the distance Taal continued to billow ash and smoke miles into the sky. As the morning went on the ash clouds became darker. The area around the Taal volcano has been cloaked in volcanic ash, which also forced the closure of Manila's international airport to shut down  Police manning a 14km exclusion zone stopped people from travelling into the area close to the volcano, but there was a steady flow of cars and trucks moving out. On the back of one pick-up truck, I saw a large family with their treasured household possessions. They were moving in the direction of the Philippine capital Manila, where many people are choosing to stay with relatives. The volcanic ash also forced Manila's international airport to suspend all flights on Sunday. Phivolcs had warned that the 'airborne ash and ballistic fragments from the eruption... posed hazards to aircrafts'. Earthquakes and volcanic activity are not uncommon in the Philippines, which lies along the Ring of Fire - a zone of major seismic activity, which has one of the world's most active fault lines. What is the ring of fire and where is it located? The Ring of Fire is a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that result from subduction of oceanic plates beneath lighter continental plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located around the Pacific Ring of Fire because that the location of most of the Earth's subduction zones Taal Volcano: 'A Very Dangerous Volcano' The active volcano is at the centre of the 230 sq km Lake Taal, formed by prehistoric eruptions. Taal is a 'complex volcano', which means it doesn't have one vent or cone but several eruption points that have changed over time. The head of Phivolcs calls Taal 'a volcano within a volcano' and says as such it is "very dangerous" Taal has erupted in different ways more than 30 times in the past 500 years - most recently in 1977. A 1911 eruption killed about 1,500 people. A 1974 eruption lasted several months Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future From Other Vulcanoes? Get Ready for More Volcanic Eruptions as the Planet Warms A new study shows that even relatively small-scale climatic changes affect volcanic activity. Scientists have found that climate change affects the frequency of eruptions. Now a new study shows even relatively minor climate variations may have such an influence. If they are right, today’s global warming could mean more and bigger volcanic eruptions in the future. Throughout its history Earth has gone through periods of massive natural climate change such as entering and leaving ice ages. Scientists have noted volcanic eruptions tended to increase as glaciers melted. In a recent study published in Geology researchers looked at smaller-scale changes in glacial coverage to see if these incremental differences had any effect. These incredible, apocalyptic-looking photos, taken by Axel Sigurðarson, show the scenes that occurred during the eruptions in Iceland between August 29, 2014 and February 27, 2015. The scientists focused on eruptions in Iceland about 5,500 to 4,500 years ago. During that period Earth’s climate cooled and glaciers grew, but there was no full-blown ice age. To reconstruct a timeline of volcanic activity, the researchers examined the Icelandic eruption record as well as a record of the ash that fell in Europe during those Icelandic eruptions, which ultimately settled into microscopic layers in the continent’s peat bogs and lakes, study author Graeme Swindles says. He and his colleagues matched these layers to specific Icelandic volcanoes then developed a detailed timeline of increases and decreases in eruptions. When the scientists compared the volcanic record with glacial coverage, they found the number of eruptions indeed dropped significantly as the climate cooled and ice expanded. “There’s a big change in the record in the mid-Holocene (epoch), where we see no volcanic ash in Europe and very little in Iceland,” says Swindles, an associate professor of Earth system dynamics at the University of Leeds. “This seems to overlap with a time where there’s cold climate conditions, which would have favored glacial advance in Iceland.” He says his team observed an approximately 600-year lag between when glaciers advanced and volcanic activity diminished. “That’s because it takes a long time to grow ice masses,” he explains. Recommended:  Climate Change: Antarctica Is Melting Says NASA The new study is “looking at maybe the smallest-magnitude climate change yet to show it has influence on volcanic activity,” says Ben Edwards, an associate professor of geology at Dickinson College. “To see this change in an interglacial period indicates that there’s an even more subtle relationship between climate change and volcanism” than scientists previously thought. Julie Schindlbeck, a volcanologist at Heidelberg University in Germany, says the work shows “maybe even small changes in ice volume can really affect volcanism.” Although scientists do not fully understand why glaciers appear to weaken volcanic eruptions, they believe the mechanics may be fairly straightforward. When glaciers expand, all that ice puts immense pressure on Earth’s surface. “It can affect magma flow and the voids and gaps in the Earth where magma flows to the surface as well as how much magma the crust can actually hold,” Swindles says. When glaciers retreat, the pressure lifts and volcanic activity surges. “After glaciers are removed the surface pressure decreases, and the magmas more easily propagate to the surface and thus erupt,” Swindles wrote in an e-mail to Scientific American. Recommended:  CO2 At Current Levels Will Cause A High Sea Rise: 16 Meters This is exactly what he and his team found when they looked at what happened as Earth warmed up again and glaciers melted—they counted more eruptions. Again they saw a time lag, this time between ice melt and the rise in eruptions. But this gap was shorter. “It takes relatively less time to melt ice if the temperature goes up,” compared with growing ice when it gets colder, Swindles says. “So if you’re looking at a period of [warming and subsequent] volcanic flare-up, the lag might be a lot shorter.” He also notes that when volcanic eruptions occur during cooler, ice-covered times, they appear to be smaller in magnitude. As the climate warms, eruptions seem to get bigger. Edwards notes Iceland’s unique geology makes it a very volcanically active compared with many other places, however—and also perhaps more vulnerable to the ice effect than other regions. “It’s probably a place that’s extra-sensitive to [glaciers growing and melting],” he says. Sarychev Volcano: This image of Sarychev Volcano in the early moments of an eruption was captured with a hand-held camera by an astronaut on NASA's International Space Station on June 12, 2009. Sarychev is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Islands of Japan Whether this phenomenon will occur with modern-day climate change is not yet known. But Swindles says the glacier coverage changes his team studied are similar in magnitude to what Earth will likely experience due to human-influenced warming. “I think we can predict we’re probably going to see a lot more volcanic activity in areas of the world where glaciers and volcanoes interact,” he says, listing the U.S. Pacific Northwest, southern South America and even Antarctica. That, he says, is cause for grave concern—for businesses such as airlines as well as for general human and environmental health. “Volcanic ash and emissions can be deadly,” he says. “If not at least very damaging.” Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future? Five Facts About The Mix Of Beauty And Terror:  Lightning  Large eruptions sometimes put on a stunning display of lightning strikes that illuminate the massive cloud of ash surrounding them. This has happened repeatedly above the Taal volcano and been captured in videos shared widely across social media. It is a relatively unusual and difficult to study phenomenon, so there is some scientific dispute about how and why it happens. One theory posits that particles bashed together in the chaos of the eruption create static electricity which eventually results in lightning. However, according to volcanologist and geologist, Indriati Retno Palupi, lightning can be created when ashes containing chemical elements react with gasses in the surrounding air. Tsunamis  A violent eruption could trigger a deadly rush of waves by displacing water with rising magma or an avalanche of debris, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs). In fact, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the US state of Washington produced a 780-foot (235-metre) tsunami, according to the International Tsunami Information Center. The wall of water was unleashed by the partial collapse of the volcano's flank and a fast-moving avalanche of debris. Thirty years after Mount St. Helens blew its top, the peak is still the second most dangerous volcano in the United States Million volcanoes?  Around 1,500 potentially active volcanoes are present around the world, many of which are found on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire', where tectonic plates collide deep below the earth's surface. However, around 75 percent of volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater. Undersea eruptions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration say, are "a constant process that shapes the features of the ocean". Oregon State University geologists estimate there could be as many as a million of these "submarine volcanoes".  Global cooling The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, about 100 kilometres (60 miles) northwest of Manila, was the Philippines' most powerful in recent years and killed more than 800 people. However, the eruption had worldwide impact. Nearly 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide were shot skyward by Pinatubo, which then drifted globally. "This gas cloud... caused global temperatures to drop temporarily (1991 through 1993) by about 1°F (0.5°C)," according to a US Geological Survey (USGS) account of the eruption. On top of the cooler temperatures, the gases and ash sent high in the sky by Pinatubo also caused "brilliant sunsets and sunrises", USGS said.   Recommended:  Global Warming By CO2 Or Cooling By A Grand Solar Minimum Indonesia's killer volcanoes Indonesia is the world's most volcanic area. The Southeast Asian archipelago of more than 17,000 islands and islets - and nearly 130 active volcanoes - is situated on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. In 1816, Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa exploded in one of the most violent eruptions in recorded history. Mount Tambora changed the probability of the cold and wet European ‘year without a summer’ of 1816. An estimated 12,000 people died, while a resulting famine killed another 80,000. The island of Krakatoa was practically wiped off the map in 1883 by a volcanic explosion so powerful that it was heard some 4,500 kilometres (2,800 miles) away. Around 36,000 people were killed in the eruption and the resulting tsunami. A new volcano emerged in 1928 on the same site.  Before you go! Recommended:  Wildfires Globally: Australia, America, Africa, The Arctic, Siberia Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about your vulcanoss?  What you gain?  Extra:  Global exposure, a valuable backlink! Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Taal Volcano: Hazardous Eruption Feared. What Is The Future?
Tiny house The Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: The Netherlands
Tiny house the Wikkelhouse & Fiction Factory. A Dutch design firm has redefined living by creating a tiny house that doesn’t need a foundation, can be built in one day and is three times more sustainable than a normal house. Tiny house the The Wikkelhouse, designed by Fiction Factory in Amsterdam, is built by snapping multiple 1.2 meter (4 feet) wide sections together.  Tiny house: Wikkelhouse, modular system Tiny houses. What is there purpose? Tiny houses are the focal point in a broader system to address issues, concerns, and problems of the current day. They offer a path to a smaller environmental footprint, greater financial freedom, and ultimately a self-sufficient life. The tiny home movement enables you to live a life on your own terms Tiny house the Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: Cutting-Edge Tiny House Each section is made by wrapping a basic house shape with curved edges in 24 layers of cardboard that are glued together. The sections are then finished with waterproof, breathable foil and covered with a layer of wood paneling for extra protection. {youtube}                                               The Sustainable Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: The Netherlands                                                                                     Fiction Factory Using cardboard as its main building material, tiny house the Wikkelhouse is a cutting-edge sustainable tiny house with a beautiful design and exceptional constructive strength, the website explains. With the flexible construction process, a house can range from the standard order of three sections to as many as desired. Recommended:  Tiny House: Off-Grid Shelter With Walls That Open On Pulleys Tiny house. What are the benefits of living in it? Advantages of Tiny Houses Lower Expenses. A tiny house costs a lot less to build than a full-sized one No Mortgage Lower Energy Use Freedom of Movement Easier Maintenance Harmony With Nature A Simpler Life Each section of the tiny house the Wikkelhouse only weighs 500 kilos (1,100 pounds). It can be taken apart and moved easily when you want to relocate or remodel. You can place the house on the beach, in your backyard or even on top of a building, Fiction Factory boasts. Tiny house the Wikkelhouse interior Despite being lightweight, the Wikkelhouse is durable and has a minimum life span of 50 years. The wood outer layer is designed to protect the house from all types of weather elements and events. The cardboard layers also provide maximum insulation, cutting down on energy costs for the owner. The Wikkelhouse is designed to accommodate a kitchen, bathroom and bedrooms, making it fully functional. Customers can pick the inside wall and floor design as well as glazed or opaque facades. Recommended:  Sunbathing In Your Tiny House With A Sliding Roof: The Cécile Tiny house the Wikkelhouse, sleeping room Fiction Factory only produces 12 homes a year to maintain optimum quality control, each selling for 25.000,00 Euros or around $28.000,00. There is a waiting list for orders. Before you go! Recommended:  Tiny Houses Tips And Tricks: Minimalistic Living Experience Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about Tiny Houses? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Tiny house the Wikkelhouse & Fiction Factory. A Dutch design firm has redefined living by creating a tiny house that doesn’t need a foundation, can be built in one day and is three times more sustainable than a normal house. Tiny house the The Wikkelhouse, designed by Fiction Factory in Amsterdam, is built by snapping multiple 1.2 meter (4 feet) wide sections together.  Tiny house: Wikkelhouse, modular system Tiny houses. What is there purpose? Tiny houses are the focal point in a broader system to address issues, concerns, and problems of the current day. They offer a path to a smaller environmental footprint, greater financial freedom, and ultimately a self-sufficient life. The tiny home movement enables you to live a life on your own terms Tiny house the Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: Cutting-Edge Tiny House Each section is made by wrapping a basic house shape with curved edges in 24 layers of cardboard that are glued together. The sections are then finished with waterproof, breathable foil and covered with a layer of wood paneling for extra protection. {youtube}                                               The Sustainable Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: The Netherlands                                                                                     Fiction Factory Using cardboard as its main building material, tiny house the Wikkelhouse is a cutting-edge sustainable tiny house with a beautiful design and exceptional constructive strength, the website explains. With the flexible construction process, a house can range from the standard order of three sections to as many as desired. Recommended:  Tiny House: Off-Grid Shelter With Walls That Open On Pulleys Tiny house. What are the benefits of living in it? Advantages of Tiny Houses Lower Expenses. A tiny house costs a lot less to build than a full-sized one No Mortgage Lower Energy Use Freedom of Movement Easier Maintenance Harmony With Nature A Simpler Life Each section of the tiny house the Wikkelhouse only weighs 500 kilos (1,100 pounds). It can be taken apart and moved easily when you want to relocate or remodel. You can place the house on the beach, in your backyard or even on top of a building, Fiction Factory boasts. Tiny house the Wikkelhouse interior Despite being lightweight, the Wikkelhouse is durable and has a minimum life span of 50 years. The wood outer layer is designed to protect the house from all types of weather elements and events. The cardboard layers also provide maximum insulation, cutting down on energy costs for the owner. The Wikkelhouse is designed to accommodate a kitchen, bathroom and bedrooms, making it fully functional. Customers can pick the inside wall and floor design as well as glazed or opaque facades. Recommended:  Sunbathing In Your Tiny House With A Sliding Roof: The Cécile Tiny house the Wikkelhouse, sleeping room Fiction Factory only produces 12 homes a year to maintain optimum quality control, each selling for 25.000,00 Euros or around $28.000,00. There is a waiting list for orders. Before you go! Recommended:  Tiny Houses Tips And Tricks: Minimalistic Living Experience Did you find this an interesting article or do you have a question or remark? Leave a comment below. We try to respond the same day. Like to write your own article about Tiny Houses? Click on  'Register'  or push the button 'Write An Article' on the  'HomePage'
Tiny house The Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: The Netherlands
Tiny house The Wikkelhouse Built In A Day: The Netherlands
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